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Патент USA US3052627

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Sept. 4, 1962
R. F. POST
3,052,61 7 I
STELLARATOR INJECTOR’
Filed June 23, 1959
2 Sheets~Sheet 1
MFAGINETLDC INTESY
MFAGINETLDC INTESY
Hc
DISTANCE
MFAGINETLDC INTESY
DISTANCE
*
INVENTOR
RICHARD F POST
,
BY
ATTORNEY:
Sept. 4, 1962
R. F. POST
3,052,617
STELLARATOR INJECTOR
Filed June 23, 1959
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
D. c.
POWER
)’ 1?
SUPPLY
2/
36
_ENERGETIC
NEUTRAL
ION SOURCE
27
26
CONTROLLED
RECTIFIER
24
CONTROLLED
RECTIFIER
24’
CONTROLLED
RECTIFIER
26'
CONTROLLED
RECTIFIER
27"
CONTROLLED
RECTIFIER
CONTROLLED
RECTIFIER
3/
THREE PHASE SOURCE I
PROGRAMMING MEANS
29
34
;
_
_
INVENTOR.
RICHARD
POST
BY
ATTORNEY.
Patented Sept. 4, 1962
2
3,052,617
STELLARATOR INJECTOR
Richard F. Post, Walnut Creek, Calif., assignor to the
United States of America as represented by the United
States Atomic Energy Commission
Filed June 23, 1959, Ser. No. 822,404
6 Claims. (Cl. 204-4932)
acted particles, impurities, and the like in the outer pe
ripheral regions of the plasma column follow the diverted
?eld lines and leave the container to be neutralized at the
outside wall of the diverter. From the diverter, the neu
tral gas may be extracted by pumps and the reactant ma
terial separated from the other constituents of the ex
tracted gas for purposes of reinjection into the container
with additional reactant material so as to continuously
maintain reaction conditions. Since an outer shell of the
The present invention relates to the injection of atomic
constituents into a column of plasma contained by axial 10 plasma is the ?rst to be withdrawn by the diverter, it will
be appreciated that it is extremely inefficient to introduce
lines of magnetic force, and more particularly to method
and means for replenishing reactant material to a stel
new or recovered reactants near the Walls of the container.
The probability that the newly introduced reactants near
the walls are substantially immediately removed by the
The term “stellarator” is widely accepted and employed
herein as designating a device of the general character 15 diverter before performing bene?cial functions in the cen
tral interior of the plasma column is untenably high.
disclosed in “Proceedings of the Second United Nations
Therefore the injection of reactants in the very desirable
International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic
larator.
Energy,” volume 32, Controlled Fusion Devices, United
Nations Publication, Geneva, 1958, pages l81—196. As
described therein a “stellarator” is a device for the con
?nement and heating of an ionized gas or plasma in a mag
forms of energetic-neutral atoms (i.e., ions preaccelerated
to high energy and then neutralized) or molecular ions
has been heretofore precluded in a stellarator because
these forms of reactants break up near the container walls
at the plasma densities employed for steady-state opera
netic con?nement ?eld in which each single line of force,
tion
of a stellarator.
followed inde?nitely, generates an entire toroidal surface.
The present invention overcomes the foregoing dif?
In other words, a stellarator magnetic ?eld is one which
has a twisted toroidal con?guration and which therefore 25 culties encountered in the injection of energetic-neutral
possesses a rotational transform. As noted in the publi
atoms or molecular ion reactants in a stellarator by pro—
of such a ?eld. A planar toroidal vacuum envelope
may be provided which carries coils to generate an axial
viding a method and apparatus by which the density of
the plasma column in a localized injection zone is peri
odically instantaneously diminished to facilitate the in
axial ?eld to thus produce a resultant con?nement ?eld of
ment ?eld.
cation, several alternatives are possible in the generation
magnetic con?ning ?eld through the envelope. A mag 30 jection at this time of the above-noted forms of reactants
well into the central axial region of the plasma column
netic transverse ?eld whose direction rotates with dis
before breaking up and being trapped within the con?ne
tance along the magnetic axis is superimposed upon the
It is therefore a principal object of the present invention
twisted toroidal con?guration within the envelope. Al
ternatively, the con?nement ?eld may be produced in a 35 to inject replenishing reactant charges to the central axial
region of a stellarator undergoing steady-state operation.
vacuum envelope of twisted toroidal or ?gure-8 con
Another object of this invention is the provision of a
?guration which carries coils to generate a magnetic ?eld
method and apparatus for diminishing the density of a
axially of the envelope. Since the envelope is twisted, so
plasma column in a localized region thereof.
is the con?nement ?eld. This latter alternative is his
It is a further object of the present invention to provide
torically the ?rst geometry proposed for the generation
a
method and apparatus for injecting energetic-neutral
of a stellarator con?nement ?eld and is embodied in the
atoms or molecular ions into a dense plasma column.
complete stellarator device disclosed in the copending ap
The invention, both as to its organization and method
plication of Lyman Spitzer, Jr., Serial No. 239,419, which
of
operation, together with further objects and advantages
matured into US. Patent No. 2,910,414 on October 27, 45
thereof,
will be better understood by reference to the
1959. As disclosed in said patent, the stellarator embodi
following speci?cation taken in conjunction with the ac
ment thereof includes a twisted toroidal or ?gure-8 shaped
container or envelope in which an axial magnetic con?ne
ment ?eld is established, the con?nement ?eld being thus
companying drawing, of which:
FIGURE 1 is a diagrammatic illustration of an intense
column of plasma as constrained radially by a uniform
also of twisted toroidal con?guration. A reactant plasma 50 axially symmetric magnetic ?eld;
is con?ned within the ?eld and heated to high kinetic
FIGURE 2 is a graphical illustration of the axial in
temperatures conducive to the establishment of various
tensity pro?le of the uniform magnetic ?eld of FIG. 1;
nuclear reactions between the plasma constituents.
FIGURE 3 is a diagrammatic illustration of the plasma
The con?ned plasma constitutent particles are heated
column constrained by the magnetic ?eld of FIG. 1 as
or accelerated in the container by the magnetic con 55 modi?ed by a magnetic ?eld in accordance with the pres
?ning ?eld and in some instances by an applied alter
ent invention during the early stages of its application;
nating magnetic ?eld to induce neutron producing reac
‘FIGURE 4 is a graphical illustration of the axial in
tions in the reactant plasma. In addition, at least one
tensity pro?le of the modi?ed ?eld of FIG. 3;
point in the length of the container a gap is provided to
FIGURE 5 is a diagrammatic illustration of the plasma
gether with means to divert the magnetic ?eld lines in 60 column in the modi?ed magnetic ?eld at a time later than
the peripheral portions of the container at the gap radially
that depicted in FIG. 3;
'
therethrough.
Such means are commonly referred to as
' FIGURE 6 is a graphical illustration of the axial in
a “diverter” and in the stellarator, the employment of at
tensity pro?le of the modi?ed ?eld at the time of FIG. 5;
least one diverter facilitates the maintenance of steady
and
state operating conditions by removing reactants and neu 65
FIGURE 7 is a schematic sectional View of preferred
' tral gas diffusing through the outer peripheral regions of
apparatus in accordance with the present invention as
the plasma column toward the material walls of the con
embodied as an injector for a stellarator.
tainer for recovery and injection as fresh or enriched re
Considering now the invention in some detail, par
actant material to the plasma. More particularly, in each
ticularly as to the method thereof, and referring to FIG.
diverter a thin shell of magnetic ?eld lines next to the 70 1 of the drawing, there is shown generally a plasma
column 11 as constrained radially or collimated by an ax
material walls of the container is bent radially outward
ially symmetric magnetic ?eld 12 of uniform ?eld strength
from the container axis and any unreacted reactants, re
3,052,617
3
H0 (see FIG. 2). The density of the charged particle
constituents of the plasma column 11, i.e., ions and neu
tralizing electrons, is relatively high and substantially uni
formly distributed along the length of the column. Mag
netically collimated ionized gaseous discharge columns of
plasma of this type are commonplace in various charged
4
ions may then be directed radially into the central ?eld re
gion of low density and by virtue of such low density have
an increased probability of penetrating to the interior axial
region of the column before suffering an ionizing collision
and being trapped in the region 16. Subsequent to trap
ping of the injected material, the re?ector ?eld regions
13, 14 may be diminished to the intensity H, of the mag
particle sources and plasma heating apparatus such as a
stellarator. Such a column of plasma as is well known
netic ?eld 12 such that uniform ?eld conditions as de
is a potent ionizing agent and is effective in ionizing or
picted in FIGS. 1 and 2 are again established. The
breaking up neutral molecules or molecular ions sub 10 plasma in the portions of the column which were pre
stantially immediately upon their entry into the column.
viously outwardly adjacent the re?ector ?eld regions 13,
I-llence neutral molecules or molecular ions directed
transversely into the plasma column are broken up or
14 is hence now unrestricted from the previously de?ned
it is desired that neutrals or molecular ions penetrate to
method in accordance with the present invention may be
central ?eld region of the plasma column. The injected
ionized in the peripheral regions of the column and
material hence is admixed with the remainder of the plas
constrained thereat by the magnetic ?eld before they 15 ma in the column by interdiffusion of the plasma constit
can penetrate to the interior regions of the column near
uents and the region 16 is hence enveloped within the
the axis. Hence in instances such as in a stellarator where
plasma column. Thereafter the foregoing steps of the
the interior axial region of the plasma column prior to be
periodically repeated. Alternatively, the re?ector ?eld
ing ionized therein, a serious problem is posed.
20 regions may be relaxed to an intermediate intensity at
To overcome the foregoing problem, in accordance
which plasma particles can penetrate the same and be
with the present invention the plasma constituent particles
mixed with the injected material while gaining energy in
are periodically swept magnetically from a localized re
the region 16 by virtue of the greater ?eld intensity
gion in the plasma column to establish a relatively low
therein compared to that of the uniform con?nement
density in such region. Neutrals or molecular ions may 25 ?eld.
then be directed into the low density region and penetrate
Considering now preferred structure for conducting
substantially to the axis of the column before breaking
the method of the present invention and referring to FIG.
up by collision processes with the plasma particles in the
7 of the drawing, the invention is embodied therein as an
low density region. The low density region is then en
injector for a stellarator as shown generally at 17. More
veloped by the remainder of the plasma column with the
speci?cally, as regards the stellarator 17, same includes
newly injected particles being admixed with the previous
plasma constituents by relaxation of the ?elds, normal
diffusion processes, or the like.
More speci?cally, the
any ‘known means for the generation of a twisted toroidal
magnetic con?nement ?eld in an evacuated space. Pref
erably such means is as disclosed in the previously ref
magnetic sweeping of plasma particles from a localized
erenced Spitzer patent and accordingly comprises a
region of plasma column 11 is preferably periodically 35 vacuum envelope 18 in the form of a twisted toroid or
accomplished as depicted in FIG. 3 by ?rst generating
?gure 8, although for purposes of simplicity and clarity
a pair of closely axially spaced gradientially-intensi?ed re
of illustration, the envelope 18 is shown in the ?gure as
?ector ?eld regions 13, 14 of intensity HR greater than
a plane toroid. A uniform axially symmetric magnetic
intensity H, (see FIG. 4) within magnetic ?eld 12. The
?eld is established longitudinally through envelope 18 by
re?ector ?eld regions 13, 14 bound a central ?eld region
means of a plurality of axially spaced solenoids 19 dis
16 of lesser initial intensity, He, disposed therebetween.
posed concentric with reference to the envelope and con
Magnetic ?elds of this con?guration HR—Hc—-HR are
nected in series with a DC. power supply 21. The mag
discussed in extensive detail relative to their effect on
netic ?eld is accordingly of the general type depicted by
plasmas in my copending application, Serial No. 443,447,
FIGS. -1 and 2 of the drawing and hereinbefore discussed
and accordingly are not detailed herein. For the purposes 45 relative to the method of the invention.
of the present disclosure it su?ices to state that the re
?ector ?eld regions 13, 14 of intensity HR are effective in
The outer shell of force lines of the magnetic ?eld near
the walls of envelope 18‘ are diverted radially outward
from the envelope in the two curved end sections there
therefrom to regions of lesser intensity, i.e., central ?eld
of by means of magnetic diverters Z2 communicably cou
region 16 of intensity Hc and the bounding regions of 50 pled therewith. The diverters 22 are of the same general
the ?eld 12 of intensity H0. Hence the plasma particles
character as the ?eld diverter means disclosed in the previ
within the region 16 of relatively short axial length at
ously referenced Spitzer patent and such means are
the time of establishment of the re?ector ?eld regions
accordingly not discussed in detail herein.
13, 14 are con?ned therein. Moreover, the plasma par
In the operation of a stellarator, a gaseous reactant,
ticles in plasma column 11 disposed outwardly from the
such as deuterium, is ionized within envelope 18 and con
re?ector ?eld regions 13, 14 being re?ected therefrom
?ned in the axial region thereof as a relatively dense
are prevented from entering the central ?eld region 16.
column by the magnetic ?eld due to solenoids 19. The
The re?ector ?eld regions 13, ‘14 are next moved out“
plasma is raised to high temperature and neutrons are
wardly apart through the plasma column 11 to positions
produced by nuclear reactions therein by means including
of relatively wide axial spacing as depicted in FIGS. 5 60 the magnetic ?eld of solenoids 19' in the manner detailed
and 6. By virtue of the charged particle re?ective prop
in the previously referenced copending Spitzer application.
re?ecting or repelling the plasma charged particles axially
erties of the re?ector ?eld regions 13, 14, the plasma in
the portions of column 11 outwardly adjacent the re?ector
?eld regions is urged in the direction of re?ector ?eld
Partially burned reactant, relatively low temperature
plasma, and the like in the outer peripheral portions of the
plasma column are extracted through the diverters 22 and
movement away from central ?eld region 16. The in 65 fresh reactants are introduced to the envelope 18 in order
tensity of the central ?eld region simultaneously decreases
to maintain steady-state operation. In order that the
from the initial intensity Hc to substantially the intensity
fresh reactants be introduced to the envelope in the
H, of the con?nement ?eld 12. The dimensions of the
desirable forms of energetic-neutral ‘atoms or molecular
central ?eld region 16 are hence materially increased
‘ions, the stellarator 17 is modi?ed in accordance with
without the entry of additional plasma particles thereinto. 70 the present invention to include means for periodically
Consequently, the plasma particles originally trapped in
establishing a low density injection zone in the plasma
the central ?eld region occupy a much larger volume than
column according to the method hereinbefore described.
before and therefore the plasma density in the central ?eld
More speci?cally, means are provided for establishing a
region is materially lessened from that of the remainder of
pair of gradientially-intensi?ed re?ector ?eld regions in
the plasma column 11. Neutral molecules or molecular 75 the con?ning ?eld of solenoids 19 with the re?ector ?elds
3,052,617
6
5
column in the manner previously described to periodically
periodically moving in opposition from‘ proximal sub
stantially overlapping positions to distal positions of in
creased axial spacing, thence disappearing. ‘It will be ap
establish a relatively low plasma density in such injection
zone.
In order to introduce fresh reactants to the plasma
preciated that many means exist in the art for establishing
the moving re?ector ?eld regions, for example a pair
of axially slideable direct current energized solenoids may
be suitably mounted for mechanical translation in one of
the straight sections of envelope 18. Such solenoids are
column in envelope 18, an energetic-neutral atom source
36 is advantageously provided in communicable radial
then mechanically reciprocated between proximal and
attachment with the interior of envelope 18 at the mid
point of injection zone 28‘, i.e., between the pair of sole
noids 19 connected to recti?ers 2.4, 24'. Molecular ion
‘distal limits with the solenoids being correlatively ener
gized at the proximal limit and de-energized or relaxed
at the distal limit. Alternatively, the re?ector ?elds may
fectively utilized. Energetic neutral ion sources generally
comprise an ion accelerator which accelerates ‘appropriate
be moved electrically by programming the energization
of pairs of solenoids (either several of the existing sole
reactant ions such as deuterons to high energy followed
by means such as a transverse jet target of vapor inter
solenoids) in ‘corresponding outward succession.
ions thereof by charge-exchange processes. The neutrals
thus formed upon being ionized produce fast atoms of
sources and other sources may also be alternatively ef
noids 19 of the stellarator or a separate set of injection 15 secting the accelerated ion beam to neutralize the energetic
Both
mechanical and electrical means for producing moving re
?ector ?elds are disclosed in more detail in my copending
substantially the same energy as that of the ions prior to
neutralization. For a more thorough understanding of
energetic neutral ion sources reference may be had to
application, Serial No. 443,447. ‘For purposes of illus
tration, an electrical injection circuit 231 is depicted in
University of California Radiation Laboratory report
UCRL-4643, I anuary 24, 1956, by Eugene J. Lauer.
FIG. 7 of the drawing which coacts with a group of
the existing stellarator solenoids 19 in a straight section
of envelope 18 to produce moving re?ector ?elds; how
Energetic neutral atom source 36 is preferably pro
grammed to inject the neutral atoms to the injection zone
ever, the invention is in no way limited to such circuit in
view of the alternative mechanical means mentioned previ 25 28 correlatively with the establishment of low plasma
density conditions therein by the moving re?ector ?elds.
ously as well as a variety of alternative circuits which
To facilitate the foregoing, programming means 34 is
will be apparent to those skilled in the electronics art.
connected in delayed triggering relation to the energetic
As regards the speci?c injection circuit 23, it is to be
neutral ion source 36 to gate the source just after the
noted that same preferably includes a plurality of con
trolled recti?ers 24, 24', '26, 216', 27, 27’, for example
30 most central pair of solenoids 19 are energized by rec
ti?ers 24, 24'. More particularly, a delayed gate genera
conventional grid controlled recti?ers, which are respec
tor of conventional design may be included in the pro
tively connected in energizing relation to pairs of the
gramming means and pulsed on after a slight delay by
solenoids 19 of stellarator 17 in outward succession from
the initiation of control voltage applied to recti?ers 24,
a ?rst pair in juxtaposition. These solenoids connected
to the recti?ers de?ne in envelope 18 a magnetically swept 35 24’ and pulsed off by the termination of control voltage
injection zone 2'8 in accordance with the present invention
applied to recti?ers 27, 27’. The gate pulse from the
disposed substantially between transverse median planes
gate generator may then be for example applied to the
of the solenoids connected to recti?ers 27, 27’. The
ion extraction structure of the ion accelerator portion
controlled recti?ers are energized at their inputs by a
of the energetic neutral source 36 to facilitate the direc
multiphase power supply which in the case of the present 40 tion of energetic neutral atoms into the injection zone
embodiment is a three-phase source 2.9. More particu
correlaively during the movement of the re?ector ?elds
larly, the recti?ers 24, 24’ coupled vto the central pair of
therethrough. Various speci?c circuits which may be
solenoids 19 relative to injection zone 28‘ are coupled
employed in programming means 34 to accomplish the
in parallel to the leading phase output 31 of three-phase
foregoing are well known and will suggest themselves
source 29. The recti?ers 2:6, 26' coupled to the next out
wardly successive pair of solenoids are coupled in parallel
45 to those skilled in the art. In summary, the operation of
the injection circuit 23 and associated injection apparatus
of the present invention generally follows from the method
thereof. With the stellarator 17 undergoing continuous
pair of solenoids are coupled in parallel to the lagging
operation and an intense plasma column established with
phase output 33 of the source 29‘.
in envelope 18, programming means 34 ?res recti?ers 24,
50
The control inputs of controlled recti?ers 24, 24’, 26,
24'; 26, 26’; and 27, 27' in respective succession to
26’, 27, 27' are responsively connected to suitable pro
sequentially energize the corresponding pairs of solenoids
to the intermediate phase output 32 of source 29‘. Simi
larly, the recti?ers '27, 217' coupled to the most outward
gramming means 34. Such programming means applies
control voltage in the usual manner to the recti?ers to
?re recti?ers 24, 24'; "26, 26’; and 27, 27' in respective
19 in injection zone 28 in an axially outward direction
relative to the midpoint of the zone. As the re?ector
?elds move outwardly, the plasma particles in the plasma
sequence and to correlatively maintain conduction of same 55 column are swept axially outward thereby to materially
during substantially the entire durations of the positive
alternations of the cycles of phased voltage appearing at
the outputs 311, 32, 33 of three-phase source 29. The
corresponding pairs of solenoids 191 coupled to the con
decrease the plasma density in the injection zone 28.
Just after the re?ector ?elds begin to move axially out
ward, programming means 34 ?res energetic neutral source
trolled recti?ers are thus energized in outward succession
therefrom to superirnpose upon the uniform con?nement
into the injection zone between the moving re?ector ?elds.
The energetic neutral atoms signi?cantly penetrate the
low plasma density region so established between the re
?ector ?elds to substantially the axis of the plasma col
umn before being ionized and trapped between the re
?ector ?elds. A-fter termination of conduction of recti
?ers 27, 27’ and de-enerization of the solenoids 19 con
?eld generated by the solenoid pairs of gradientially-in
tensi?ed re?ector ?elds moving outwardly in axial op
position from the center to the ends of the injection zone
28 as depicted in FIGS. 4-6 of the drawing and herein
before described relative to the method of the present in
vention. Subsequent to termination of conduction in the
last pair of recti?ers 27, 27’, corresponding to the end of
the positive alternation of the lagging phase voltage at
output 33 of source 29,,the positive alternation of the
leading phase volt-age is again initiated at output 31 of
source 29 and recti?ers 24, 24-’ are again ?red to initiate
another cycle of magnetic sweeping by the moving re—
?ector ?elds. The moving re?ector ?elds in injection zone
36 to direct a beam of energetic neutral reactant atoms
nected thereto, the intensity of the magnetic ?eld within
injection zone 28 becomes equal to that of the uniform
con?nement ?eld established longitudinally of envelope
18 or is relaxed to an intermediate value.
The fresh
charge of energetic reactant ions previously trapped in
the injection zone 28 between the re?ector ?elds conse
quently is free to di?use into the remainder of the plasma
28 hence periodically sweep particles from the plasma 75 column to replenish the reactants continuously removed
3,052,617
7
8
by diverters 22. Programming means 34 thereafter ef
fects repetition of the foregoing injection cycle.
While the invention has been disclosed with respect
to a single preferred embodiment, it will be apparent
?ector ?eld regions superimposed upon said magnetic ?eld
to those skilled in the art that numerous variations and
modi?cations may be made within the spirit and scope
of the invention and thus it is not intended to limit the
and moving distally through the localized region, a re
actant source for generating reactant material selected
from the group consisting of neutral atoms and molecular
ions communicating radially with the interior of said
envelope at a position between said ?rst pair of solenoids,
and gate means coupled between said energizing means
and said source for rendering the source operative during
movement of said re?ector ?eld regions.
invention except as de?ned in the following claims.
What is claimed is:
l. A method of injecting reactants into a stellarator 10
4. In a stellarator including at least a toroidal vacuum
having a toroidal heated plasma column collimated by
envelope, a plurality of axially spaced solenoids disposed
a uniform axial magnetic ?eld and magnetic diverter
concentric with reference to the envelope and energized
means removing a peripheral layer of the column, com
to (generate an axial magnetic ?eld therethrough for con
prising the steps of periodically generating a pair of
?ning and heating a column of plasma extending axially
gradientially-intensi?ed partially overlapping re?ector ?eld 15 through the envelope, and magnetic diverter means di
regions of peak intensity HR greater than the intensity
vetting a peripheral layer of the plasma column radially
H, of the uniform magnetic ?eld, translating both said
outward from the envelope, an injector for introducing
re?ector ?eld regions axially apart to positions of in
fresh reactants to the plasma column within the envelope
creased axial spacing and thereat diminishing the peak
comprising a plurality of controlled recti?ers correspond
intensity of both said re?ector ?eld regions to the inten
ingly connected to a plurality of said solenoids in a local
sity H0, and directing reactant material selected from the
ized injection zone of said envelope, said recti?ers each
group consisting of neutral atoms and molecular ions
having an energy input and a control input, a multiphase
radially inward into said plasma column at a position in
power source having a plurality of successive phase out
termediate said re?ector ?eld regions during translation
puts correspondingly connected in energizing relation to
of same.
25 the energy inputs of pairs of said recti?ers in outward
2. In a stellarator including at least a toroidal vac
succession with the leading phase output being connected
uum envelope, a plurality of axially spaced solenoids
disposed concentric with reference to the envelope and
energized to generate an axial magnetic ?eld therethrough
to the recti?ers connected to the most central pair of
for con?ning and heating a column of plasma extending
axially through the envelope, and magnetic diverter
means diverting a peripheral layer of the plasma column
radially outward from the envelope, improved injection
respective outward sequence by pairs and to correlatively
maintain conduction of the recti?ers during the positive
alternations of the cycles of phased voltage correspond
ingly applied thereto from said multiphase power source,
apparatus for introducing reactants to said plasma col
umn, comprising magnet means disposed concentrically
about said envelope for periodically generating a pair
of axially symmetric closely axially spaced re?ector ?elds
therein having gradientially increased intensities relative
solenoids in said injection zone, programming connected
to the control inputs or said recti?ers to ?re same in
a reactant source for generating reactant material selected
from the group consisting of neutral atoms and molecular
ions communicating radially with the interior of said
envelope intermediate said central pair of solenoids in
said injection zone, and means connecting said program
to the intensity of said con?ning ?eld, means coupled
ming means to said reactant source in delayed triggering
to said magnet means for moving both said re?ector 40 relation thereto to gate the reactant source on subsequent
?elds in axial opposition to distal positions of increased
to the initiation of a positive alternation of leading phase
spacing, means coupled to said magnet means for de
voltage of said multiphase source and gate the reactant
creasing the intensity of both said re?ector ?elds to
source off upon the termination of a positive alternation
zero at said distal positions, and reactant source means
of lagging phase voltage of said multiphase source.
communicating with the interior of said envelope between
5. In a stellarator, an injector according to claim 4
said re?ector ?elds for directing reactant selected from
further de?ned by said reactant source being a neutral
the group consisting of neutral atoms and molecular ions
atom source.
thereto during movement of the re?ector ?elds.
v6. In a stellarator, an injector ‘according to claim 4
3. In a stellarator including at least a toroidal vacuum
further de?ned by said reactant source being a molecular
envelope, a plurality of axially spaced solenoids disposed
ion source.
concentric with reference to the envelope and energized
to generate an axial magnetic ?eld therethrough for con
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
?ning and heating a column of plasma extending axially
UNITED STATES PATENTS
through the envelope, and magnetic diverter means di 55
2,892,114
Kilpatrick ___________ __ June 23, 1959
verting a peripheral layer of the plasma column radially
2,910,414
Spitzer ______ __‘ ______ __ Oct. 27, 1959
outward from the envelope, an injector for introducing
2,946,914
Colgate et al. ________ __ July 26, 1960
fresh reactants to the plasma column within the envelope
comprising energizing means connected to a plurality of
said solenoids in a localized region for periodically ap 60
plying energizing current to pairs of the solenoids in
corresponding outward succession from a ?rst pair thereof
in juxtaposition at the midpoint of the localized region
to generate a pair of spaced gradientially-intensi?ed re
2,969,308
Bell et al. ___________ __ Ian. 24, 1961
OTHER REFERENCES
Proceedings ‘of the Second United Nations International
Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, vol
ume 32 (1958), pages 273-278.
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