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Патент USA US3052924

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Sept. 11, 1962
w. c. CAMPBELL
3,052,915
METHOD 0? AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING PLASTIC ARTICLES
Filed March 4, 1960
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INVENTOR.
WARD
BY
CAMPBELL
91
ATTORNEYS
Sept. 11, 1962
w. c. CAMPBELL
3,052,916
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING PLASTIC ARTICLES
Filed March'4, 1960
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WARD C, CAMPBELL
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ATTORNEYS
Sept. 11, 1962
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METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING PLASTIC ARTICLES
Filed March 4, 1960
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Sept. 11, 1962
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Sept. 11, 1962
w. c. CAMPBELL
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METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING PLASTIC ARTICLES
Filed March 4, 1960
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INVENTOR.
' WARD c. CAMPBELL
A TTORNEYS
Sept. 11, 1962
w. c. CAMPBELL
3,052,916
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING PLASTIC ARTICLES
Filed March 4, 1960
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WARD C. CAMPBELL
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ATTORNEYS
Sept. 11, 1962
w. c. CAMPBELL
3,052,916
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING PLASTIC ARTICLES
Filed March 4, 1960
'7 Sheets-Sheet 7
WARD C. CAMPBELL
A TTORNEYS
United States Patent O?tice
3,052,916
Patented Sept. 11, 1962‘
1
2
3,052,916
Another important object of this invention is the pro
METHOD OF AND API’ARATUS FOR MAKEIG
PLASTIC ARTICLES
Ward C. Campbell, Giassboro, N.J., assignor to Owens
Illinois Glass Company, a corporation of Ohio
Fiied Mar. 4, 1969, Ser. No. 12,722
8 Claims. (C1. 18-5)
vision of an improved method and apparatus for form
ing a complete plastic article which is at least partially
blow-molded ‘from an extruded heat-softened tube and
removing the article from the forming apparatus without
any subsequently removable waste or joining portions in
tegral therewith.
It is a further object to provide an apparatus for mak
The present invention relates to an improved method
ing plastic articles including a blow-mold adapted to pinch
of and apparatus for making plastic articles and more
particularly to a method and apparatus vfor blow-mold 10 and substantially completely sever an extruded tube in
spaced relation to an ori?ce through which the tube was
ing articles from a tube of heat-softened plastic material
extruded.
and for removing such articles from a blow-molding ma
chine.
Yet another important object is the provision of an
improved method of making a plastic article which is at
In the co-pending application of Richard C. Allen and
Leon E. Elphee, Serial No. 797,276 ?led in US. Pat 15 least partially blow-molded from an extruded tube by
simultaneously pinching the tube shut in spaced relation
ent Ol?ce March 4, 1959, now Patent No. 3,008,192, and
to an extrusion ori?ce and substantially severing the tube
assigned to the assignee of the present invention, there
from a waste portion joining the tube to the ori?ce,
is disclosed a plastic forming machine for making arti
cles by a combined injection-molding, tube-extruding,
and blow-molding technique. Stated generally, the proc
blow-molding the article and then moving the article
relative to the ori?ce so as to rupture the article com
pletely from the waste portion.
Other and further objects of this invention will be
come apparent from the following description.
neck or ?nish of a container, the extrusion of an elon
On the drawings:
gated tubular formation integral with the injection-mold
FIGURE 1 is a diagrammatic view illustrating schemat
ed portion, the closure of separable -blow—mold sections 25
ically the plastic forming machine and apparatus and
onto the extruded tube to pinch the tube shut in spaced
method of the present invention;
relation to an extrusion ori?ce, and blowing the tube with
FIGURE 2 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view
in the blowmold sections to its ?nal ?nished con?gura
of a portion or" the apparatus of the present invention il
tion. After blow-molding, the separable mold sections
lustrating an injection mold, a separable blow mold, and
are opened and a take-out device is inserted between the
ess and machine operations involve the injection mold
ing of a ?nished portion of an article, for example, the
opened blow~mold sections to remove the ?nished arti
cle from the machine.
The ?nished article is retained at one end by the
injection mold and at the other end by waste material
joining the blown article portion to the extrusion ori
?ce. Insertion of the take-out in the Allen et al. appli
cation severs the waste portion from the ori?ce so that
the article subsequently removed by the take-out device
has attached thereto and integrally formed therewith the
noneblown waste portion, which portion must be subse
quently removed in a separate operation. This removal
requires additional operational steps and the utilization
of additional apparatus, including the handling of the
blown article to and ‘from this removal apparatus and
the actual severing of the ?nished article from the waste
an extruded tube joined to material ?lling an extrusion
ori?ce and integral with material ?lling the injection
mold;
FIGURE 3 is a view similar to Figure 2 showing the
blow molds in closed position, thereby pinching the tube
and substantially severing the same, the tube being blown
to its ?nal con?guration;
FIGURE 4 is a view similar to FIGURE 3 illustrating
the blow-molds open and the ?nished article moved rela
tive to the ori?ce to sever the waste portion therefrom;
FIGURE 5 is a view similar to FIGURE 4 illustrating
?nal removal of the article from the apparatus by opening
the injection mold;
FIGURE 6 is a plan view of the apparatus in its posi
tion illustrated in FIGURE 5;
45
portion.
FIGURE 7 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view
The present invention provides a speci?c and meri
of the blow-molds illustrating the pinching and severing
torious improvement over the device disclosed in the
portions thereof with the mold sections in opened position;
above-identi?ed Allen and Elphee application. Speci?
FIGURE 8 is a view similar to FIGURE 7 illustrating
the blow-molds in their fully closed position;
cally, the present invention provides an apparatus and
50
FIGURE 9 is an enlarged fragmentary perspective view
method whereby that waste portion joining the blown
illustrating a portion of a take-out apparatus utilizable
with the present invention.
As shown on the drawings:
In FIGURE 1, reference numeral 10 refers generally to
Thus, no additional handling or severing steps are re
quired once the article is removed from the apparatus, 55 an extruder including a barrel 11 receiving from a hopper
12 granulated thermoplastic material 13 to be advanced
and the article, when removed from the forming appa
Within the barrel ‘11 by means of a power-driven screw 14.
ratus, is complete and ready for immediate printing,
?lling, or other further processing steps.
'
The outlet end 15 of the screw communicates through
conduits 16, 17 and 18 with an ori?ce chamber 19 under
To accomplish this improvement, the method and ap
lying an annular ori?ce 20 through which plastic material
paratus of the present invention proposes utilizing the
separable blow-mold sections to substantially completely
plasticized by the screw 14 is expressed. Overlying the
sever the tube from the waste portion upon closure of the
ori?ce 2% is an injection mold 21 having an interior cavity
blow-mold sections followed by movement of the ?n
22 within which material expressed through the ori?ce 20
ished article relative to the ori?ce after opening of the
can be injection-molded to a ?nal con?guration. The
blow-molds to rupture or sever the blown article from
injection mold 21 is carried by the actuating rod 23 of a
the waste portion, which remains attached to the mate
power actuated cylinder 24, the cylinder v24 being double
rial ?lling the extrusion ori?ce.
acting and having its rod 23 projecting thereabove, as at
It is, ‘therefore, an important object of the present in
25, for abutment with the actuating rod 26 of a stop cylin
vention to provide an improved method and apparatus
der 27 adapted to limit vertical movement of the injection
70
for making a plastic article blow-molded from a tube or’
mold 21 upon upward actuation of the cylinder 24.
heat-softened plastic material.
To ?ll the cavity 22 at the desired pressure, an injection
portion of the article to the ori?ce at the conclusion of
the blowing operation is removed from the article prior
to removal of the article from the forming apparatus.
3,052,916
3
4
piston 30 is provided for slideable displacement within a
traction of the actuating rod 23 of the cylinder 24 will
sleeve valve 31 enterable into the conduit 17. The sleeve
and piston are actuated into the conduit 117 to interrupt
communication between the extruder outlet end 15 and the
elevate the frame 53 and the block 54 as a unit until the
ori?ce 20 during injection molding, and to apply injection
molding pressure directly to material ?lling conduits 17
and 18 by means of pressure supplied by double actuating
cylinders 32 and 33. To aid in controlling operation of
guide boss 65 abuts the stop 68.
Thereafter, relative
movement between the frame 53 and the block 54 will be
effected, such relative movement against the compression
of spring 57 opening the neck mold sections 50 as illus
trated in FIGURE 5 of the drawings.
As best illustrated in FIGURES 3, 4, 7 and 8, the blow
mold sections 40 are each preferably generally cylindrical
actuated by a cylinder 36. The cylinder 36 primarily 10 and are mounted in opposed relation so that they can be
closed 'by actuation of their cylinders 41 upon the tubular
controls the circulation of the output of the extruder 19
formation 45 (FIGURE 2) extruded during initial verti
through recirculation conduits 37, 38, and 39 establishing
cal movement of the injection mold 21. More speci?cally,
a by-pass for plasticized material from the outlet end 15
the extruder 10 a recirculation piston 35 is provided to be
the blow-molds are provided with upper recesses 70 con
of the screw 14 to a medial portion of the extruder barrel
11 at which material advanced by the screw is ?uid.
15 forming to the exterior surfaces of the injection mold sec
Following the injection of plasticized material through
tions 5!} (FIGURE 3) when the blow-molds are closed,
the recirculation piston 35 forces the piston 35 down
with the exception of their mating pinching and severing
with an inner portion 71 registering v‘with and snugly re
the ori?ce 20 into the injection mold 21, the valve 31 and
ceiving that portion of the tube 45 immediately adjacent
the piston 30 are retracted from the conduit 17, and the
the injection mold and with a main or body cavity 72,
injection mold 21 is elevated by means of its cylinder 24.
At this time, output material from the extruder 10 will 20 these body cavities 72 registering with one another when
the blow-molds are closed to de?ne the exterior contour of
?ow through passages 16, 17 and 18 and ori?ce chamber
the ?nished article.
19 through the ori?ce 20 to be extruded through as a
The bottom of the article is de?ned by a body cavity
tubular extension integral with material ?lling the neck
bottom wall 73 which is preferably convexo-concave so
mold cavity 22. Also at this time, piston 35 can be ac
tuated upwardly in the passage 37 to supplement the out 25 that the ?nished article is provided with a slightly concave
bottom. The bottom walls 73 terminate in pinching and
put of the extruder with plasticized material ?lling the
shearing edges 74, 75, and an inclined outer exterior sur
passage 37.
face 76 is provided for clearance for a tube waste portion
Following extrusion of the tubular extension, the sleeve
46 intermediate the ?nished article 47 and the ori?ce 20.
valve 31 alone is actuated into the conduit 17 to shut off
As best illustrated in FIGURES 7 and 8 of the draw
the ?ow of material from the extruder to the ori?ce cham- 30
ings, the blow-mold sections 40 are substantially identical
ber -19. The pressure of ?uid against the forward face of
edges 74, 75. As illustrated in detail in FIGURES 7 and
wardly out of the passage 37 and accommodating inter
8, the edge 74 is provided with an upper rounded por
connection of the passage 37 with the other recirculation
passages 38 and ‘39. Thus, material output from the ex 35 tion 74a having a de?nite radius of curvature and termi
nating in an oblique but sharp cutting edge 74b. The edge
truder is recirculated through the recirculation passages,
75 of the mating blow-mold half 40 is likewise provided
and the extruder can run continuously even though it is
with a rounded upper edge 75a of slightly smaller radius
disconnected from the ori?ce 20.
of curvature than the edge 74a and terminating at its
Also, after extrusion of the tube, blow-molds 40 are
lower extremity in a vertical surface 75b, which surface
actuated by their cylinders 41 into closed relation, and the
is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the extruded tube 45
complementary blow-molds enclosing the tubular exten
which is to be pinched between the edges 74 and 75.
sion and air being introduced through the core of the injec
tion mold 21 to expand the tube pinched shut by the blow
FIGURE 8 shows the relative positions of the edges
molds 40 in spaced relation to the ori?ce 20 to the con
74 and 75 when the blow-molds are closed, the tube hav
ing been eliminated for clarity of illustration. It will be
?guration of the cavity de?ned by the blow-molds.
This operation is substantially that disclosed in the 45 seen that the oblique cutting edge 74b is aligned with the
vertical surface 7517. Thus, the vertical surface 75b
above-identi?ed co-pending application, Serial No. 797,
276 of R. C. Allen and L. E. Elphee.
In FIGURE 2 of the drawings, the injection mold 21
is illustrated in detail, and it will be seen that this mold
serves to support the tube into which the cutting edge
74b is relatively moved upon ‘blow-mold closure. The
' curved upper extremities 74a and 75a of the edges 74
comprises a pair of complementary relatively laterally
and 75 de?ne an upwardly outwardly ?aring, or con
openable mold sections 50, each retained by a carrier block
51 movable with laterally spaced slideable blocks 52. The
versely downwardly inwardly converging, throat 77 into
which the tube adjacent its point of pinch is squeezed
during closure of the blow-molds. Thus, the surfaces
slide blocks 52 are carried for lateral sliding movement ‘in
74a and 75a cooperate to squeeze the tube closed or
a carrier frame 53. This carrier frame 53 carries for
relative vertical movement a carrier block 54 threadedly 55 to “pinch” the tube closed in a more or less gradual
manner above the shearing edge 74b and the reaction
attached, as at 55, to the actuating rod 23 of the neck
mold cylinder 24. Relative movement of the block 54
within the frame 53 is guided by a vertical guide pin 56,
and the block 54 is urged to its lower position relative to
surface 75b.
By virtue of the particular design of the pinching and
shearing edges 74 and 75, the tube is pinched shut so
the frame by compression spring 57 interposed therebe 60 that the tube, ?rst, is welded together by the surfaces 74a
tween. The block 54 carries a threaded insert 58 movable
and 75a, and then is substantially completely severed by
with the block and carrying at its lower end an injection
the cooperating knife edge 74b and the reaction surface
mold core 59 cooperating with the mold sections 50 to
75b beneath the point of welding.
de?ne an annular injection mold cavity 60 conforming to
Once the tube is pinched shut and substantially severed,
a ?nished portion of the article. In the illustrated embodi 65 the tube can be blown by air introduced through the neck
ment of the invention, the article being made as a con
mold mandrel 59 into conforming contact with the main
tainer and the injection mold cavity 60 de?ne the neck or
cavity portions 72 of the blow-molds 40. The tube is
?nish of the container. The neck mold sections 50 car
retained within the blow-molds 40 and blowing air is
ried by the slidea'ble blocks 52 are actuated for lateral out
ward separating movement (compare FIGURES 2 and 5) 70 preferably introduced thereinto throughout a period of
time su?icient for the article to assume its ?nal con?gura
by inclined cam pins 61 ?xed to the block 54 and laterally
tion and to become self-sustaining. At this time, the
slideable in inclined recesses 62 formed in the blocks 52.
blow-molds 40 are opened as illustrated in FIGURE 4
The frame 53 is provided with a laterally projecting
of the drawings. Immediately after opening of the blow
guide boss 65 slideably receiving a guide rod 67 having an
adjustable stop 68 mounted thereon. Initial upward re 75 molds 40, the article is retained at its top by the closed
5
8,052,916
neck mold sections 50 and at its bottom by its remaining,
although extremely thin, connection to the waste portion
46.
Of course, closure of the blow-mold sections 40 on the
tube chills the pinched portion of the tube and this
pinched portion is of extremely thin cross-section so that
the pinched portion is Well solidi?ed.
Next, a take-out device is preferably inserted inter
mediate the separated blow-mold sections 40. Such a
device is illustrated in FIGURES 4 and 5 of the drawings
and is also described in detail in the Allen and Elphee
application heretofore referred to. Brie?y, the take-out
mechanism comprises a pair of vertically upstanding side
plates 80, surmounting frame members 79 carrying rollers
81, and actuated by ?uid-operated cylinders 82 and actu
ating rods 83 for movement over the row of aligned ori
?ces 20. The side plates 80 carry in?atable article-con
tacting pads 84, preferably formed of polyurethane foam
or similar air-impermeable and inherently resilient ma
terial. The pads 84 are in?ated to lightly engage the
article 47, as by the introduction of ?uid under pressure
through lines 85.
Next, the actuating piston rod 23 is retracted vertically
upwardly, as by release of the holding cylinder 27, to
bring the guide embossment 65 of the neck mold carrier
frame 53 into abutment with the stop 68 on guide rod 67.
During this vertical movement, the article 47 is dis
placed upwardly relative to the ori?ce 2t} and such up
ward displacement is of su?icient magnitude and accom
plished under sufficient force to rupture the pinched and
all-but-severed portions of the tube 45 interposed between
and previously contacted by the pinching edges 74 and 75
of the mold sections 40. Thus, the ?nished article 47 is
torn from the waste portion 46 joined to the ori?ce 20'.
Because of the resilient nature of the engagement of the
in?atable pads 84 with the article 47, such movement of
the article 47 vertically from the ori?ce 20 can be accom
plished even after article take-out engagement has been
accomplished.
6
separable sections having mating tube-pinching edges
effective to pinch shut and substantially completely sever
a portion of the tube to be blown from a waste portion
of the tube joined to the ori?ce, together with article
elevating mechanism effective to tear the ?nished article
from the all-but-severed waste portions.
The method of the present invention involves the
pinching and substantially complete severing of a tube in
spaced relation to an extrusion ori?ce, followed by blow
10 ing of the tube to ?nal con?guration and then moving the
blown article relative to the ori?ce to tear the ?nished
article free from the waste portion.
As a result, the article, as removed from the forming
apparatus is complete in and of itself and no further
?nishing operations need be performed thereon.
The embodiments of the invention in which an exclu
sive property or privilege is claimed, are de?ned as fol
lows:
1. In an apparatus for making plastic articles and in
cluding an annular ori?ce, an injection mold movable
from a ?rst position at the ori?ce to a second position
spaced from the ori?ce, and means to supply plasticized
material to the mold when at its ?rst position to form
an injected portion of the article and to extrude a tube
of plasticized material during movement of the mold to
its second position, the improvements of a blow-mold
closable on the extruded tube to pinch the tube shut
adjacent the ori?ce while substantially severing the same,
means for blowing the tube to its ?nal article con?gura
tion interiorly of the mold, means for opening the mold
to expose the ?nal article, and means for moving the
injection mold away from the ori?ce from its second
position and in the direction of extrusion to complete
severing of the article from the pinched tube portion
still joined to the ori?ce.
2. In a method of making a plastic article wherein a
?rst portion only of the article is injection molded in
a mold positioned at an ori?ce and the ?rst portion is
moved axially from the ori?ce as a tube is extruded there
Next, the actuating rod 23 continues its vertical move 40 through, the steps of enclosing the tube portion inter
ment to its ?nal position, such further displacement of
mediate the article ?rst portion and the ori?ce in a mold
the rod 23 after abutment between the stop 68 and the
having an article-de?ning cavity, pinching the tube shut
neck mold carrier frame 53 elfecting vertical displace
and forming a thin web of solidi?ed plastic intermediate
ment of the neck mold carrier block 54 relative to the
the article-de?ning cavity and the ori?ce, expanding the
frame 53 and lateral opening movement of the neck mold 45 tube portion in the mold into a ?nished article, opening
segments 50. Thus, the relative positions of FIGURE 5
are attained and the article 47 is completely released from
the forming machine.
the mold to expose the expanded portion only of the
article, moving the ?rst article portion still con?ned in
its mold axially further away from said ori?ce to rupture
The take-out device is then retracted from its position
the thin web, and then removing the ?rst article portion
intermediate the opened blow-mold sections 40 to bodily 50 from its mold, thereby releasing the article.
remove the articles from the forming machine. However,
3. In an apparatus for making plastic articles and in
the waste portions 46 are still attached to the ori?ces 29.
cluding an annular ori?ce and means to extrude plasti
At the forward end of the take-out (as best illustrated
cized material through said ori?ce, the improvements of
in FIGURES 6 and 9) a pair of shear blades 90 are pro
a blow-mold having cooperable sections closable on the
vided. These blades are connected to the take-out frame 55
extruded tube, one of said mold sections having its end
elements 79 at the forward extremities thereof, as by
portion adjacent the ori?ce provided with an anvil sur
pivot pins 91. Disposed on these pins are hair springs
face parallel to the axis of the tube and the other of said
92 anchored at one end to the frame elements, as at 93,
sections having a sharp cutting edge aligned with and
and at their other ends to the blades, as at 94. The hair
cooperable with said anvil surface to pinch the tube shut
springs accommodate relative pivotal movement of the
adjacent the ori?ce while substantially severing the same,
knives as the take-out is inserted between the opened
means for blowing the tube to its ?nal article con?gura
blow-mold sections 40. However, as the take-out is re
tion interiorly of the mold, means for opening the mold
tracted, the knives strike the adjacent vertical surfaces 86
to expose the ?nal article and means for moving the
of the frame elements 79 so as to prevent relative pivotal
movement therebetween. The knives 90 are preferably 65 ?nal article in the direction of extrusion to rupmre the
provided with sharpened rearward edges 95 which closely
pinched tube thereby completely severing the article from
overlie the ori?ces, as illustrated in FIGURE 4, so that
the tube portion still joined to the ori?ce,
4. In a plastic article forming apparatus including .an
ori?ce from which a tube is extruded, the improvements
upon return movement the knife edges 95 sever the waste
portions 46 from the ori?ces 20.
The knives are also
provided at their edges opposite the knife edges 95 with 70 of a mold closable on the tube and including complemen
upstanding surfaces 96 which abut the severed waste por
tary tube-contacting anvil and knife edges engageable
tions 46 and serve to pull these waste portions from the
with the tube in closely spaced relation to the ori?ce to
machine as the take-out is retracted.
substantially sever the tube, means for opening and clos
Thus, it will be seen that the present invention pro
ing the mold, and means to move said tube away from
vides a novel apparatus including a blow-mold comprising 75 said ori?ce independently of the mold and after com
3,052,915
7
pletion of the molding operation to complete severance
closeable on the extruded tube and having ‘complemen
of said tube.
5. In a method of making a blown plastic article
wherein a tube is extruded from an ori?ce, the steps of
simultaneously closing a mold on the tube and pinching
the tube shut adjacent the ori?ce to form a closed tubular
formation joined to the ori?ce through a thin web, in
?guration interiorly of the mold and above said edges,
?ating the tubular formation in said mold, retaining the
in?ated tubular formation in the mold to chill the forma
tion and the thin web opening the mold to expose the
blown article joined to the ori?ce only through the chilled
thin web, and moving the blown .article independently of
the mold away from said ori?ce to rupture the chilled
thin web.
tary elongated anvil and cutting edges contacting the tube
portion adjacent the ori?ce to substantially sever the
same, means for blowing the tube to its ?nal article con~
means for opening the blow-mold to expose the ?nal
article and means for moving the injection mold from
its second position axially away from the ori?ce to a
position more remote from the ori?ce, such movement
of the injection mold tensioning the substantially severed
tube portion to complete severing of the article from the
tube portion still joined to the ori?ce.
8. In a method of making a blown plastic article
wherein a tube is extruded from an ori?ce, the steps of
6. In a method of making a plastic article wherein a 15 simultaneously enclosing a portion of the tube in a blow
?rst portion only of the article is injection molded in a
mold positioned at an ori?ce and the ?rst portion is
mold and pinching the tube shut between cooperating
anvil .and cutting edges of the blow mold located in
moved axially from the ori?ce to a remote position .as
closely spaced relation to the ori?ce, the pinched portion
intermediate the article-de?ning cavity and the ori?ce, in
troducing ?uid under pressure into the tube to expand
through the pinched tube portion, and moving the blown
the tube portion into .a ?nished article, opening the mold
to expose the article, and moving the ?rst article portion
still con?ned in said mold from said remote position and
in a direction axially away from said ori?ce to rupture
the substantially severed tube and to separate the article
from the ori?ce.
7. In an apparatus for making plastic articles and in
cluding an annular ori?ce, an injection mold movable
stantially severed tube portion.
of said tube being substantially severed by said edges,
a tube is extruded therethrough, the steps of simultane
ously enclosing the tube portion in a mold having an 20 blowing the tube interiorly of said mold, opening the
mold to expose the blown article joined to the ori?ce
article-de?ning cavity and substantially severing the tube
from a ?rst position at the ori?ce to a second position
spaced from the ori?ce, and means to supply plasticized
material to the mold when at its ?rst position to form
an injected portion of the article and to extrude a tube
of plasticized material during movement of the mold to
its second position, the improvements of a blow-mold
article axially away from said ori?ce to rupture the sub
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,710,987
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203,875
Sherman ____________ __ June 21,
Sherman ____________ __ Sept. 13,
Leghorn et a1 _________ __ Mar. 15,
Vt'ilkalis et a1. ________ __ May 17,
Grebowiec ___________ __ June 14,
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Hagen et al. ________ __._ Mar. 21, 1961
FOREIGN PATENTS
Australia ____________ ___Oct. 25, 1956
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