Патент USA US3052939код для вставки
Sept 11, 1962 R. E. CHARLTON, JR, ETAL 3,052,928 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING UNWOVEN FABRICS Filed Feb. 1, 1957 5 Sheets-Sheet l GEORGE MANNING VERNA L.PAYN E ATTORNEYS Sept. 11, 1962 R. E. CHARLTON, JR, ETAL 3,052,928 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING UNWOVEN FABRICS Filed Feb. 1, 1957 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTORS RICHARD E.CHARLTON,JR. GEORGE MANNING VERNA L. PAYNE ATTORNEYS Sept. 11, 1962 R. E. CHARLTON, JR, ETAL 3,052,928 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING UNWOVEN FABRICS Filed Feb. 1, 1957 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 24 FIG 3 " '2 36' I8 20 [a / 2l8 212 "II 2l4 222 2l6 / _/ \ \d ' ‘(I / 23o I \\ j \‘\ : / 82 8.6 g 54 I 34 44 224 230 226 228 22‘, INVENTORS RICHARD E. CHARLTON,JR. GEORGE MANNING VERNA L.PAYNE BM 19%” M2» ATTORNEYS SePt- 11, 1962 R. E. CHARLTON, JR, ETAL 3,052,928 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING UNWOVEN FABRICS Filed Feb. 1, 1957 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 FIG. 7. :74, I72) 070 (I90 _ INVENTORS RICHARD E.CH-'ARLTO GEORGE MANNING VERNA L. P-AYNE BY , 1M4”), QM? WWW SePt- 11, 1962 R. E. CHARLTON, JR, ETAL 3,052,928 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING UNWOVEN FABRICS Filed Feb. 1, 1957 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 254 238, 272 262 274 25s _ | [in 242 252»; 256 236 11/ 7/ 244 247 266) ' TNVENTORS BY RICHARD E C RLTON,JR. GEORGE MAN m 6 VERNA L. PAYNE 2424M, pug/>124” ATTORNEYS United States atent 1 3,652,928 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING UNWOVEN FABRICS Richard E. Charlton, Jr., Fairfax, Ala, George Manning, Gastonia, N.C., and Verna L. Payne, Shawmut, Ala, assignors to West Point Manufacturing Company, West Point, Ga, a corporation of Georgia Filed Feb. 1, 1957, Ser. No. 637,673 4 Claims. (Cl. 19-156) "see 3,052,928 Patented Sept. 11, 1962 2 chine concerns the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the throat and the cross-sectional area of the inlets adja cent the attenuating device. In the apparatus constructed in accordance with the teachings of the Phillips et al. patent, the ratio of the area of the throat to the area of the inlet is of the order of 21/211 and 3:1, or more. With this arrangement, it is apparent that the flow of air through the inlets will be substantially greater than the ?ow of air through the throat. This is particularly 10 true Where the width of the intake is less than the Width This invention relates to the production of unwoven of the foraminous member upon which the web is formed. fabrics and more particularly to an improved method With the use of apparatus which are capable of produc and apparatus for producing unwoven fabrics of uniform ing unwoven fabrics greater than the Width of the attenu texture and strength in all directions composed of ?bers ating device, severe problems are encountered in spread in random relationship. 15 ing the attenuated ?bers evenly throughout the width of The present invention contemplates improvements in the foraminous member. With a 3:1 ratio existing be the procedure and apparatus for producing unwoven tween the area of the throat and the inlet area, equal ?ow fabrics disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,648,876, through both could only be obtained by partitioning the issued August 18, 1953, to Phillips et al. In brief, the tunnel to guide the air laterally, lengthening the tunnel method disclosed in this patent embodies the steps of so that the air would have time to slow down uniformly attenuating a body of ?bers so as to provide a moving to corrected velocity before reaching the throat or by source of ?ber supply, removing the ?bers from the increasing the fan speed until the static pressure was source of supply by means of an air stream, passing the equaled along the throat. All of these procedures have air stream and the ?bers suspended therein to a moving proven impractical for one reason or another. foraminous ?ber receiving member through a con?ned 25 Accordingly, the present invention contemplates the uninterrupted path so that the ?bers will be deposited establishment of a uniform pressure drop across the thereon. The apparatus for carrying out this general entire width of the foraminous member by the air stream procedure, as disclosed in the Phillips at al. patent, em passing through. This is accomplished by providing a bodies a duct system provided with a fan or the like for creating a stream of air therethrough. Preferably, the fan is of the suction tube so that it is mounted down stream. The entrance of the duct system is adjacent the ?ber attenuating device and is e?ective to strip the ?bers smooth, uniform-height throat which extends the entire Width of the foraminous member and has a cross-sec— tional area substantially equal to the cross-sectional area of the inlets. In any event, this ratio should never be more than 2: 1. By providing a throat of uniform cross on the device therefrom so that they will become en sectional area throughout its width, which is substantially trained in the air stream. From the inlet, the duct sec equal to the inlets, the static pressure is maintained sub tion extends to the continuous foraminous member where stantially equal across the entire length of the foraminous the Web is formed. As disclosed in the Phillips et al. member. The ?ow of air within the tunnel which carries application, this tunnel or duct section preferably has an the suspended ?bers is thus substantially improved and increasing height as it approaches the foraminous mem the distribution of the ?bers onto the foraminous member 40 ber. On the opposite side of the foraminous member is is more uniform across the entire width. This is true a receiver duct section having an adjustable throat. The even with the utilization of a foraminous member which throat is connected through take-01f ducts to the fan. Due to the physical requirements of the apparatus, the take-off duct connecting the throat to the source of air current or fan must move the air through a right angle is substantially wider than the ?ber attenuating device or source of ?ber supply. With the provision of a throat of the type noted above, it has also been found that the problem of providing suitable take-off ducts to connect in a relatively short space. Moreover, the throat prefer ably extends entirely across the width of the foraminous the source of air stream or fan thereto is considerably between that position and the adjacent end of the duct, throughout the entire width thereof. reduced and with the present arrangement, it is possible member so that the duct works connecting this throat to utilize a conventional cylindrical duct to accomplish to the fan must also restrict itself in width. As disclosed this purpose, which duct is considerably different in con in the Phillips et al. patent, a tapered duct has heretofore 50 struction from the ducts heretofore utilized and thought been utilized to accomplish the above purpose. to be theoretically desirable. In theory, it Was thought that the design of this tapered Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to duct should be such that its cross-sectional area at any provide an improved method and apparatus for produc point across its width is equal to the area of the throat ing unwoven fabrics which are of outstanding uniformity but it has been found that this was not practical in Another object of the present invention is the pro actual construction. The constructions heretofore have vision of an apparatus embodying relatively few adjust given rise to an uneven pressure drop across the forami ments which are simple to effect yet achieve a high nous member and, hence, a variance in the ?ow there degree of ?exibility in the operation of the apparatus so 60 across. To take care of this condition, the Phillips et al. apparatus provided ?exible leaf plates Within the throat which can be adjusted so as to more or less equalize the that high grade fabrics may be produced. A further object of the present invention is the pro vision of an apparatus of the type described having im proved duct means through which the stream of air is con?ned, such duct means embodying a novel throat satisfactory since extensive adjustment is required through construction which greatly improves the ?ow character out the operation of the apparatus. That is, the dis istics of the air stream. tribution of the ?bers, as a result of their deposit on the Still another object of the present invention is the pro foraminous member, is a?ected by other factors as Well, the adjustable leaf arrangement merely serving to com vision of an apparatus of the type described having an plicate the adjustments necessary. 70 improved ?ber transfer duct section or tunnel which mini An additional factor which detrimentally aifected the mizes the tendency of eddy currents to be created in the quality of the fabric produced by the Phillips et al. ma air ?ow, but effectively prevents the ?bers from tending ?ow across the screen. The adjustable leaf arrangement has not proven entirely 3,052,928 3 4 then over a vacuum cylinder where excessive impregnant to'parallel themselves across the width of foraminous is removed and, ?nally, the impregnated web may be suitably dried or baked in appropriate apparatus designed member as they are deposited thereon. Still another object of the present invention is the pro visionof an apparatus of the type described embodying improved sealing means in the duct system which effec tively prevents leakageof air adjacent the area where the to accomplish this purpose. ' The ?ber attenuating and carrying instrumentality is supplied from a ?ber lap or similar source fed thereto by feed rollers, a conventional taker-in or other common ?bers are deposited on the moving foraminous member. ' Still another object of the present invention is the pro vision of an apparatus of the type described embodying means (not shown), the mechanism illustrated in Patent of air from the restricted throat to the fan or source of 1%) and the ?bers are carried about the periphery thereof in a clockwise direction, as shown in FIGURE 1, in the No. 2,648,876 being entirely satisfactory. The feed lap a transfer duct section which serves to transfer the ?ow 10 is attenuated into individual ?bers by the card cylinder the air stream. _ , ~ conventional manner. A still further object of the present invention is the ‘ As best shown in FIGURE 1, the foraminous member provision of armethod and apparatus of the type de scribed including an improved procedure and means for 15 12 is mounted on a frame, generally indicated at 24, for continuous movement in an endless path. The frame trimming or cutting the side edges of the fabric web pro includes a pair of transversely spaced horizontal base duced. , , " plates 26 upon which are mounted a pair of end frames 28. The end frames may be of any suitable construction, ' These and other objects of the present invention will become apparent during the course of the following de tailed description and appended claims. , as, for example, rigidly interconnected angle irons or the like. A plurality of transversely extending cross frame members 30 are rigidly interconnected between the end . The invention may best be understood with reference to the accompanying drawings wherein an, illustrative frames 28 and retain the same in spaced relation. Pref erably, the end frames 28 are mounted on the horizontal embodiment is shown. . , .In the drawings: , . FIGURE 1 is a side elevational view of an apparatus 25 base plates 26 for longitudinal adjustment by any suit; embodying the principles of the present invention; able means, such as an adjustment screw 32 or the like. FIGURE 2 is a top plan view of the apparatus shown in FIGURE 1 with certain parts broken away for purpose plurality of rollers 34, 36, 38, 40 and 42 arranged on of clearer illustration; 7 . The endless foraminous member 12 is trained about a the frame 24, as shown in FIGURE 1. The rollers are . mounted on shafts 4.4, 46, 48, 50-and 52, respectively, which have their ends journaled in bearings 54,‘ 56, 58, 60 and 62, respectively, suitably secured to the .end FIGURE 3 ,is a fragmentary Vertical sectional view illustrating theforaminous member upon which the-web is formed and the adjacent portion of ‘the duct system which con?nes the air stream therethrough so as to carry the suspended ?bers to the foraminous member; 7 FIGURE 4 is a fragmentary side elevational view, 35 with certain parts broken away, illustrating the transfer _duct section of the duct system; FIGURE 5 is a fragmentary perspective view illustrat- . ing the connection between onerside of the ?ber transfer _duct section or tunnel, and theadjacent portion ,of the foraminous member carrying frame; i 40 ' 7 FIGURE 6 is an enlarged fragmentary top plan view V of the sealing roll of the apparatus; . FIGURE 7 is an enlarged fragmentary front eleva tional view of a portion of the frame whichcarries the 45 foraminous member; _ n V ' FIGURE 8 is ,a fragmentary vertical sectional view illustrating the web cutting means; and . FIGURE 9,.is a fragmentary rear elevationalview of the web cutting means. , , ' Referring now more particularly to FIGURES 1 and 2 of the drawings, there is shown an apparatus which em 50 frames, as by bolts or the like. “For the purpose of prop erly tensioning the endless foraminous member, one of the rollers, as [for example roller 42, is adjustably mounted on the frame. To this end, an adjustment ‘device 64, of any suitable construction, is mounted between each end frame 28 and the associated bearing 62 of the roller.42. The apparatus is driven from any suitable source of power (not shown) through a reduction gear box 66. From the gear box, one take-01f shaft 68 is suitably con nected in driving relation through an idler shaft 70 to drive pulley 72 of the card cylinder. A second take-off shaft 74 is drivingly engaged by suitable chains and sprockets through an idler shaft 76 between the shaft 44 of the roller 34 and the gear box 66. A chain 78 is trained about sprockets ?xed to one end of the shaft 44, 46 and 50 and an idler sprocket 79. In addition, the sprocket chain 78 is also trained about a sprocket secured to shaft 80, which forms a part of the cutting means of the present invention hereinafter to be moresfully de scribed. A screen cleaning brush 82 is carried by a shaft 84 journaled in bearings 86 mounted on brackets 88 suit ably secured to the end frames 28. The brush 82 is ro bodies the principles of the present invention. In gen eral, the apparatus includes a ?ber attenuating and carry ing instrumentality, such as card cylinder 10, which is 55 tated by means of a sprocket wheel 90 and a chain 92 is chained thereabout and about a second sprocket 94 and operable to provide a moving source of supply of ?bers. carried to the auxiliary shaft 76. It will be understood ‘This moving source of ?ber supply is transferred from that the driving arrangement disclosed is exemplary and ‘the card cylinder to an endless foraminous member or any suitable means may be employed for this purpose. ?exible screen_12 by means of an air' stream con?ned The signi?cantrelationship is that the card cylinder is within a duct system, which includes a ?ber transfer driven in timed relation with respect to the movement of ‘duct or tunnel 14 extending outwardly from the peripheral surface of the card cylinder to a point adjacent the forami the foraminous member 12. ' nous member 12. The duct system also includes a re The present invention is more particularly concerned ceiver-duct section 16 mounted on the opposite side of vthe foraminous member 12 from the transfer duct 14 and terminating in a throat 18. 'A cylindrical take-off 'duct 20 is connected through its width with the throat 18 ‘and communicates also with a second cylindrical duct 22 which leads’ to a suitable ‘means for ‘creating the air stream, such as a fan or the like _(not shown); It will be understood that the unwoven fabric formed on the forminous member 12 may be subsequently proc essed in any desired manner. For example, the web of unwoven fabric may be conducted through a drip tank with an improved duct system which con?nes the air stream arranged to carry the ?bers from the attenuating instrumentality 10 to the moving foraminous member 12. The ?ber transfer duct 14 is supported by any suitable means, such as the frame of the attenuating instrumen tality, preferably for longitudinal adjustment with respect to the card cylinder10 so that the cross-sectional area of the inlets provided adjacent the peripheral surface of the card cylinder can be varied. As best shown in FIGURE 2, the transfer. duct 14*includes a ?rstsection .100, which where it is impregnated with a suitable impregnant and 75 ‘diverges inwidthv and converges in heightsoutwardlysfrorn 5 3,052,928 the card cylinder. Preferably, the section 109 is of con stant cross-sectional area throughout its longitudinal ex tent, the relative proportion between the height and width of the section being such that the cross-sectional area in any two transverse vertical planes is substantially equal. Forming a continuation of the ?rst section 100 is a second section 102, which is of substantially constant width and‘ which diverges in height as it approaches the foraminous member. The duct sections 10d and 162 are preferably with the surface of the foraminous member by similar spring assemblies, generally indicated at 164, carried by the transverse ?anges 136 of the vertical members ‘132. As best shown in FIGURES 3 and 5, the leather strip 130 is retained in engagement with the peripheral surface of the seal roll 152 by means of a rocker bar 166. The opposite leg of each L-shaped plate 142 is rigidly secured to the frame 24. As best shown in FIGURES 5 and 7, an angle iron 168 is suitably secured to each end constructed of sheet metal and include a bottom wall 104 10 frame 28 so that one ?ange extends longitudinally for having integral side walls 186 extending upwardly there wardly. A second angle iron section 170 has one ?ange from. A top wall 108 of sheet metal construction is rigidly secured to the longitudinal ?ange of each angle iron formed with channel-shaped side ?anges 110 which are 168 and its other ?ange extending transversely inwardly. secured to the upper edges, respectively, of the side walls The third vertical angle iron 172 has the free end of one 106. The top wall 108 may be reinforced by a plurality 15 of its ?anges rigidly connected with the free end of the of transversely extending longitudinally spaced inverted V-shaped sheet metal members 112 suitably secured to the upper surface thereof. The end of the upper wall 188 adjacent the card cylinder 16 is provided with a means, generally indicated at 114, for adjusting individual por tions of the inlet provided thereby throughout the entire width of the card cylinder. This means may conform to the means provided in the Phillips et a1. patent and, hence, angle iron 17%, as by welding or the like. The leg of the associated L-shaped plate 142 is rigidly secured to the transversely extending ?ange of the angle iron 172. Ex tending between and rigidly secured to the longitudinally extending ?anges of the angle iron 172 is a pair of verti cally spaced angle irons 174 and 176. A side angle iron section 178 is connected between the angle irons 174 and 176 adjacent ‘each end thereof. The seal roll is resiliently a detailed description of the same is not believed to be urged toward the foraminous member by means of springs necessary. 25 180 carried within sleeves 182 extending longitudinally The side walls 166 of the second duct section 162 have forwardly from the ends of the shaft 150, and rigidly car reinforcing plates 116 secured thereto and a top wall 118 ried by suitable mounting brackets 184 secured to the formed with channel-shaped end ?anges 129 is secured to the upper edges of the side walls 106 and the reinforcing plates 116. The end of the top wall 118 adjacent the sec longitudinally extending ?anges of the angle irons 168. wardly extending ?ange 138 having vertically spaced and ?ange of the angle iron 17!? for engaging the sprocket The forward end of each sleeve 182 is internally threaded to receive set screw 186, which may be turned to adjust tion 160 includes a transversely extending channel-shaped the tension applied by the springs to the ends of the shaft. ?ange 122 which ?ts over an upwardly extending ?ange The seal roll is driven by means of a sprocket wheel 123 formed on the adjacent end of the top wall 168. The 188 mounted on end end of the shaft 150. The sprocket end of the top wall 118 adjacent the foraminous member wheel 188 includes an annular portion 190 suitably slotted is folded over, as indicated at 124, and a suitable rein to provide a keyway for receiving a key 192, which en forcing plate 126 of inverted V-shaped construction is se gages ‘within a suitable keyway in shaft 150. A bore 194 cured to the upper surface of the top wall 118 and in is formed in the annular portion in communication with cludes a turned-under portion 128 disposed in spaced rela its keyway and a coil spring 196 is disposed within the tion to the portion 124. A strip of leather or the like 139 bore for resiliently engaging the key 192. The outer end is secured between the portions 128 and 124 and extends 40 of the bore 194 is internally threaded to receive the set upwardly therefrom. screw 198, which engages the opposite end of the coil Secured to the outer surface of each reinforcing plate spring 196 and may be turned to adjust the tension of the 116 is a vertically extending member 132, each of which latter. The portion of the sprocket chain 78 extending includes a longitudinally extending ?ange 134 rigidly se between the shafts 44 and 46 engages the sprocket wheel cured to the ‘adjacent reinforcing plate 116, an outwardly ' 188 so as to drive the seal roll 152. Preferably, a wear extending transverse ?ange 136 and a longitudinally rear plate 2% is suitably secured to the transversely extending vertically elongated slots 140 formed therein. An L shaped plate 142, having reg‘stering vertically spaced, horizontally elongated slots 144, is adjustably secured to 50 each ?ange 138 by any suitable means, such as bolts 146 extending through the registering slots 14!) and 144. Each plate 142 includes an elongated opening 148 extend ing downwardly from the upper edge thereof so as to re ceive an end of a shaft 150 having a seal roll 152 rigidly secured thereto intermediate the spaced plates 142. A side seal member 154, which may be of leather or the like reinforced on its outer side by a metal plate, is mounted adjacent the outer surface of each reinforcing plate 116 and the inner surface of the plate 142 in abutting relation to the adjacent end of the seal roll 152. Each side seal member 154 is suitably apertured, as at 156, so as to re ceive the adjacent end of the shaft 150. Preferably, each aperture 156 is longitudinally elongated to afford limited longitudinal movement thereof relative to the shaft. Each side seal member 154 is resiliently urged into sealing en gagement ‘with the associated end of the roll 152 and the associated reinforcing plate 116 by a plurality of coil springs 158, each mounted within a sleeve 16% rigidly se cured to and extending outwardly from the plate 142. The outer end of each sleeve is internally threaded so as to receive a spring abutting set screw 162, which may be turned within the sleeve to adjust the tension of the spring applied to the side seal member 154. In addition, the side chain 78 so that it will be retained in engagement with the sprocket wheel 188. The bottom wall of the transfer duct 14 is sealed with respect to the foraminous member by means of a trans versely extending member 202 which is secured in de pending relationship to the rear edge of the bottom mem her by means of an angle iron 264 rigidly secured to the lower surface of the bottom wall and ‘to the forward sur face of ‘the transverse member 262. Secured to the lower edge of the transverse member 262 is a leather strip 206 which may be coated with "a plastic or the like. This strip is folded upwardly so as to engage the surface of the foraminous member. The receiver duct section 16 is also made of sheet metal and includes a forward end which is rigidly secured, as by welding or the like, to the longitudinally extending ?anges of the angle irons 174, 176 and 178‘. Rearwardly of these angle irons, the receiver section converges, as indicated at 208. The rear end of the receiver duct sec tion is disposed horizontally and suitable angle irons 210 or the like are rigidly secured to the outer surface thereof. The throat 18 is formed by a pair of vertically spaced angle irons 212 and 214, each of which includes a vertical ?ange secured to the vertical ?ange of the associated angle iron 210, as by bolts 216 or the like. Preferably, the ver tical ?ange of the upper angle iron 112 includes vertically elongated slots 218 arranged to receive the bolts 216 to seal member is resiliently urged into sealing engagement 75 provide adjustability for the throat. Each of the angle 3,052,928 ' 8 irons Y212 and 214 also includes a horizontal‘?ange having " an outer surface which joins with the outer surface of the associated vertical ?ange along a smooth curve. The cylindrical duct'20 is_ also made of sheet metal'or the like and includes horizontally spaced ?anges 220 having angle irons 222jsecured to the outer surface thereof. These angle irons include vertical‘?anges secured by the bolts 216 to the associated vertical ?anges of the angle irons 212, 214 and 210. ' ~ ' a _ As best shown in FIGURE 4, the cylindrical duct 20 also includes spaced ?anges 224 having angle irons 226 rigidly secured thereto. The cylindrical duct 22 also includes registering spaced ?anges 228 having angle irons opening in spaced relation to the lower end ‘of the plates 270. 7' ~ r - a The shaft 80, which carries the roller 246, is driven by the main sprocket chain 78. The shaft 242 is driven in timed relation to 'the shaft 80 through a pair ofco operating gears 274 and 276. As shown in FIGURE 9, the gear 276 is suitably keyed to the shaft 80, while the gear'274 is suitably keyed to the shaft 242 in a position to mesh \with the gear 276. The central portion of the web passing over the roller 246 is fed to an immersion tank or the like, a portion of which is shown in FIGURE 3 and generally indicated at 278. ' . Operation 230 secured thereto. The angle irons 226 and 230 have The general operation of the present apparatus is their abutting ?anges rigidly secured together, as by bolts 15 similar to that of the apparatus disclosed in the Phillips or the like. ' As best shown in FIGURE 1, the cylindrical et a1. patent. That is, the ?ber laps fed to the card cylinder are attenuated during their movement on the extending transversely spaced frame members 232 suitably latter so that when they reach a point adjacent the trans secured to the frame and carrying straps 234, which are fer duct inlets 14, the stream of air entering these inlets 20 secured around the cylindrical duct 22. will strip the ‘attenuated ?bers from the periphery of the Referring now to FIGURES 8 and 9, the web trimming card cylinder and they will move in suspended condition or cutting means of the present invention includes a pair along with the air stream through the con?nes of the duct 22 is supported on the frame 24 by longitudinally of transversely spaced mounting brackets 236 secured to transfer duct 14. The entrained ?bers suspended in the the end frames 28 at the upper rear portions thereof. A air stream within the transfer duct are collected on the transverse frame member 238 extends between and is 25 moving foraminous member 12. a That is, the air stream rigidly secured to the rear ends of the brackets 236. Ex is allowed to pass through the foraminous member while tending forwardly from the frame member 238 is a pair the ?bers are ‘deposited thereon. The depositing of the of bearings 240 within which is journaled a shaft 242. In ?bers on the foraminous member builds up a web there addition, the ends of the shaft 242 are journaled in bear on of randomly disposed ?bers of uniform texture and ings 243 mounted in the brackets 236. The shaft 80 is 30 strength in all directions. The web thus formed on the journaled at its ends by suitable bearings 244 mounted foraminous member is doifed therefrom adjacent the on the brackets 236 below bearings 243. Rigidly secured roller 38 and then passes through the cutting meanswhere to the shaft 80 intermediate its ends is a pair of rollers the edges are trimmed a ‘desired amount, Subsequently, 246, each of'which is keyed to the shaft 80 for longi the trimmed web passes into ‘an impregnating apparatus 35 tudinal movement. Each roller 246 is retained in a de~ andthen to a drying or curing apparatus, as is disclosed sired position of longitudinal adjustment by means of a in the Phillips et 211. patent. sutable set’screw or the like 247.‘ Secured to the outer As was stated ‘above, the signi?cant improvements of end of each roller 246 is an annular cutting element 248, the present invention relate to the duct system embodied each of which includes a substantially comically-shaped within the apparatus for creating the air stream which cutting edge 250 arranged to cooperate with a conically 40 strips the ?bers from the card cylinder and conveys the shaped annular cutting edge 252 formed on an annular same onto the foraminous member, so as to form the web cutting element 254 carried by the shaft 242. The cutting thereon. The present duct system provides an arrange edge 252 of each cutting element 254 overlaps the cutting ment whereby the cross-sectional area of the inlets, pro edge 250 of the cooperating cutting element 248, and the vided at the forward end of the ?ber’ transfer duct 14, former is resiliently urged into this engaged position by 45 may be varied without detrimentally ‘affecting the e?’i means of a spring 256 mounted in surrounding relation to ciency of the seal between the rearward end of the trans-1 the shaft 242 between the associated cutting element 254 fer 1duct and the foraminous member. In this regard, and a collar 258 rigidly secured thereto. Each cutting the L-shaped plates 142 are rigidly carried by the, frame element 254 is keyed to the shaft 242 by a key 260 which 24rwhich carries the forarninous'member. These plates permits longitudinal movement of the latter but prevents 50 are connected to the forward end of the transfer duct relative rotation between the cutting element and the shaft. by means of the bolts 146 extending through the elon ,In addition, each collar 25% may be secured in a longitudi gated slots 144 in the plates 142 and the elongated slots nally adjusted position along the shaft 242, as by a set 140 formed in the vertical members’ 132. Thus, by screw 262, so that proper cooperation between the cutting loosening the bolts 146, the entire transfer duct maybe 55 moved longitudinally, within limits, so as to adjust the elements can be obtained; . . > . . In order to guide the cut edges of the web, a roller 264 posit-ion of the forward end of the transfer duct with is mounted on each end of the shaft 80, as'by a suitable set respect to the periphery of the card cylinder. Prefer screw or key, in a position adjacent the associated cutting ably, the bottom lip of the forward end of the transfer element 248. The edges of the web .cut by the action duct 14 is set at approximately 1A; inch from the periphery of the cutting elements 248 and 254xpass over the rollers 60 of the card cylinder. While this'is a preferred opti 264 into a vacuum tube 266, which is suitably connected Vmum setting, it will be understood, that it may be suit by conduit (not shown) to a source of air current, such as ably varied within the limits provided. It will alsorbe the main fan which creates the air stream through the noted that the longitudinal movement of the entire trans main duct Work of the apparatus. The vacuum tube 266 fer duct 14 does, not in any way affect the e?iciency of 65 includes an upper longitudinally extending slot 268 within the seal between the rear end thereof and the foraminous ,which the trimmed edges of the web pass so that this member. Thus, the leather side seals 154 will be resil material may be collected at a central station and re-used, if desired. In order .to insure that the edges of the web ' cut by the cutters 248 and 254 enter the vacuum tube iently urged both rearwardly and inwardly ‘by the action of the springs 158 and spring ‘assemblies 164. The seal ‘roll 152 is maintained in resilient engagement with the 268, opposed guide plates 270 and 272 are provided. The 70 'web formed on the foraminous member due to the action of the springs 180 in the sleeves 182, which are rigidly downwardly into a position adjacent plates 270 are mounted by any suitable means on the , frame 24-and extend mounted on the foraminous member carrying frame 24. Openings 156 in the side seals 154 are longitudinally elongated so as to accommodate a slight amount of rela . and their lower ends extending downwardly adjacent the 1 75 the opening 268 of the vacuum tube. The plates 272 .. have their upper ends secured to the cross member 238 3,052,928 ‘lb ' tive longitudinal movement therein. The leather strip 136, which engages the periphery of the seal roll 152, short so that the creation of eddy currents therein is re is maintained in engagement therewith by means of the duct at the second section, the ?bers are presented to pivoted bar 166, which is suitably weighted so that the leather strip will at all times be urged into engagement with the periphery of the roll 152. The bottom lip of the transfer duct is sealed by means of the plastic coated leather strip 206, which is carried by the transverse member 2%2 and folded upwardly with respect thereto. The rearward surface of the plastic coated leather strip 206 will thus ride on the forward surface of the foram inous member and provide an effective seal therewith. duced to ‘a minimum. By expanding the height of the the foraminous member in a much more favorable man ner so that the tendency of the ?bers to parallel them selves across the Width of the foraminous member is reduced to a minimum. In this regard, the sealing ar rangements are highly effective and prevent the creation of auxiliary air streams as a result of leakage adjacent the discharge end of the transfer duct. The sealing arrange ment also minimizes the velocity losses in the air stream. The manner in which the air stream is created within the ?ber transfer duct is a highly signi?cant feature of the present invention and constitutes a de?nite improve duct, which automatically adjusts itself to obtain an 15 ment over the procedures heretofore followed. The con e?ective seal when the transfer duct is moved longitu It will thus be seen that sealing means is provided on the top, bottom and sides of the rear end of the transfer dinally. struction of the throat 18 is such that a constant pres sure drop throughout the width of the air stream is ob As disclosed in the Phillips et al. patent, it is desirable tained across the foraminous member. The throat is of to have an adjustable upper lip for the forward end of constant height throughout its width ‘and provides a the transfer duct and, thus, the adjustable means shown 20 rounded entrance which greatly improves the ?ow char by Phillips et al. is provided on the transfer duct of the acteristics. While the height of this throat can be varied present invention. it is desirable to have a non-adjust by changing the vertical position of the angle iron 212 able bottom lip, which, as stated above, is preferably set through the bolts 216, it has been found highly desirable at 1%; inch from the periphery of the card cylinder. The range of the apparatus is improved with close lip settings 25 to maintain the cross-sectional area of the throat sub stantially less than twice and, preferably, substantially but production control is easier with wide settings. The equal to the cross-sectional area of the inlets provided at upper lip setting controls the density of the ?bers in the the upper and lower lips of the forward end of the trans air by controlling the amount of air that enters. Thus, fer duct. An optimum setting of the throat height is to heavy-up on a particular part of the web requires a 1/2 inch tor a 60 inch width, where the upper lip inlet is close lip setting at the corresponding lip position. This % x 45 inches and the bottom lip inlet is 1A; X 45 inches, lets in less air at the lip position and in an attempt to which gives a ‘ratio of 1.3 to 1. By maintaining the have equal pressure in the transfer duct, air that entered cross-sectional area of the throat approximately equal at some other position ‘is moved toward the position to the cross-sectional area of the inlets, a uniform pres where the air supply was decreased. The function of the ?ber transfer duct is to guide the 35 sure drop across the entire width of the foraminous member is maintained. A proper throat setting that ?bers from the card cylinder to the foraminous member. gives no static pressure drop across the take-off duct 20 The air is turbulent inside the transfer duct and Whereas the general velocity direction is straight from the card cylinder to the foraminous member, there is a large or receiver duct 16 should have the same e?ect as length ening the receiver duct section, for the air flow through the latter depends only upon the area, resistance and amount of variation from this. It cannot be assumed 40 pressure drop. The area is, of course, constant. If the that air and ?bers are completely intermixed inside the foraminous member is clean, its resistance is constant. tunnel, although it is apparent that the ?bers are sus If the throat holds the static pressure drop constant, the pended in the air stream. Thus, the desired result is not only variable is the resistance o?ered by the ?bers on always produced by making the air go where the ?bers the screen. Thus, with this arrangement, a highly desir are to go. The settings of the tunnel height at different able uniformity in the ?brous web produced can be longitudinal positions can have a great effect on the maintained. While the present apparatus will not correct texture and range of the ?ber web produced. If the ef marked uneveness in the laps fed to the card cylinder, fective tunnel height is reduced too much adjacent the foraminous member, the ?bers will tend to parallel them selves across the width of the foraminous member. If the transfer duct height is too high, there is a tendency for eddy currents to form therein, which builds up an excess of ?bers that will be released at intervals, causing an undesirable uneveness in the web produced. The transfer duct, as described above, is advantageously constructed so as to minimize the creation of eddy currents in the air stream and the tendency of the ?bers to parallel themselves across the width of the forarninous member. The ?rst section 1943 is of an optimum height, which per mits a maximum ?ow Without danger of the creation of eddy currents. Moreover, it will be noted that this section, as shown, is arranged to spread the ?bers received at the forward end along a greater width so that a web of greater width low variation ‘laps will produce low variation Webs if the apparatus is properly set. It has been found that when the lap variation is approximately 15%, the appa ratus can readily be adjusted to produce a ?brous web that has a weight variation of approximately 10%. The receiver duct section, in combination with the ad justable throat, is of a minimum longitudinal extent which is a ‘distinct advantage due to the minimum amount of space available. It is contemplated that the receiver sec tion may be compaitmented so as to obtain better con— trol, although this is not regarded as preferable to achieve the highly satisfactory results obtained With the present apparatus. With the use of compartments With in the receiver duct section, positive control of the air flow in each partition is obtained. Any suitable construction may be employed. For example, in the embodiment of than the card cylinder width is produced. This is ac 65 the receiver duct section shown, the width of the same is 40 inches and nine partitions may be installed across complished by maintaining a constant cross-sectional area this width, with the width of each partition extending throughout the longitudinal extent of the ?rst section. in 3!!’ 4!!’ 4!!’ 6!!’ 6!’, 6!!’ 4", 4!! Thus, the height of the ?rst duct section diminishes in and 3". Each partition may extend from the foraminous proportion to the increase in the width in the direction of air ?ow. Of course, where a foraminous web of the 70 member rearwardly to the take-off ‘duct and each partition may be equipped with an adjustable throat which can same width as the Width of the card cylinder is to be pro be varied from an opening of 1/2 inch maximum down duced, the ?rst duct section will simply be of uniform to a fully closed position. Any suitable means may be cross-sectional area. The second duct section 1E2 pro provided for effecting this adjustment as, for example, vides an increase in the height of the duct, while the hand wheels suitably connected to the exterior of the width thereof remains constant. This section is rather duct and to each adjustable throat member. While such 8,052,928 11 . an arrangement offers positive control of range, the ad justments are critical and must becarefully made and, therefore, it is preferred to utilze an unobstructed re ceiver duct section in conjunction with the smooth uni form height adjustable throat as disclosed in the draw 12 ing ‘an open receiving end adjacent said ?ber-receiving member of substantially corresponding shape to the shape of the discharge end of said transfer duct and a throat formed at its opposite end operable to ,e?ect a constant pressure ‘drop throughout the width of the air stream across said ?ber-receiving member, ‘said throat having ings, since this arrangement affords satisfactory results a width substantially equal to the width of the receiving 'without the necessity of continual adjustments. end of said duct section, a constant height throughout its Cylindrical take-off duct 20 has been found to be Width, a cross-sectional area not exceeding twice the highly satisfactory and constitutes a simple way of con— necting the source of air stream to the adjustable throat 10 cross-sectional area of said air inlets, and a continuous smooth surface inlet throughout its width, and a cylin .and receiver section which heretofore have required com drical take-o? duct having a longitudinal opening its plicated and expensive structures. Theresults achieved periphery communicating with said throat throughout its ,by this cylindrical take-01f duct’ section are highly satis width. ytactory. In general, the air volume within the duct sys tem should beadjusted so that the card cylinder is 15' 2. In an apparatus for forming a web of randomly laid stripped at lip settings providing inlets having a total width of around 1A inch to 5A6 inch and an even static pressure is maintained across the receiver section with a throat setting of between '% inch to 1/2 inch for the 45 vinch card cylinder toth'e 60 inch foraminous member ap paratus shown. This volume will vary from about 1350 c.f.m. up to 1750 c.f.m., depending upon the particular ?bers matted together in uniform relation by transferring a moving source of ?ber supply provided by ?ber at tenuating means to a traveling foraminous member; im proved duct means for directing a ?berv suspending air 20 stream from said moving source of ?ber supply through and beyond said foraminous member so as to remove ?bers from said attenuating means and carry them along a con?ned path to said ?ber-receiving member to form setting used. ' . the web thereon, said duct means comprising a ?rst duct It has been found that sometimes the uniformity of the web formed on the toraminous member will vary at 2.5 section of substantially constant cross-sectional area throughout its longitudinal extent and having an open the edges thereof. That is, there is a tendency for the ?ber-receiving end extending across the width of the vlibers to lighten up at the edges so that it is greatly pre moving source of ?ber supply and in communication ferred to utilize an edge trimming mechanism, such as therewith with the edges de?ning the width of said duct thecutting means illustrated and described above. The present cutting means is particularly advantageous in 30 section end being spaced from the source of ?ber supply to form air inlets, a second duct section having one end that a positive shearing action is obtained by the use of with the opposite end of said ?rst duct section the overlapping, cooperating conically-shaped cutting -merging and an opposite open end disposed adjacent the forami edges. The arrangement can be readily adjusted to vary nous member, said second duct section being of substan the size of the marginal edges which are trimmed. The rollers 246 are movable longitudinally. on the shaft 80 35 tially constant width and increasing in cross-sectional area throughout its longitudinal extent toward its open and may be secured in any adjusted position thereon by end, and a third duct section having an open end of the set screws 247. In a like manner, the cutting elements substantially corresponding shape to the shape of the 254 may-be moved longitudinally against the action of the springs 256. The tension of the springs is varied 40 open end of said second duct section and disposed in alignment therewith adjacent the opposite side of said by adjusting the position of the collars 258 with the use foraminous member, said third ‘duct section having a of the set screws'262. 'The guide plates 270 and 272 throat formed at its opposite end for creating a substan insure that the trimmed edges will be fed into the vacuum tially constant pressure drop throughout the width of or extraction tube .266, which serves to'handle the ex the air stream across the foraminous member, said throat cess formed by the trimming operation. 45 having a width substantially equal to the width of the ' It thus will be seen that the objects of this invention open end of said third duct section, a constant height have been fully and e?ectively ‘accomplished. It will be throughoutlits width, and a cross-sectional area less than realized, however, that the foregoing speci?c embodi twice ‘the cross-sectional area of said air inlets. ment has been shown and described only for the purpose 3. Apparatus as de?ned in claim 2 wherein said duct of illustrating the principles of this invention and is sub— 50 means also includes a cylindrical take-01f duct having a ject to extensive change without departure from such principles. Therefore, this invention includes all modi ?cations encompassed within the spirit and scope of the following claims. longitudinal opening in its periphery communicating with said throat throughout its width. 4. Apparatus as de?ned in claim 3 wherein said duct ‘ means also includes a second cylindrical duct parallel We claim: 55 with said ?rst-mentioned cylindrical duct and communi 1. In an apparatus of the type described including cating therewith substantially throughout the longitudinal ?ber attenuating means to provide a moving source of extent of said ?rst-mentioned cylindrical duct. ' ?ber supply,‘ a ?ber transfer duct having an ‘open ?ber receiving end extending across the width of the moving References Cited in the ?le of this patent source of ?ber supply and in communication therewith 60' UNITED STATES PATENTS with the edges de?ning the width of said'duct end being spaced from the source of ?ber supply to form air inlets, 188,164 Miles et a1 ____________ __ Mar. 6, 1877 a foraminous ?ber-receiving member at the opposite de 304,527 Jarrell _______________ __ Sept. 2, 1884 livery end of said duct, means for moving said ?ber 759,271 Gri?ith ______________ __ May 10, 1904 receiving member relative to said duct, and means for 65 1,239,432 O’Connell ___; ____ __'.____ Sept. 4, 1917 creating an air stream through said air inlets, duct, and 1,553,040 Gruman _____________ __ Sept. 8, 1925 ?ber-receiving ‘member to remove ?bers from said at 1,663,788 Zimniewicz ____'__‘_____,_ Mar. 27, 1928 tenuating meansand transfer them through said duct to 2,165,280 Lannan _____ ..'_ _______ __ July 11, 1939 said ?ber-receiving member to form a web thereon; the Watts _______________ __ Mal’. 26, 1940 improvement comprising said air stream creating means 70 2,195,158 2,478,148 Wilson et al ___________ __ Aug. 2, 1949 including a receiver duct section downstream of said ?ber-receiving member in alignment with the delivery end of said transfer duct, said receiver duct section hav 2,648,876 2,682,085 Phillips et al __________ __ Aug. 18, 1953 Novotny et a1 _________ __. June 29, 1954 .3k'1m-4_,.