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Патент USA US3052939

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Sept 11, 1962
R. E. CHARLTON, JR, ETAL
3,052,928
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING UNWOVEN FABRICS
Filed Feb. 1, 1957
5 Sheets-Sheet l
GEORGE MANNING
VERNA L.PAYN E
ATTORNEYS
Sept. 11, 1962
R. E. CHARLTON, JR, ETAL
3,052,928
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING UNWOVEN FABRICS
Filed Feb. 1, 1957
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTORS
RICHARD E.CHARLTON,JR.
GEORGE MANNING
VERNA L. PAYNE
ATTORNEYS
Sept. 11, 1962
R. E. CHARLTON, JR, ETAL
3,052,928
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING UNWOVEN FABRICS
Filed Feb. 1, 1957
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
24
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INVENTORS
RICHARD E. CHARLTON,JR.
GEORGE MANNING
VERNA L.PAYNE
BM 19%” M2»
ATTORNEYS
SePt- 11, 1962
R. E. CHARLTON, JR, ETAL
3,052,928
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING UNWOVEN FABRICS
Filed Feb. 1, 1957
5 Sheets-Sheet 4
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INVENTORS
RICHARD E.CH-'ARLTO
GEORGE MANNING
VERNA L. P-AYNE
BY
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SePt- 11, 1962
R. E. CHARLTON, JR, ETAL
3,052,928
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING UNWOVEN FABRICS
Filed Feb. 1, 1957
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
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' TNVENTORS
BY
RICHARD E C
RLTON,JR.
GEORGE MAN m 6
VERNA L. PAYNE
2424M, pug/>124”
ATTORNEYS
United States
atent
1
3,652,928
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING
UNWOVEN FABRICS
Richard E. Charlton, Jr., Fairfax, Ala, George Manning,
Gastonia, N.C., and Verna L. Payne, Shawmut, Ala,
assignors to West Point Manufacturing Company,
West Point, Ga, a corporation of Georgia
Filed Feb. 1, 1957, Ser. No. 637,673
4 Claims. (Cl. 19-156)
"see
3,052,928
Patented Sept. 11, 1962
2
chine concerns the ratio of the cross-sectional area of
the throat and the cross-sectional area of the inlets adja
cent the attenuating device. In the apparatus constructed
in accordance with the teachings of the Phillips et al.
patent, the ratio of the area of the throat to the area
of the inlet is of the order of 21/211 and 3:1, or more.
With this arrangement, it is apparent that the flow of
air through the inlets will be substantially greater than
the ?ow of air through the throat. This is particularly
10 true Where the width of the intake is less than the Width
This invention relates to the production of unwoven
of the foraminous member upon which the web is formed.
fabrics and more particularly to an improved method
With the use of apparatus which are capable of produc
and apparatus for producing unwoven fabrics of uniform
ing unwoven fabrics greater than the Width of the attenu
texture and strength in all directions composed of ?bers
ating device, severe problems are encountered in spread
in random relationship.
15 ing the attenuated ?bers evenly throughout the width of
The present invention contemplates improvements in
the foraminous member. With a 3:1 ratio existing be
the procedure and apparatus for producing unwoven
tween the area of the throat and the inlet area, equal ?ow
fabrics disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,648,876,
through both could only be obtained by partitioning the
issued August 18, 1953, to Phillips et al. In brief, the
tunnel to guide the air laterally, lengthening the tunnel
method disclosed in this patent embodies the steps of
so that the air would have time to slow down uniformly
attenuating a body of ?bers so as to provide a moving
to corrected velocity before reaching the throat or by
source of ?ber supply, removing the ?bers from the
increasing the fan speed until the static pressure was
source of supply by means of an air stream, passing the
equaled along the throat. All of these procedures have
air stream and the ?bers suspended therein to a moving
proven impractical for one reason or another.
foraminous ?ber receiving member through a con?ned 25
Accordingly, the present invention contemplates the
uninterrupted path so that the ?bers will be deposited
establishment of a uniform pressure drop across the
thereon. The apparatus for carrying out this general
entire width of the foraminous member by the air stream
procedure, as disclosed in the Phillips at al. patent, em
passing through. This is accomplished by providing a
bodies a duct system provided with a fan or the like for
creating a stream of air therethrough. Preferably, the
fan is of the suction tube so that it is mounted down
stream. The entrance of the duct system is adjacent the
?ber attenuating device and is e?ective to strip the ?bers
smooth, uniform-height throat which extends the entire
Width of the foraminous member and has a cross-sec—
tional area substantially equal to the cross-sectional area
of the inlets. In any event, this ratio should never be
more than 2: 1. By providing a throat of uniform cross
on the device therefrom so that they will become en
sectional area throughout its width, which is substantially
trained in the air stream. From the inlet, the duct sec
equal to the inlets, the static pressure is maintained sub
tion extends to the continuous foraminous member where
stantially equal across the entire length of the foraminous
the Web is formed. As disclosed in the Phillips et al.
member. The ?ow of air within the tunnel which carries
application, this tunnel or duct section preferably has an
the suspended ?bers is thus substantially improved and
increasing height as it approaches the foraminous mem
the distribution of the ?bers onto the foraminous member
40
ber. On the opposite side of the foraminous member is
is more uniform across the entire width. This is true
a receiver duct section having an adjustable throat. The
even with the utilization of a foraminous member which
throat is connected through take-01f ducts to the fan.
Due to the physical requirements of the apparatus, the
take-off duct connecting the throat to the source of air
current or fan must move the air through a right angle
is substantially wider than the ?ber attenuating device
or source of ?ber supply. With the provision of a throat
of the type noted above, it has also been found that the
problem of providing suitable take-off ducts to connect
in a relatively short space. Moreover, the throat prefer
ably extends entirely across the width of the foraminous
the source of air stream or fan thereto is considerably
between that position and the adjacent end of the duct,
throughout the entire width thereof.
reduced and with the present arrangement, it is possible
member so that the duct works connecting this throat
to utilize a conventional cylindrical duct to accomplish
to the fan must also restrict itself in width. As disclosed
this purpose, which duct is considerably different in con
in the Phillips et al. patent, a tapered duct has heretofore 50 struction from the ducts heretofore utilized and thought
been utilized to accomplish the above purpose.
to be theoretically desirable.
In theory, it Was thought that the design of this tapered
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to
duct should be such that its cross-sectional area at any
provide an improved method and apparatus for produc
point across its width is equal to the area of the throat
ing unwoven fabrics which are of outstanding uniformity
but it has been found that this was not practical in
Another object of the present invention is the pro
actual construction. The constructions heretofore have
vision of an apparatus embodying relatively few adjust
given rise to an uneven pressure drop across the forami
ments which are simple to effect yet achieve a high
nous member and, hence, a variance in the ?ow there
degree of ?exibility in the operation of the apparatus so
60
across. To take care of this condition, the Phillips et al.
apparatus provided ?exible leaf plates Within the throat
which can be adjusted so as to more or less equalize the
that high grade fabrics may be produced.
A further object of the present invention is the pro
vision of an apparatus of the type described having im
proved duct means through which the stream of air is
con?ned, such duct means embodying a novel throat
satisfactory since extensive adjustment is required through
construction which greatly improves the ?ow character
out the operation of the apparatus. That is, the dis
istics of the air stream.
tribution of the ?bers, as a result of their deposit on the
Still another object of the present invention is the pro
foraminous member, is a?ected by other factors as Well,
the adjustable leaf arrangement merely serving to com
vision of an apparatus of the type described having an
plicate the adjustments necessary.
70 improved ?ber transfer duct section or tunnel which mini
An additional factor which detrimentally aifected the
mizes the tendency of eddy currents to be created in the
quality of the fabric produced by the Phillips et al. ma
air ?ow, but effectively prevents the ?bers from tending
?ow across the screen.
The adjustable leaf arrangement has not proven entirely
3,052,928
3
4
then over a vacuum cylinder where excessive impregnant
to'parallel themselves across the width of foraminous
is removed and, ?nally, the impregnated web may be
suitably dried or baked in appropriate apparatus designed
member as they are deposited thereon.
Still another object of the present invention is the pro
visionof an apparatus of the type described embodying
improved sealing means in the duct system which effec
tively prevents leakageof air adjacent the area where the
to accomplish this purpose.
'
The ?ber attenuating and carrying instrumentality is
supplied from a ?ber lap or similar source fed thereto
by feed rollers, a conventional taker-in or other common
?bers are deposited on the moving foraminous member.
' Still another object of the present invention is the pro
vision of an apparatus of the type described embodying
means (not shown), the mechanism illustrated in Patent
of air from the restricted throat to the fan or source of
1%) and the ?bers are carried about the periphery thereof
in a clockwise direction, as shown in FIGURE 1, in the
No. 2,648,876 being entirely satisfactory. The feed lap
a transfer duct section which serves to transfer the ?ow 10 is attenuated into individual ?bers by the card cylinder
the air stream.
_
,
~
conventional manner.
A still further object of the present invention is the
‘
As best shown in FIGURE 1, the foraminous member
provision of armethod and apparatus of the type de
scribed including an improved procedure and means for 15 12 is mounted on a frame, generally indicated at 24, for
continuous movement in an endless path. The frame
trimming or cutting the side edges of the fabric web pro
includes a pair of transversely spaced horizontal base
duced.
,
,
"
plates 26 upon which are mounted a pair of end frames
28. The end frames may be of any suitable construction,
' These and other objects of the present invention will
become apparent during the course of the following de
tailed description and appended claims.
,
as, for example, rigidly interconnected angle irons or the
like. A plurality of transversely extending cross frame
members 30 are rigidly interconnected between the end
.
The invention may best be understood with reference
to the accompanying drawings wherein an, illustrative
frames 28 and retain the same in spaced relation. Pref
erably, the end frames 28 are mounted on the horizontal
embodiment is shown. .
,
.In the drawings:
,
.
FIGURE 1 is a side elevational view of an apparatus 25 base plates 26 for longitudinal adjustment by any suit;
embodying the principles of the present invention;
able means, such as an adjustment screw 32 or the like.
FIGURE 2 is a top plan view of the apparatus shown
in FIGURE 1 with certain parts broken away for purpose
plurality of rollers 34, 36, 38, 40 and 42 arranged on
of clearer illustration;
7
.
The endless foraminous member 12 is trained about a
the frame 24, as shown in FIGURE 1. The rollers are
.
mounted on shafts 4.4, 46, 48, 50-and 52, respectively,
which have their ends journaled in bearings 54,‘ 56, 58,
60 and 62, respectively, suitably secured to the .end
FIGURE 3 ,is a fragmentary Vertical sectional view
illustrating theforaminous member upon which the-web
is formed and the adjacent portion of ‘the duct system
which con?nes the air stream therethrough so as to carry
the suspended ?bers to the foraminous member;
7 FIGURE 4 is a fragmentary side elevational view, 35
with certain parts broken away, illustrating the transfer
_duct section of the duct system;
FIGURE 5 is a fragmentary perspective view illustrat- .
ing the connection between onerside of the ?ber transfer
_duct section or tunnel, and theadjacent portion ,of the
foraminous member carrying frame;
i
40
'
7 FIGURE 6 is an enlarged fragmentary top plan view
V of the sealing roll of the apparatus;
. FIGURE 7 is an enlarged fragmentary front eleva
tional view of a portion of the frame whichcarries the 45
foraminous
member;
_
n
V
'
FIGURE 8 is ,a fragmentary vertical sectional view
illustrating the web cutting means; and
. FIGURE 9,.is a fragmentary rear elevationalview of
the web cutting means.
,
,
'
Referring now more particularly to FIGURES 1 and 2
of the drawings, there is shown an apparatus which em
50
frames, as by bolts or the like. “For the purpose of prop
erly tensioning the endless foraminous member, one of
the rollers, as [for example roller 42, is adjustably mounted
on the frame. To this end, an adjustment ‘device 64, of
any suitable construction, is mounted between each end
frame 28 and the associated bearing 62 of the roller.42.
The apparatus is driven from any suitable source of
power (not shown) through a reduction gear box 66.
From the gear box, one take-01f shaft 68 is suitably con
nected in driving relation through an idler shaft 70 to
drive pulley 72 of the card cylinder. A second take-off
shaft 74 is drivingly engaged by suitable chains and
sprockets through an idler shaft 76 between the shaft 44
of the roller 34 and the gear box 66. A chain 78 is
trained about sprockets ?xed to one end of the shaft
44, 46 and 50 and an idler sprocket 79. In addition, the
sprocket chain 78 is also trained about a sprocket secured
to shaft 80, which forms a part of the cutting means of
the present invention hereinafter to be moresfully de
scribed. A screen cleaning brush 82 is carried by a shaft
84 journaled in bearings 86 mounted on brackets 88 suit
ably secured to the end frames 28. The brush 82 is ro
bodies the principles of the present invention. In gen
eral, the apparatus includes a ?ber attenuating and carry
ing instrumentality, such as card cylinder 10, which is 55 tated by means of a sprocket wheel 90 and a chain 92 is
chained thereabout and about a second sprocket 94 and
operable to provide a moving source of supply of ?bers.
carried to the auxiliary shaft 76. It will be understood
‘This moving source of ?ber supply is transferred from
that the driving arrangement disclosed is exemplary and
‘the card cylinder to an endless foraminous member or
any suitable means may be employed for this purpose.
?exible screen_12 by means of an air' stream con?ned
The signi?cantrelationship is that the card cylinder is
within a duct system, which includes a ?ber transfer
driven in timed relation with respect to the movement of
‘duct or tunnel 14 extending outwardly from the peripheral
surface of the card cylinder to a point adjacent the forami
the foraminous member 12.
'
nous member 12. The duct system also includes a re
The present invention is more particularly concerned
ceiver-duct section 16 mounted on the opposite side of
vthe foraminous member 12 from the transfer duct 14
and terminating in a throat 18. 'A cylindrical take-off
'duct 20 is connected through its width with the throat 18
‘and communicates also with a second cylindrical duct 22
which leads’ to a suitable ‘means for ‘creating the air
stream, such as a fan or the like _(not shown);
It will be understood that the unwoven fabric formed
on the forminous member 12 may be subsequently proc
essed in any desired manner. For example, the web of
unwoven fabric may be conducted through a drip tank
with an improved duct system which con?nes the air
stream arranged to carry the ?bers from the attenuating
instrumentality 10 to the moving foraminous member 12.
The ?ber transfer duct 14 is supported by any suitable
means, such as the frame of the attenuating instrumen
tality, preferably for longitudinal adjustment with respect
to the card cylinder10 so that the cross-sectional area of
the inlets provided adjacent the peripheral surface of the
card cylinder can be varied. As best shown in FIGURE
2, the transfer. duct 14*includes a ?rstsection .100, which
where it is impregnated with a suitable impregnant and 75 ‘diverges inwidthv and converges in heightsoutwardlysfrorn
5
3,052,928
the card cylinder. Preferably, the section 109 is of con
stant cross-sectional area throughout its longitudinal ex
tent, the relative proportion between the height and width
of the section being such that the cross-sectional area in
any two transverse vertical planes is substantially equal.
Forming a continuation of the ?rst section 100 is a second
section 102, which is of substantially constant width and‘
which diverges in height as it approaches the foraminous
member. The duct sections 10d and 162 are preferably
with the surface of the foraminous member by similar
spring assemblies, generally indicated at 164, carried by
the transverse ?anges 136 of the vertical members ‘132.
As best shown in FIGURES 3 and 5, the leather strip 130
is retained in engagement with the peripheral surface of
the seal roll 152 by means of a rocker bar 166.
The opposite leg of each L-shaped plate 142 is rigidly
secured to the frame 24. As best shown in FIGURES 5
and 7, an angle iron 168 is suitably secured to each end
constructed of sheet metal and include a bottom wall 104 10 frame 28 so that one ?ange extends longitudinally for
having integral side walls 186 extending upwardly there
wardly. A second angle iron section 170 has one ?ange
from. A top wall 108 of sheet metal construction is
rigidly secured to the longitudinal ?ange of each angle iron
formed with channel-shaped side ?anges 110 which are
168 and its other ?ange extending transversely inwardly.
secured to the upper edges, respectively, of the side walls
The third vertical angle iron 172 has the free end of one
106. The top wall 108 may be reinforced by a plurality 15 of its ?anges rigidly connected with the free end of the
of transversely extending longitudinally spaced inverted
V-shaped sheet metal members 112 suitably secured to the
upper surface thereof. The end of the upper wall 188
adjacent the card cylinder 16 is provided with a means,
generally indicated at 114, for adjusting individual por
tions of the inlet provided thereby throughout the entire
width of the card cylinder. This means may conform to
the means provided in the Phillips et a1. patent and, hence,
angle iron 17%, as by welding or the like. The leg of the
associated L-shaped plate 142 is rigidly secured to the
transversely extending ?ange of the angle iron 172. Ex
tending between and rigidly secured to the longitudinally
extending ?anges of the angle iron 172 is a pair of verti
cally spaced angle irons 174 and 176. A side angle iron
section 178 is connected between the angle irons 174 and
176 adjacent ‘each end thereof. The seal roll is resiliently
a detailed description of the same is not believed to be
urged toward the foraminous member by means of springs
necessary.
25 180 carried within sleeves 182 extending longitudinally
The side walls 166 of the second duct section 162 have
forwardly from the ends of the shaft 150, and rigidly car
reinforcing plates 116 secured thereto and a top wall 118
ried by suitable mounting brackets 184 secured to the
formed with channel-shaped end ?anges 129 is secured to
the upper edges of the side walls 106 and the reinforcing
plates 116. The end of the top wall 118 adjacent the sec
longitudinally extending ?anges of the angle irons 168.
wardly extending ?ange 138 having vertically spaced and
?ange of the angle iron 17!? for engaging the sprocket
The forward end of each sleeve 182 is internally threaded
to receive set screw 186, which may be turned to adjust
tion 160 includes a transversely extending channel-shaped
the tension applied by the springs to the ends of the shaft.
?ange 122 which ?ts over an upwardly extending ?ange
The seal roll is driven by means of a sprocket wheel
123 formed on the adjacent end of the top wall 168. The
188 mounted on end end of the shaft 150. The sprocket
end of the top wall 118 adjacent the foraminous member
wheel 188 includes an annular portion 190 suitably slotted
is folded over, as indicated at 124, and a suitable rein
to provide a keyway for receiving a key 192, which en
forcing plate 126 of inverted V-shaped construction is se
gages ‘within a suitable keyway in shaft 150. A bore 194
cured to the upper surface of the top wall 118 and in
is formed in the annular portion in communication with
cludes a turned-under portion 128 disposed in spaced rela
its keyway and a coil spring 196 is disposed within the
tion to the portion 124. A strip of leather or the like 139
bore for resiliently engaging the key 192. The outer end
is secured between the portions 128 and 124 and extends 40 of the bore 194 is internally threaded to receive the set
upwardly therefrom.
screw 198, which engages the opposite end of the coil
Secured to the outer surface of each reinforcing plate
spring 196 and may be turned to adjust the tension of the
116 is a vertically extending member 132, each of which
latter. The portion of the sprocket chain 78 extending
includes a longitudinally extending ?ange 134 rigidly se
between the shafts 44 and 46 engages the sprocket wheel
cured to the ‘adjacent reinforcing plate 116, an outwardly ' 188 so as to drive the seal roll 152. Preferably, a wear
extending transverse ?ange 136 and a longitudinally rear
plate 2% is suitably secured to the transversely extending
vertically elongated slots 140 formed therein. An L
shaped plate 142, having reg‘stering vertically spaced,
horizontally elongated slots 144, is adjustably secured to 50
each ?ange 138 by any suitable means, such as bolts 146
extending through the registering slots 14!) and 144.
Each plate 142 includes an elongated opening 148 extend
ing downwardly from the upper edge thereof so as to re
ceive an end of a shaft 150 having a seal roll 152 rigidly
secured thereto intermediate the spaced plates 142. A
side seal member 154, which may be of leather or the like
reinforced on its outer side by a metal plate, is mounted
adjacent the outer surface of each reinforcing plate 116
and the inner surface of the plate 142 in abutting relation
to the adjacent end of the seal roll 152.
Each side seal
member 154 is suitably apertured, as at 156, so as to re
ceive the adjacent end of the shaft 150. Preferably, each
aperture 156 is longitudinally elongated to afford limited
longitudinal movement thereof relative to the shaft. Each
side seal member 154 is resiliently urged into sealing en
gagement ‘with the associated end of the roll 152 and the
associated reinforcing plate 116 by a plurality of coil
springs 158, each mounted within a sleeve 16% rigidly se
cured to and extending outwardly from the plate 142.
The outer end of each sleeve is internally threaded so as
to receive a spring abutting set screw 162, which may be
turned within the sleeve to adjust the tension of the spring
applied to the side seal member 154. In addition, the side
chain 78 so that it will be retained in engagement with the
sprocket wheel 188.
The bottom wall of the transfer duct 14 is sealed with
respect to the foraminous member by means of a trans
versely extending member 202 which is secured in de
pending relationship to the rear edge of the bottom mem
her by means of an angle iron 264 rigidly secured to the
lower surface of the bottom wall and ‘to the forward sur
face of ‘the transverse member 262. Secured to the lower
edge of the transverse member 262 is a leather strip 206
which may be coated with "a plastic or the like. This
strip is folded upwardly so as to engage the surface of the
foraminous member.
The receiver duct section 16 is also made of sheet metal
and includes a forward end which is rigidly secured, as
by welding or the like, to the longitudinally extending
?anges of the angle irons 174, 176 and 178‘. Rearwardly
of these angle irons, the receiver section converges, as
indicated at 208.
The rear end of the receiver duct sec
tion is disposed horizontally and suitable angle irons 210
or the like are rigidly secured to the outer surface thereof.
The throat 18 is formed by a pair of vertically spaced
angle irons 212 and 214, each of which includes a vertical
?ange secured to the vertical ?ange of the associated angle
iron 210, as by bolts 216 or the like. Preferably, the ver
tical ?ange of the upper angle iron 112 includes vertically
elongated slots 218 arranged to receive the bolts 216 to
seal member is resiliently urged into sealing engagement 75 provide adjustability for the throat. Each of the angle
3,052,928
' 8
irons Y212 and 214 also includes a horizontal‘?ange having "
an outer surface which joins with the outer surface of the
associated vertical ?ange along a smooth curve. The
cylindrical duct'20 is_ also made of sheet metal'or the like
and includes horizontally spaced ?anges 220 having angle
irons 222jsecured to the outer surface thereof. These
angle irons include vertical‘?anges secured by the bolts
216 to the associated vertical ?anges of the angle irons
212, 214 and 210.
'
~
'
a
_
As best shown in FIGURE 4, the cylindrical duct 20
also includes spaced ?anges 224 having angle irons 226
rigidly secured thereto. The cylindrical duct 22 also
includes registering spaced ?anges 228 having angle irons
opening in spaced relation to the lower end ‘of the plates
270.
7'
~
r
-
a The shaft 80, which carries the roller 246, is driven
by the main sprocket chain 78. The shaft 242 is driven
in timed relation to 'the shaft 80 through a pair ofco
operating gears 274 and 276. As shown in FIGURE 9,
the gear 276 is suitably keyed to the shaft 80, while the
gear'274 is suitably keyed to the shaft 242 in a position
to mesh \with the gear 276. The central portion of the
web passing over the roller 246 is fed to an immersion
tank or the like, a portion of which is shown in FIGURE
3 and generally indicated at 278.
'
.
Operation
230 secured thereto. The angle irons 226 and 230 have
The general operation of the present apparatus is
their abutting ?anges rigidly secured together, as by bolts 15 similar to that of the apparatus disclosed in the Phillips
or the like. ' As best shown in FIGURE 1, the cylindrical
et a1. patent. That is, the ?ber laps fed to the card
cylinder are attenuated during their movement on the
extending transversely spaced frame members 232 suitably
latter so that when they reach a point adjacent the trans
secured to the frame and carrying straps 234, which are
fer duct inlets 14, the stream of air entering these inlets
20
secured around the cylindrical duct 22.
will strip the ‘attenuated ?bers from the periphery of the
Referring now to FIGURES 8 and 9, the web trimming
card cylinder and they will move in suspended condition
or cutting means of the present invention includes a pair
along with the air stream through the con?nes of the
duct 22 is supported on the frame 24 by longitudinally
of transversely spaced mounting brackets 236 secured to
transfer duct 14. The entrained ?bers suspended in the
the end frames 28 at the upper rear portions thereof. A
air stream within the transfer duct are collected on the
transverse frame member 238 extends between and is 25 moving foraminous member 12. a That is, the air stream
rigidly secured to the rear ends of the brackets 236. Ex
is allowed to pass through the foraminous member while
tending forwardly from the frame member 238 is a pair
the ?bers are ‘deposited thereon. The depositing of the
of bearings 240 within which is journaled a shaft 242. In
?bers on the foraminous member builds up a web there
addition, the ends of the shaft 242 are journaled in bear
on of randomly disposed ?bers of uniform texture and
ings 243 mounted in the brackets 236. The shaft 80 is 30 strength in all directions. The web thus formed on the
journaled at its ends by suitable bearings 244 mounted
foraminous member is doifed therefrom adjacent the
on the brackets 236 below bearings 243. Rigidly secured
roller 38 and then passes through the cutting meanswhere
to the shaft 80 intermediate its ends is a pair of rollers
the edges are trimmed a ‘desired amount, Subsequently,
246, each of'which is keyed to the shaft 80 for longi
the trimmed web passes into ‘an impregnating apparatus
35
tudinal movement. Each roller 246 is retained in a de~
andthen to a drying or curing apparatus, as is disclosed
sired position of longitudinal adjustment by means of a
in the Phillips et 211. patent.
sutable set’screw or the like 247.‘ Secured to the outer
As was stated ‘above, the signi?cant improvements of
end of each roller 246 is an annular cutting element 248,
the present invention relate to the duct system embodied
each of which includes a substantially comically-shaped
within the apparatus for creating the air stream which
cutting edge 250 arranged to cooperate with a conically 40 strips the ?bers from the card cylinder and conveys the
shaped annular cutting edge 252 formed on an annular
same onto the foraminous member, so as to form the web
cutting element 254 carried by the shaft 242. The cutting
thereon. The present duct system provides an arrange
edge 252 of each cutting element 254 overlaps the cutting
ment whereby the cross-sectional area of the inlets, pro
edge 250 of the cooperating cutting element 248, and the
vided at the forward end of the ?ber’ transfer duct 14,
former is resiliently urged into this engaged position by 45 may be varied without detrimentally ‘affecting the e?’i
means of a spring 256 mounted in surrounding relation to
ciency of the seal between the rearward end of the trans-1
the shaft 242 between the associated cutting element 254
fer 1duct and the foraminous member. In this regard,
and a collar 258 rigidly secured thereto. Each cutting
the L-shaped plates 142 are rigidly carried by the, frame
element 254 is keyed to the shaft 242 by a key 260 which
24rwhich carries the forarninous'member. These plates
permits longitudinal movement of the latter but prevents 50 are connected to the forward end of the transfer duct
relative rotation between the cutting element and the shaft.
by means of the bolts 146 extending through the elon
,In addition, each collar 25% may be secured in a longitudi
gated slots 144 in the plates 142 and the elongated slots
nally adjusted position along the shaft 242, as by a set
140 formed in the vertical members’ 132. Thus, by
screw 262, so that proper cooperation between the cutting
loosening the bolts 146, the entire transfer duct maybe
55 moved longitudinally, within limits, so as to adjust the
elements can be obtained;
.
.
>
.
.
In order to guide the cut edges of the web, a roller 264
posit-ion of the forward end of the transfer duct with
is mounted on each end of the shaft 80, as'by a suitable set
respect to the periphery of the card cylinder. Prefer
screw or key, in a position adjacent the associated cutting
ably, the bottom lip of the forward end of the transfer
element 248. The edges of the web .cut by the action
duct 14 is set at approximately 1A; inch from the periphery
of the cutting elements 248 and 254xpass over the rollers 60 of the card cylinder. While this'is a preferred opti
264 into a vacuum tube 266, which is suitably connected
Vmum setting, it will be understood, that it may be suit
by conduit (not shown) to a source of air current, such as
ably varied within the limits provided. It will alsorbe
the main fan which creates the air stream through the
noted that the longitudinal movement of the entire trans
main duct Work of the apparatus. The vacuum tube 266
fer duct 14 does, not in any way affect the e?iciency of
65
includes an upper longitudinally extending slot 268 within
the seal between the rear end thereof and the foraminous
,which the trimmed edges of the web pass so that this
member. Thus, the leather side seals 154 will be resil
material may be collected at a central station and re-used,
if desired. In order .to insure that the edges of the web
' cut by the cutters 248 and 254 enter the vacuum tube
iently urged both rearwardly and inwardly ‘by the action
of the springs 158 and spring ‘assemblies 164. The seal
‘roll 152 is maintained in resilient engagement with the
268, opposed guide plates 270 and 272 are provided. The 70 'web formed on the foraminous member due to the action
of the springs 180 in the sleeves 182, which are rigidly
downwardly into a position adjacent
plates 270 are mounted by any suitable means on the
, frame 24-and extend
mounted on the foraminous member carrying frame 24.
Openings 156 in the side seals 154 are longitudinally
elongated
so as to accommodate a slight amount of rela
. and their lower ends extending downwardly adjacent the 1 75
the opening 268 of the vacuum tube. The plates 272
.. have their upper ends secured to the cross member 238
3,052,928
‘lb
'
tive longitudinal movement therein. The leather strip
136, which engages the periphery of the seal roll 152,
short so that the creation of eddy currents therein is re
is maintained in engagement therewith by means of the
duct at the second section, the ?bers are presented to
pivoted bar 166, which is suitably weighted so that the
leather strip will at all times be urged into engagement
with the periphery of the roll 152. The bottom lip of
the transfer duct is sealed by means of the plastic coated
leather strip 206, which is carried by the transverse
member 2%2 and folded upwardly with respect thereto.
The rearward surface of the plastic coated leather strip
206 will thus ride on the forward surface of the foram
inous member and provide an effective seal therewith.
duced to ‘a minimum.
By expanding the height of the
the foraminous member in a much more favorable man
ner so that the tendency of the ?bers to parallel them
selves across the Width of the foraminous member is
reduced to a minimum. In this regard, the sealing ar
rangements are highly effective and prevent the creation
of auxiliary air streams as a result of leakage adjacent the
discharge end of the transfer duct. The sealing arrange
ment also minimizes the velocity losses in the air stream.
The manner in which the air stream is created within
the ?ber transfer duct is a highly signi?cant feature of
the present invention and constitutes a de?nite improve
duct, which automatically adjusts itself to obtain an 15 ment
over the procedures heretofore followed. The con
e?ective seal when the transfer duct is moved longitu
It will thus be seen that sealing means is provided on
the top, bottom and sides of the rear end of the transfer
dinally.
struction of the throat 18 is such that a constant pres
sure drop throughout the width of the air stream is ob
As disclosed in the Phillips et al. patent, it is desirable
tained across the foraminous member. The throat is of
to have an adjustable upper lip for the forward end of
constant height throughout its width ‘and provides a
the transfer duct and, thus, the adjustable means shown 20
rounded entrance which greatly improves the ?ow char
by Phillips et al. is provided on the transfer duct of the
acteristics. While the height of this throat can be varied
present invention. it is desirable to have a non-adjust
by changing the vertical position of the angle iron 212
able bottom lip, which, as stated above, is preferably set
through the bolts 216, it has been found highly desirable
at 1%; inch from the periphery of the card cylinder. The
range of the apparatus is improved with close lip settings 25 to maintain the cross-sectional area of the throat sub
stantially less than twice and, preferably, substantially
but production control is easier with wide settings. The
equal to the cross-sectional area of the inlets provided at
upper lip setting controls the density of the ?bers in the
the upper and lower lips of the forward end of the trans
air by controlling the amount of air that enters. Thus,
fer
duct. An optimum setting of the throat height is
to heavy-up on a particular part of the web requires a
1/2 inch tor a 60 inch width, where the upper lip inlet is
close lip setting at the corresponding lip position. This
% x 45 inches and the bottom lip inlet is 1A; X 45 inches,
lets in less air at the lip position and in an attempt to
which gives a ‘ratio of 1.3 to 1. By maintaining the
have equal pressure in the transfer duct, air that entered
cross-sectional area of the throat approximately equal
at some other position ‘is moved toward the position
to the cross-sectional area of the inlets, a uniform pres
where the air supply was decreased.
The function of the ?ber transfer duct is to guide the 35 sure drop across the entire width of the foraminous
member is maintained. A proper throat setting that
?bers from the card cylinder to the foraminous member.
gives no static pressure drop across the take-off duct 20
The air is turbulent inside the transfer duct and Whereas
the general velocity direction is straight from the card
cylinder to the foraminous member, there is a large
or receiver duct 16 should have the same e?ect as length
ening the receiver duct section, for the air flow through
the latter depends only upon the area, resistance and
amount of variation from this. It cannot be assumed 40
pressure drop. The area is, of course, constant. If the
that air and ?bers are completely intermixed inside the
foraminous member is clean, its resistance is constant.
tunnel, although it is apparent that the ?bers are sus
If the throat holds the static pressure drop constant, the
pended in the air stream. Thus, the desired result is not
only variable is the resistance o?ered by the ?bers on
always produced by making the air go where the ?bers
the
screen. Thus, with this arrangement, a highly desir
are to go. The settings of the tunnel height at different
able uniformity in the ?brous web produced can be
longitudinal positions can have a great effect on the
maintained. While the present apparatus will not correct
texture and range of the ?ber web produced. If the ef
marked uneveness in the laps fed to the card cylinder,
fective tunnel height is reduced too much adjacent the
foraminous member, the ?bers will tend to parallel them
selves across the width of the foraminous member. If the
transfer duct height is too high, there is a tendency for
eddy currents to form therein, which builds up an excess
of ?bers that will be released at intervals, causing an
undesirable uneveness in the web produced. The transfer
duct, as described above, is advantageously constructed
so as to minimize the creation of eddy currents in the
air stream and the tendency of the ?bers to parallel
themselves across the width of the forarninous member.
The ?rst section 1943 is of an optimum height, which per
mits a maximum ?ow Without danger of the creation of
eddy currents.
Moreover, it will be noted that this section, as shown,
is arranged to spread the ?bers received at the forward
end along a greater width so that a web of greater width
low variation ‘laps will produce low variation Webs if
the apparatus is properly set.
It has been found that
when the lap variation is approximately 15%, the appa
ratus can readily be adjusted to produce a ?brous web
that has a weight variation of approximately 10%.
The receiver duct section, in combination with the ad
justable throat, is of a minimum longitudinal extent which
is a ‘distinct advantage due to the minimum amount of
space available. It is contemplated that the receiver sec
tion may be compaitmented so as to obtain better con—
trol, although this is not regarded as preferable to
achieve the highly satisfactory results obtained With the
present apparatus. With the use of compartments With
in the receiver duct section, positive control of the air flow
in each partition is obtained. Any suitable construction
may be employed. For example, in the embodiment of
than the card cylinder width is produced. This is ac 65 the receiver duct section shown, the width of the same
is 40 inches and nine partitions may be installed across
complished by maintaining a constant cross-sectional area
this width, with the width of each partition extending
throughout the longitudinal extent of the ?rst section.
in
3!!’ 4!!’ 4!!’ 6!!’ 6!’, 6!!’ 4", 4!!
Thus, the height of the ?rst duct section diminishes in
and 3". Each partition may extend from the foraminous
proportion to the increase in the width in the direction
of air ?ow. Of course, where a foraminous web of the 70 member rearwardly to the take-off ‘duct and each partition
may be equipped with an adjustable throat which can
same width as the Width of the card cylinder is to be pro
be
varied from an opening of 1/2 inch maximum down
duced, the ?rst duct section will simply be of uniform
to a fully closed position. Any suitable means may be
cross-sectional area. The second duct section 1E2 pro
provided for effecting this adjustment as, for example,
vides an increase in the height of the duct, while the
hand wheels suitably connected to the exterior of the
width thereof remains constant. This section is rather
duct and to each adjustable throat member. While such
8,052,928
11
.
an arrangement offers positive control of range, the ad
justments are critical and must becarefully made and,
therefore, it is preferred to utilze an unobstructed re
ceiver duct section in conjunction with the smooth uni
form height adjustable throat as disclosed in the draw
12
ing ‘an open receiving end adjacent said ?ber-receiving
member of substantially corresponding shape to the shape
of the discharge end of said transfer duct and a throat
formed at its opposite end operable to ,e?ect a constant
pressure ‘drop throughout the width of the air stream
across said ?ber-receiving member, ‘said throat having
ings, since this arrangement affords satisfactory results
a
width substantially equal to the width of the receiving
'without the necessity of continual adjustments.
end
of said duct section, a constant height throughout its
Cylindrical take-off duct 20 has been found to be
Width, a cross-sectional area not exceeding twice the
highly satisfactory and constitutes a simple way of con—
necting the source of air stream to the adjustable throat 10 cross-sectional area of said air inlets, and a continuous
smooth surface inlet throughout its width, and a cylin
.and receiver section which heretofore have required com
drical take-o? duct having a longitudinal opening
its
plicated and expensive structures. Theresults achieved
periphery communicating with said throat throughout its
,by this cylindrical take-01f duct’ section are highly satis
width.
ytactory. In general, the air volume within the duct sys
tem should beadjusted so that the card cylinder is 15' 2. In an apparatus for forming a web of randomly laid
stripped at lip settings providing inlets having a total
width of around 1A inch to 5A6 inch and an even static
pressure is maintained across the receiver section with a
throat setting of between '% inch to 1/2 inch for the 45
vinch card cylinder toth'e 60 inch foraminous member ap
paratus shown. This volume will vary from about 1350
c.f.m. up to 1750 c.f.m., depending upon the particular
?bers matted together in uniform relation by transferring
a moving source of ?ber supply provided by ?ber at
tenuating means to a traveling foraminous member; im
proved duct means for directing a ?berv suspending air
20 stream from said moving source of ?ber supply through
and beyond said foraminous member so as to remove
?bers from said attenuating means and carry them along
a con?ned path to said ?ber-receiving member to form
setting used.
'
.
the web thereon, said duct means comprising a ?rst duct
It has been found that sometimes the uniformity of
the web formed on the toraminous member will vary at 2.5 section of substantially constant cross-sectional area
throughout its longitudinal extent and having an open
the edges thereof. That is, there is a tendency for the
?ber-receiving end extending across the width of the
vlibers to lighten up at the edges so that it is greatly pre
moving source of ?ber supply and in communication
ferred to utilize an edge trimming mechanism, such as
therewith with the edges de?ning the width of said duct
thecutting means illustrated and described above. The
present cutting means is particularly advantageous in 30 section end being spaced from the source of ?ber supply
to form air inlets, a second duct section having one end
that a positive shearing action is obtained by the use of
with the opposite end of said ?rst duct section
the overlapping, cooperating conically-shaped cutting -merging
and an opposite open end disposed adjacent the forami
edges. The arrangement can be readily adjusted to vary
nous member, said second duct section being of substan
the size of the marginal edges which are trimmed. The
rollers 246 are movable longitudinally. on the shaft 80 35 tially constant width and increasing in cross-sectional
area throughout its longitudinal extent toward its open
and may be secured in any adjusted position thereon by
end,
and a third duct section having an open end of
the set screws 247. In a like manner, the cutting elements
substantially corresponding shape to the shape of the
254 may-be moved longitudinally against the action of
the springs 256. The tension of the springs is varied 40 open end of said second duct section and disposed in
alignment therewith adjacent the opposite side of said
by adjusting the position of the collars 258 with the use
foraminous member, said third ‘duct section having a
of the set screws'262. 'The guide plates 270 and 272
throat formed at its opposite end for creating a substan
insure that the trimmed edges will be fed into the vacuum
tially constant pressure drop throughout the width of
or extraction tube .266, which serves to'handle the ex
the air stream across the foraminous member, said throat
cess formed by the trimming operation.
45 having a width substantially equal to the width of the '
It thus will be seen that the objects of this invention
open end of said third duct section, a constant height
have been fully and e?ectively ‘accomplished. It will be
throughoutlits width, and a cross-sectional area less than
realized, however, that the foregoing speci?c embodi
twice ‘the cross-sectional area of said air inlets.
ment has been shown and described only for the purpose
3. Apparatus as de?ned in claim 2 wherein said duct
of illustrating the principles of this invention and is sub— 50 means
also includes a cylindrical take-01f duct having a
ject to extensive change without departure from such
principles. Therefore, this invention includes all modi
?cations encompassed within the spirit and scope of the
following claims.
longitudinal opening in its periphery communicating with
said throat throughout its width.
4. Apparatus as de?ned in claim 3 wherein said duct
‘
means also includes a second cylindrical duct parallel
We claim:
55 with said ?rst-mentioned cylindrical duct and communi
1. In an apparatus of the type described including
cating therewith substantially throughout the longitudinal
?ber attenuating means to provide a moving source of
extent of said ?rst-mentioned cylindrical duct. '
?ber supply,‘ a ?ber transfer duct having an ‘open ?ber
receiving end extending across the width of the moving
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
source of ?ber supply and in communication therewith 60'
UNITED STATES PATENTS
with the edges de?ning the width of said'duct end being
spaced from the source of ?ber supply to form air inlets,
188,164
Miles et a1 ____________ __ Mar. 6, 1877
a foraminous ?ber-receiving member at the opposite de
304,527
Jarrell _______________ __ Sept. 2, 1884
livery end of said duct, means for moving said ?ber
759,271
Gri?ith ______________ __ May 10, 1904
receiving member relative to said duct, and means for 65 1,239,432
O’Connell ___; ____ __'.____ Sept. 4, 1917
creating an air stream through said air inlets, duct, and
1,553,040
Gruman _____________ __ Sept. 8, 1925
?ber-receiving ‘member to remove ?bers from said at
1,663,788
Zimniewicz ____'__‘_____,_ Mar. 27, 1928
tenuating meansand transfer them through said duct to
2,165,280
Lannan _____ ..'_ _______ __ July 11, 1939
said ?ber-receiving member to form a web thereon; the
Watts _______________ __ Mal’. 26, 1940
improvement comprising said air stream creating means 70 2,195,158
2,478,148
Wilson et al ___________ __ Aug. 2, 1949
including a receiver duct section downstream of said
?ber-receiving member in alignment with the delivery
end of said transfer duct, said receiver duct section hav
2,648,876
2,682,085
Phillips et al __________ __ Aug. 18, 1953
Novotny et a1 _________ __. June 29, 1954
.3k'1m-4_,.
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