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Патент USA US3053060

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Sept. 11, 1962
Filed April 28, 1958
Econmizer Econ’mizer
Henry J. Bloskowski
‘$145M fat»
United States Patent ()?ice
Henry J. Blaskowslri, New York, N.Y., assignor to Conl
bustion Engineering, like.’ New York, N.Y., a corpora
tion of Delaware
Filed Apr. 28, 1958, Ser. No. 731,521
3 Claims. (Cl. 60-49)
Patented Sept. 11, 1962
with steam generating tubes and it is provided with a
steam and water drum 28 and mud drum 30‘ between
which there is disposed steam generating tubes in the con
ventional manner. Forming part of this boiler installa
tion is the high temperature steam heating surface 32
which is in the form of a series of tube platens or groups
in spaced relation across the boiler with there being suit~
able baffles provided so that the combustion gases ?ow
This invention relates generally to a power plant instal
in the boiler as is indicated by arrows 34. The combustion
lation or organization employing a gas turbine and boiler 10 gases pass through the passage 35 into duct 36 within
which is positioned economizer surface 38 of the boiler
More particularly the invention involves this combina
with these gases after traversing this economizer surface
tion wherein the quantity of exhaust gases from the gas
passing into stack 24.
turbine is such that it provides an oxygen supply much
In order that the temperature of the turbine exhaust
greater than that required by the boiler to support com
gases will be reduced to a suitably low value that these
- bustion of the fuel within the boiler. In accordance with
gases may economically be discharged to stack 24 there is
the invention a portion of the exhaust gases from the tur
provided in bypass duct 22 the economizer surface 4-2
bine are introduced into the boiler together with the fuel
which is supplementary to the economizer 38 and heats
with which the boiler is ?red with these exhaust gases
the water that is introduced into the steam and water drum
supplying the oxygen necessary to support combustion
28 of the boiler with this surface 42 being a part of the
of this fuel. The portion of the gases that are not intro
surface for boiler 20. Also positioned in bypass duct 22
duced into the boiler are directed through a bypass duct
and upstream of economizer surface 42 is the low tempera
within which is positioned economizer surface of the
ture superheater section 44. This superheater 44 receives
boiler and also within which is positioned a low tempera
steam from steam and water drum 28 through conduit 46,
ture superheater section which is in series ?ow relation 25 initially superheats this steam to some extent with the
with a high temperature superheater section located within
then superheated steam being conveyed to the high tem
the boiler. Means are provided to controllably propor
perature superheater 32 by conduit 48. In high tempera
tion the gas turbine gases introduced into the boiler and
ture superheater 32 the steam is ?nally superheated to its
passed through the bypass. The organization is such as
desired temperature and is discharged through conduit 50
to provide a very ei‘?cient operation with the gas turbine ' which leads to steam turbine 52. Low temperature super
gases having their temperature lowered to the point so
heater 44 is so related to the high temperature super
that they can economically be discharged to atmosphere
heater 32 that the amount of heat imparted to the steam
and at the same time a control of the superheat steam
in high temperature superheater 32 is much greater than
temperature is obtained.
that imparted to the steam in passing through the low tem
Moreover, with the invention the boiler may be designed 35 perature superheater 44. Of course, the temperature
so that it can be operated without the turbine as when the
turbine is shut down.
Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to provide
an improved power plant installation employing a com
bined gas turbine and steam generator or boiler.
Other and further objects of the invention will become
apparent to those skilled in the art as the description
With the aforementioned objects in view, the invention
comprises an arrangement, construction and combination
of the elements of the inventive organization in such a
manner as to attain the results desired as hereinafter more
particularly set forth in the following detailed descrip
t-ion of an illustrative embodiment, said embodiment being
shown by the accompanying drawing wherein the single
?gure is a diagrammatic representation of a power plant
head, i.e., the temperature di?erential between the steam
and the gases passing over the superheater, in low tem
perature superheater 44 is much less than in high tem—
perature superheater 32. The reason for having a large
difference in the heat absorbing effectiveness of these
two superheater sections will be apparent hereinafter.
Gas turbine It} drives generator 52 while steam turbine
54 drives generator 56. Each of these generators is con
nected through suitable conductors to a common buss 58,
which, in turn, connects to a varying load.
Engineering studies and operating experience have
shown that maintaining a constant weight ?ow of gas
over a superheater in a boiler through a wide range of
loads causes a rise in total steam temperature with a
decrease in load. This characteristic is of course con
trary to that exhibited by conventionally ?red boilers and
poses a serious problem of superheat metal selection, pro
Referring now to the drawing the illustrative embodi
tection and control. Another problem that is encoun
ment of the invention depicted therein comprises a gas
tered in a combination such as being considered herein is
turbine 16 that is of the type which produces substantially
the operation of the steam generator independently of
the same quantity of exhaust gas throughout the range of
the gas turbine as when the gas turbine is shut down
its operation, as for example, a single cycle, single shaft
for some reason or other. It may be desirable to obtain
gas turbine. This turbine receives the hot gas supply from
the same capacity and steam ‘temperature when the boil
burners 12, which, in turn, receives compressed air from
er is ?red conventionally using atmospheric air. Under
a compresser that is not here illustrated. The exhaust 60 this operation the temperature of gases generated in the
from turbine 10 exits into duct 14, which, at the location
boiler for a particular load on the boiler is much greater
16, is divided into supply duct 18 that leads to boiler 20
than that produced with combined boiler and gas turbine
and into bypass duct 22 which leads to stack 24 Via pas
operation. This is so because the economizer surface in
sage 36. Boiler 20 is tangentially ?red in a conventional
the bypass that is employed to reduce the temperature
and well known manner by burners 26 and the exhaust 65 of the turbine exhaust gases is not eifective so that for a
turbine gases from supply duct 18 are admitted into the
similar load on the boiler much more fuel must be ?red
boiler through these burners. With these gases, which
into the boiler to make up for the loss of this surface
contain about 80% of the oxygen found in free air, sup
and generate the required amount of steam. This in
plying the oxygen requirements to support combustion of
creased gas weight and temperature of course effects the
7 0 superheat tending to increase it.
the fuel introduced into the boiler.
This illustrative boiler has the walls of its furnace into
Both of the aforementioned problems are solved by
which the fuel is tangentially introduced and burned lined
dividing the superheater into a low temperature section
installation embodying this invention.
although the quantity of these gases remains the same.
If the dampers 62 and 69 are not moved from their
inbefore. Only su?icient superhea-t surface is provided
former position so that the same quantity of gas turbine
in the high temperature section 32 to give the required
gases is supplied to the furnace the effect of high tem
steam temperature at the desired load when the boiler is
perature superheater section 32 is to cause the steam tem
operated independently of the gas turbine, i.e., only suf~
perature to rise with a decrease in load. However, since
?cient superheater surface is installed to obtain full steam
the temperature of the gases ?owing over low tempera
temperature with cold- air ?ring. Fan 33 supplies the
ture superheater section 44 is decreased and the amount
air in this instance. The additional surface provided in
of gases ?owing over this section remains the same the
low temperature section 44 is that amount of surface that
effect on this low temperature superheater section is to
is required for combined operation of the boiler and
decrease the steam temperature. These two effects thus
the gas turbine where only turbine gas is supplied to
work to counteract each other. Since these effects will
the boiler furnace to support combustion. With this or
not be equal however, the dampers 60 and 62 may be
ganization boiler 20 may be operated When the gas tur
adjusted to provide what is in the nature of verier con
bine is shut down and the desired steam temperature
obtained and when combined operation of the gas tur 15 trol in this instance, with damper 60 being moved to de
crease the gas flow into the furnace and damper 62
bine and boiler is bad the additional heat required for
moved to increase the proportion of the turbine gases
superheating the steam is picked up in the low tem
that flows through bypass duct 22 as the load decreases.
perature superheater 44 and accordingly with this com
Since high temperature superheater section 32 has a much
bined operation the required steam temperature is also
greater heating effect than low temperature superheater
obtained. A further advantage of this arrangement em
section 44 this adjustment of the dampers will effect a
ploying superheater section 44 in bypass 22 and up
44 and a high temperature section 32 as described here
stream of economizer 42 is that there is a reduction in
the amount of heat that must be imparted to economizer
surface 42 in order to su?iciently reduce the gas turbine
gas temperature so that after traversing the surface 33
decrease in the steam temperature. Thus as the load on
gases that goes to each of these locations is adjustably
the power plant installation decreases a greater propor
tion of the gases are passed through bypass 22 and the
steam temperature is maintained constant. When the
load is increased the opposite control effect is had.
When the output of the gas turbine is maintained con
stant and the boiler is operated to accommodate the vari
ations in load, dampers 62 and 6% may be adjusted so
as to provide a generally constant steam temperature
throughout the load range at which the boiler operates.
Here as in the instance where the boiler and gas turbine
are varied together, as the load decreases the dampers
are manipulated so that an increased portion of the gas
controlled. This control is in the form of adjustable
damper 60 located at the inlet of supply duct 13 and ad
justable damper 62 located at the inlet of bypass duct
22 with damper 62 being one of a plurality of dampers
disclosed in side by side relation across the duct en
turbine gases pass through the bypass 22 and accord
ingly over the low temperature superheated section 44.
With an increase in load an opposite control effect is
bad. With this control the temperature of the steam de
livered to steam turbine 52 may be maintained generally
trance. It will be appreciated that the represented damp 40
it may be discharged to stack 24- thereby reducing the
possibility of and the amount of, if any, steaming in this
economizer surface with it being desirable to maintain
steaming in the economizer at a minimum so that scale
and deposits will not form in the econo-mizer tubes.
A control is provided for the proportioning of the
gas turbine exhaust gases through the supply duct 18
and the bypass duct 22, i.e., the proportioning of the
ers are only illustrative of a control to controllably pro
portion the turbine exhaust gas ?ow through each of
these ducts. It will further be appreciated that if no
other change in the system is made, i.e., if the gas tur
bine and the boiler loads are not changed, an increase
in the proportion of the gas turbine exhaust gases pass
ing through bypass duct 22 relative to that through duct
Where the boiler is operated at a constant load and
the output of the gas turbine is varied to accommodate
the variations in load on the power plant an opposite
control effect from that just described is provided in
order that the temperature of the steam delivered to tur
bine 52 is maintained generally constant throughout the
load range of operation of the gas turbine. As the load
the gas turbine and the boiler are eifectively connected
on gas turbine 10 decreases, the amount of gas turbine
gases remains constant but the temperature of these gases
decreases. It is thus necessary to have a larger propor
tion of these gases introduced into boiler 29 in order that
the steam temperature may be maintained constant.
Therefore as the load on the gas turbine decreases the
to and supply a common load, which is a variable one,
proportion of the gases passing through bypass 22 is de
there are three possibilities with respect to operation of
the system as the load changes. The gas turbine and
boiler may both accommodate the varying load, i.e.,
the output of the gas turbine and the boiler may be
varied to accommodate variations in load; the output
of the gas turbine may be maintained constant and the
boiler may accommodate the load variations, i.e., the
output of the boiler may be the only element of the
combination that is varied to accommodate load changes;
and the output of the boiler may be maintained constant
and the gas turbine varied to accommodate load changes,
i.e., the output of the gas turbine may be the only element
that is varied to accommodate changes in the load.
In the ?rst instance, i.e., where the gas turbine and
boiler are jointly varied with load change, this opera
tion tends automatically to compensate for the tendency 70
creased with the result that the steam temperature may
18 will decrease the temperature of the steam delivered
to the steam turbine while an increase in the proportion
of these gases delivered to the furnace by duct 18 will in
crease the steam temperature.
In the operation of this power plant system wherein
of the steam temperature to rise with a decrease in load
when the weight ?ow of gas through the boiler remains
be maintained constant by controllably varying this pro
portioning. Contrarywise, as the load on the gas turbine
increases a greater proportion of the gas turbine gases is
passed through bypass 22 and a lesser proportion is in
troduced into the furnace with the control of this pro
portioning accordingly being such as to maintain the
steam temperature delivered to turbine 52 constant.
It will thus be seen that with applicant’s novel arrange
ment an extremely e?icient operating organization is
provided which permits boiler 20 to be satisfactorily
operated when the turbine is not operated, which provides
an extremely ef?cient combined operation of the turbine
and the ‘boiler and which provides for steam temperature
control when either the gas turbine only swings varia
tions of the common load, the boiler only swings these
variations or the gas turbine and boiler together swing
the variations of load.
While I have illustrated and described a preferred em
bodiment of my invention it is to be understood that
turbine the temperature of the gas turbine gases decreases 75 such is merely illustrative and not restrictive and that
constant. This is so because if the load changes and
is accommodated jointly between boiler and the gas
variations and modi?cations may be made therein without
departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. I
therefore do not wish to
limited to the precise details
set forth but desire to avail myself of such changes as
fall within the purview of my invention.
What is claimed is:
1. In combination, a gas turbine engine, a boiler ?red
with a suitable fuel, the turbine engine being such that
combustion gases generated in the furnace as well as the
turbine gases that bypass the furnace pass thereover, the
boiler having steam generating and steam heating sur
face sufficient to develop the design pressure and tem
perature at maximum load when the gas turbine is shut
down and the boiler is ?red With atmospheric air, the
steam heating surface, over ‘which the gas turbine gases
that bypass the boiler furnace pass, being sufficient to
the exhaust thereof provides a substantial excess of oxy
aid the boiler to give this design temperature when oper
gen over that required to fire the boiler with the amount 10 ating at maximum load in combination with the gas tur
of exhaust gases remaining generally constant over a sub
stantial load range, means introducing a portion of the
turbine exhaust gas into the furnace to support combus
tion of the fuel therewithin, means bypassing the boiler
with the remainder of the turbine exhaust gases, Water 15
heating heat exchange means forming part of the econo
mizer surface of the boiler disposed in said bypass means
to absorb heat from the bypassing turbine exhaust gases,
additional economizer surface over which both the by
pass gases and the gases from the furnace pass a super
heater for superheating the steam generated by the boiler
and including a low temperature section disposed in said
bine where gas turbine exhaust gases are employed as
the combustion supporting medium for the fuel in the
boiler and means to controllably proportion the turbine
gases between the boiler furnace and the bypass.
3. In a power plant organization the combination of a
vapor generator having a furnace ?red with a suitable
fuel, a gas turbine engine of the type wherein the amount
of turbine exhaust gases remains generally constant over
a substantial load range with these exhaust gases provid
ing a substantial excess of oxygen over that required to
?re said ‘furnace, means introducing a portion of the tur
bine exhaust gases into the furnace to support combus
bypass means and a high temperature section located in
tion of fuel therewithin, means bypassing said furnace
the boiler said low temperature section and said high
with the remainder of said gases, said vapor generator
temperature section being such that the heat absorbed by 25 having economizer surface a portion of which is in said
the high temperature section is substantially greater than
bypass means to absorb heat from the bypassing turbine
that absorbed by the low temperature section, and means
gases, said vapor generator also having vapor heating
provided to controllably proportion the turbine exhaust
surface one section of which is disposed in said bypass
gases between the bypass means and the boiler.
before the economizer to absorb heat from the bypassing
2. The combination of a boiler having a furnace ?red 30 turbine gases and another section of which is disposed
with a suitable fuel, a gas turbine operative to produce a
to have the gases from the furnace pass thereover, and
generally constant amount of exhaust gases over a sub
means operative to controllably proportion the turbine
stantial load range with the exhaust gases containing
exhaust gases between the bypass means and the furnace.
substantially more oxygen than required to burn the fuel
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
in the boiler, means for introducing a portion of these 35
gases into the boiler to support the combustion of the
fuel therein, means bypassing the boiler furnace with
the remaining portion and passing said remaining por
tion over steam heating and economizer surface disposed
in said bypassing means and connected into the boiler 40
system, said steam heating surface being disposed up
stream of said economizer surface in said bypassing
means, additional economizer surface disposed so the
Schmidt ____________ __ Nov. 29,
Rakestraw ____________ _._ Sept. 5,
Gordon ______________ __ Feb. 8,
Davis ________________ .__ Dec. 3,
Karrer ______________ __ May 31,
Nordstrom et a1. ______ __ July 29,
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