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Патент USA US3053098

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sePt- 11, 1962
D. M. STOUGH ETAI.
3,053,083
PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE CORRECTED FLUID FLOW METERS
Filed April 28, 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
I
INVENTORS
. 3.
Donald NI. Stough 6|
By
Robert H. Luppold,Jr.
Sept. 11, 1962
D. M. STOUGH ET Al.
3,053,083
PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE CORRECTED FLUID now METERS
Filed April 28, 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
R
INVENTORS
Donald M. Stough 8|
Robert H. Luppold, Jr.
% WTW
J
United States Patent 0
M
1C6
3,053,083
Patented Sept. 11, 1962
1
2
3,053,083
heavy liquid 13 such as mercury which with the parti
tion 12 divides the ring 11 into two chambers 14 and 15-.
The ring is provided with a transverse support member
PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE CORRECTED
FLUID FLG‘W METERS
Donald M. Stough, Penn Hills Township, Allegheny
County, and Robert H. Luppold, Jr., West Newton, Pa.,
assignors to Hagan Chemicals & Controls, Inc., a cor
poration of Pennsylvania
Filed Apr. 28, 1960, Ser. No. 25,394
8 Claims. (Cl. 73-205)
This invention relates to pressure and temperature cor
rected ?uid ?ow meters and particularly to an automatic
16 having at its lower side at the center thereof a knife
edge 17 that is supported on a bearing surface 18. Cham
ber 14 is connected to a conduit 19 by means of a ?exi
ble tube 20 and chamber 15 is connected to conduit 19
by a like tube 21. The openings from conduit 19 to each
of tubes 20 and 21 are separated by a partition 22 in the
10 conduit which partition is provided with an ori?ce 23 to
create a pressure diiferential in the conduit on opposite
sides of the partition 22 which is proportional to the ?ow
pressure and temperature compensating device for gas and
of ?uid in the conduit.
like ?uid flow meters. Fluid ?ow meters have long been
In order to obtain a ring motion proportional to flow,
used for measuring the ?ow of gas, steam and other ?uids 15 means are provided for extracting the square root of
in conduits. Generally such ?ow measurements are un
the difference ‘between the pressure on opposite sides of
corrected for variations in pressure and temperature of
partition 22. The means for accomplishing this are con
the ?uid. There has long been a need for some means
ventional and take the form of a push rod 24 having a
for automatically correcting such ?ow meters for these
conical point 25 at its lower end seated in a bearing 26
pressure and temperature variations. Such a means must 20 ?xed to the ring 11. The push rod 24 extends upwardly
be simple, accurate and free from complex operating
and is guided in frame 27 to engage one end 28 of a
problems.
cantilever spring 29 whose other end is ?xed to frame 27.
The effective length of spring 29‘ is ?xed by means of
We have invented an automatic pressure and tempera
ture compensating device for ?uid ?ow meters which has
clamps 30 slidable on guide 31 toward or away from the
the characteristics outlined hereinabove. It is simple, ac 25 ?xed end of spring 29. Thus a ring 11 rotates in response
curate and free from complex operating problems. Prefer
to a change in the pressure on opposite sides of partition
ably, we provide means in the ?uid conduit creating a
22, the spring 29 exerts a force that resists rotation in
such fashion as to cause the motion to be a function of
pressure ditferential, a ?uid ?ow meter having means re
the ?ow of ?uid in the conduit 19*. The ring 11 is
sponsive to said pressure differential for developing a
motion as a function of said differential, a pivoted multi 30 provided with a cam 32 ?xed thereon and having a cam
slot 33 therein. A cam follower roller 34 is carried on
plying linkage operable by said pressure differential re
one arm 35 of a bell crank which is pivoted on a pivot
sponsive means whose angular motion is proportional to a
pin 36 adjacent the ring 11. The other arm 37 of the
function of said pressure differential, a ?ow corrected in
bell crank is connected to one end of a multiplier link
dicator linkage connected to and actuated by said multi
plying linkage, means for moving said corrected ?ow in— 35 38 which is in turn connected at its opposite end to a
compensating member 39 pivoted at one end on pivot pin
dicator linkage toward and away from the pivot of said
multiplier linkage whereby to vary the magnitude of mo
40. The motion of bell crank arms 35 and 37 and the
link 38 is proportional to the uncorrected rate of ?ow
tion thereof relative to the motion of said pressure dif
through conduit 19. This rate of ?ow may be recorded
ferential means and means responsive to the temperature
and pressure of said ?uid for operating said corrected ?ow 40 by a pen arm 41 on the bell crank arm 35'.
The compensating bar 39 is connected to one end of
indicator linkage relative to the multiplying linkage.v
a second link 42 whose other end is connected to one arm
Preferably the means responsive to temperature and pres
43 of a bell crank whose other arm 44 is a pen arm
sure is a Wheatstone bridge having in one leg a ?rst vari
recording corrected ?ow. The bell crank 43-44 is piv
able resistor responsive to pressure of the ?uid, a second
oted on pivot pin 36.
variable resistor in an opposed leg which is responsive to
The one end of link 42 is provided with a cam head
temperature, a balancing variable resistor in a third leg
and an adjusting resistor in the fourth leg, said bridge
or roller 45 which rides in a cam slot 46v in compensating
being operable on an applied voltage to produce an output
member 39. This head 45‘ is biased to the left, viewing
voltage determined by the relative resistance of the bridge,
FIGURE 1 by a spring 47 and is connected by a line 48
an ampli?er receiving said output voltage and responsive 50 to the free end of lever 49 whose opposite end is pivoted
thereto to produce an ampli?ed output voltage and a
on pivot pin 50. The lever v49 is provided with a slot
reversing motor receiving the ampli?ed output voltage
'51 receiving a pin 52 on the end of arm 53 of a bell crank
and driving the balancing resistor to maintain a balanced
bridge circuit and the means for adjusting corrected ?ow
linkage.
1
pivoted on ?xed pin 54. The other arm 55 of the bell‘
crank is pivotally connected to one end of a link 56 whose
55 opposite end is pivotally connected to the end of an arm
In the foregoing general statement we have outlined
57 on the shaft 58 of gear box 59 which is driven by re
certain advantages, purposes and objects of our inven
versing motor '60. The reversing motor 60 is driven by
tion. Other advantages, purposes and objects will be ap
ampli?er 61 which may be of any conventional design
parent from a consideration of the following description
such as shown in FIGURE 2 capable of receiving an input
60 voltage and delivering an ampli?ed output voltage.
and the accompany drawings in which,
FIGURE 1 is a diagrammatic showing of a gas ?ow
The input voltage to ampli?er ‘61 is the output voltage
meter according to our invention;
from the Wheatstone bridge circuit 62 in its unbalanced
FIGURE 2 is a diagrammatic showing more or less in
state. The Wheatstone bridge circuit 62 is made up as
detail of an ampli?er and bridge circuit usable in our
follows: one leg is provided with a variable resistance
65
invention; and
63, preferably in the ‘form of a slide wire pressure trans
FIGURE 3 is a diagrammatic showing in conventional
ducer which is varied by pressure responsive means 64
form of the bridge circuit of FIGURES 1 and 2.
and a resistor 65 available to adjust the total resistance in
Referring to the drawings we have illustrated a ?ow
the bridge leg proportional to absolute pressure vas re
meter 10 consisting of a hollow ring 11 having an in
quired, the second leg is provided with a resistance ther
ternal partition 12 located at its highest point when in 70 mom'eter bulb 66 in parallel with a temperature linearizing
normal position.
The ring 11 contains a quantity of
resistor 67, the third leg is provided with a range setting
3,053,083
4
resistor’68 and the fourth leg with a minimum suppres
sion setting resistor 69 and a balancing variable resistor 70
whose resistance is varied by means of a sliding contactor
'71, ‘on ‘the shaft 58.of gear box 59. An external source
"of electrical energy is connected-to the bridge through
‘input leads 72 and 73. This input may be either A.C.
(or DC. depending upon the desired design as will be
understood by men skilled in the art.
.7
'. The operation of our ?ow meter is as follows.
pressure di?erential, said meter having means responsive
to said pressure differential for developing a motion as
a function of said di?erential, a pivoted multiplying link
age operable by said pressure differential responsive means
whose angular motion is proportional to a function of
said pressure di?erential uncorrected for pressure and
temperature of said ?uid, a flow corrected indicator link
age eonnected to and actuated by said multiplying linkg
Gas
age, means for moving said corrected flow indicator
flowing through conduit 19 from right to left, viewing 10 linkage towards and away from the pivot of said multi
‘FIGURE 1 (in the direction of the arrow) flows through
ori?ce 23 in partition 22. The pressure of the gas before
ventering the ori?ce acts on the pressure responsive dia
phragm 64 to adjust resistance 63 to an appropriate set
plying linkage whereby to vary the magnitude of motion
thereof relative to the ‘motion of said pressure di?erential
means and means responsive to the temperature and pres
sure of said ?uidfor operating said corrected ?ow indi
ting. Simultaneously the .gas enters through tube 21 into 15 "cator linkage relative to the multiplying linkage, said
chamber 15. The gas passing through ori?ce 23 enters
temperature and pressure responsive means comprising
tube 20 into chamber 14. The ring 11 rotates by reason
of the differential pressure in chambers ‘14 and 15 and
this rotation is translated into a recorded uncorrected
?ow reading, proportional to the square root of H, by
‘pen arm 41. At the same time link 38 is moved and with
it compensating arm 39. The gas passing through the
ori?ce comes in contact with the resistance thermometer
bulb 66. An input'voltage on the Wheatstone bridge is
a bridge circuit having in one leg a ?rst variable resist
ance, means responsive to the pressure in said conduit
varying said ?rst resistance, a second variable resistance
in a leg of said bridge opposed to said ?rst variable resist
ance, means responsive to temperature in said conduit
varying said second resistance, a balancing variable re
sistance in another of the legs of said bridge, said
bridge being adapted to be operable on an applied voltage
changed to an output voltage by the change in resistances 25 and to develop an output voltage determined by the rela
v6.3 and 66 and the corresponding unbalance created
tive resistances of the variable resistances, an ampli?er
therebyand the output is delivered to ampli?er 61 which
in turn produces an ampli?ed output voltage to reversing
motor 60.
Motor 60 acts on gear box 59 to rotate arm
57 and vary resistance 70 to balance the Wheatstone
bridge. Rotation of arm 57 moves link 56 and through
hell crank 53-55 moves radial link 49. Link 49 in turn
acts on the end of link 42 to move it in slot 46 and thereby
receiving said output voltage and responsive thereto to
produce an ampli?ed output voltage and a reversing
motor receiving the ampli?ed output voltage driving the
balancing resistance and the means for adjusting cor
rected ?ow linkage.
' 2. A ?uid flow meter :for measuring the rate of ?ow
of a ?uid in a conduit corrected for temperature and
pressure, said meter comprising a hollow ring supported
temperature and pressure.
35 on a fulcrum at its center, a partition in said ring and a
?uid therein forming a pair of chambers, connections to
' The foregoing structure is designed to extract VI? to
said chambers from the conduit on opposite sides of an
provide linear quantities. The resistor 65 (R2) acting
ori?ce therein creating a pressure dilferential as a func
with variable resistor 63 (R3) converts a gauge pressure
tion of the square of the ?ow and imparting to the ring a
measurement to an absolute reference pressure measure
rotary motion about its pivot, a motion multiplier link
ment which is essential to provide such linear quantities.
age connected to said ring and operable by motion of
The resistor 67 (R4) in parallel with 66 (R5) acts in
said ring, a corrected ?ow indicating means operable by
similar manner to both linearize the temperature and to
said motion multiplier linkage, a radial coupling con
cause the resistance 66 (R5) to appear to change directly
nected to said ?ow indicating means for shifting the same
proportional to absolute temperature. The resistor 65
(R2) could be eliminated by substituting an absolute 45 along the multiplier linkage whereby to change the ratio
between the motion of multiplier linkage and said flow
pressure transmitting device for the pressure responsive
indicating means, and means responsive to temperature
diaphragm 64.
and pressure of said ?uid for actuating said radial cou
’ Er this particular example Where we have extracted
pling, said responsive means comprising a Wheatstone
\/H to provide linear quantities, it is necessary to convert
the motion developed at the output of gear box 59 which 50 Ibridge having in the respective four legs thereof a poten
tiometer having a sliding contact whereby the resistance
originally represents the ratio of absolute pressure/abso
of said potentiometer is varied, means responsive to the
lute temperature to a value which represents
pressure of said ?uid actuating said sliding contact, a
temperature responsive resistor whose resistance varies
P
with the temperature of the ?uid, a balancing resistor,
T
means for varying the resistance of said balancing re
for this linear ?ow measurement described. In other
sistor, and an adjustable resistor, said bridge being ener
cases than those where the uncorrected ?ow record was
gized by an input voltage source, and developing an
linear to H, the output shaft motion 58 would be used in
output voltage determined by the relative resistances of
move pen arm 44 to record a flow reading corrected for
a direct proportional manner.
' It will be obvious that the correction system of this in
60 the bridge, an ampli?er receiving said output voltage
and responsive thereto to produce an ampli?ed output
vention may take various forms, for example, any mo
voltage and a reversing motor receiving the ampli?ed out
tion device including electronic devices actuated by a
put voltage, said motor being connected to the means for
pressure differential may be substituted for the ring 111 and
varying the balancing resistance and to the radial cou
the compensation carried out by means of a like Wheat?
pling whereby the corrected ?ow means is positioned in
stone bridge circuit. Similarly, a device other than an
accordance with the ring motion as corrected for pres
ori?ce could be used for creating a pressure differential
sure and temperature.
in the conduit. Accordingly it will be understood that,
3. In a ?uid ?ow meter for measuring the rate of ?ow
while we have illustrated and described a presently pre
of a_ ?uid in a conduit having means for developing a
ferred embodiment of our invention, the invention may 70 pressure differential, said meter having means responsive
be otherwise embodied within the scope of the following
to said pressure differential for developing a motion as a
claims.
function of said di?erential, and means responsive to the
.. We claim:
temperature and pressure of said ?uid for adjusting said
‘1. In a ?uid flow meter for measuring the rate of ?ow
motion, said temperature and pressure responsive means
of a ?uid in a conduit having means for. developing a 75 comprising a bridge circuit having in one leg at ?rst varia~
3,053,083
5
6
ble resistance, means responsive to the pressure in said
conduit varying said ?rst resistance, a second variable
resistance in a leg of said bridge opposed to said ?rst
variable resistance, means responsive to temperature in
said conduit varying said second resistance, a balancing
variable resistance in the other of the legs of said bridge,
said bridge being adapted to be operable on an applied
voltage and to develop an output voltage determined by
the relative resistances of the variable resistances, an
?rst variable resistance, means responsive to temperature
in said conduit varying said second resistance, a balancing
variable resistance in the other of the legs of said bridge,
said bridge being adapted to be operable on an applied
voltage and to develop an output voltage determined by
the relative resistances of the variable resistances, an
ampli?er receiving said output voltage and responsive
ampli?er receiving said output voltage and responsive
thereto to produce an ampli?ed output voltage and a re
10
thereto to produce an ampli?ed output voltage and a
reversing motor receiving the ampli?ed output voltage
versing motor receiving the ampli?ed output voltage
simultaneously driving the balancing resistance and the
‘means for adjusting correcting ?ow linkage.
'
6. A ?uid flow meter [for measuring the rate of ?ow
driving the balancing resistance and the means for adjust
of a ?uid in a conduit comprising ‘an ori?ce in said con
ing the motion developed as a function of the pressure
duit for developing a pressure differential, said meter
differential.
15 having means responsive to said pressure differential for
4. In a ?uid ?ow meter for measuring the rate of ?ow
of a ?uid in a conduit having means for developing a
developing a motion as a function of said di?erential,
a pivoted multiplying linkage operable by said pressure
pressure differential, said meter having means responsive
differential responsive means whose angular motion is
proportional to a function of said pressure differential
function of said differential, a pivoted multiplying link 20 uncorrected for pressure and temperature of said ?uid,
to said pressure differential for developing a motion as a
age operable by said pressure di?‘ierential responsive
means whose angular motion is proportional to a func
tion of said pressure differential uncorrected for pressure
and temperature of said ?uid, means on said linkage for
recording said function as uncorrected ?ow, a ?ow cor 25
rected indicator linkage connected to and actuated by
said multiplying linkage, means for moving said cor
rected flow indicator linkage towards and away from the
pivot of said multiplying linkage whereby to vary the
magnitude of motion thereof relative to the motion of 30
said pressure differential means and means responsive to
means on said linkage for recording said function as un
corrected ?ow, a ?ow corrected indicator linkage con
nected to and actuated by said multiplying linkage, means
for moving said corrected ?ow indicator linkage towards
and away from the pivot of said multiplying linkage
whereby to vary the magnitude of motion thereof relative
to the motion of said pressure differential means and
means responsive to the temperature and pressure of said
?uid for operating said corrected ?ow indicator linkage
relative to the multiplying linkage, said temperature and
pressure responsive means comprising a bridge circuit
the temperature and pressure of said ?uid for operating
having in one leg a ?rst variable resistance, means respon
said corrected ?ow indicator linkage relative to the
sive to the pressure in said conduit varying said ?rst
multiplying linkage, said temperature and pressure re
resistance, a second variable resistance in a leg of said
sponsive means comprising a bridge circuit having in 35 bridge opposed to said ?rst variable resistance, means
one leg a ?rst variable resistance, means responsive to
responsive to temperature in said conduit varying said
the pressure in said conduit varying said ?rst resistance,
second resistance, a balancing variable resistance in a
an adjusting resistor in said one leg, a second variable
third of the legs of said bridge, a range setting resistor
resistance in a leg of said bridge opposed to said ?rst
in a fourth leg of said bridge, said bridge being adapted
variable resistance, means responsive to temperature in 40 ‘to be operable on an applied voltage and to develop an
said conduit varying said second resistance, a linearizing
output voltage determined by the relative unbalance in
resistance in parallel with said second variable resistance,
the several legs thereof, an ampli?er receiving said out
a balancing variable resistance in a third of the legs of
put voltage and responsive thereto to produce an ampli
said bridge, a range setting resistor in the fourth leg of
?ed output voltage and a reversing motor receiving the
the bridge, said bridge being adapted to be operable on 45 ampli?ed output voltage simultaneously driving the bal
an applied voltage to develop an output voltage deter
ancing resistance and the means for adjusting corrected
mined by the relative unbalance of the several resistances,
?ow.
an ampli?er receiving said output voltage and responsive
7. In a ?uid ?ow meter for measuring the rate of ?ow
thereto to produce an ampli?ed output voltage and a
of a ?uid in a conduit having means for developing a pres
reversing motor receiving the ampli?ed output voltage 50 sure differential, said meter having means responsive to
driving the balancing resistance to return the bridge to
said pressure differential for developing a motion as a
balance, and driving the means for adjusting corrected
function of said differential, and means responsive to the
temperature and pressure of said ?uid for adjusting said
5. A ?uid ?ow meter for measuring the rate of ?ow
motion, said temperature and pressure responsive means
of a ?uid in a conduit comprising means for developing 55 comprising a bridge circuit having in one leg a ?rst variable
a pressure differential in said ?uid, said meter having
resistance, means responsive to the pressure in said conduit
means responsive to said pressure differential for de
varying said ?rst resistance, a second variable resistance
in a leg of said bridge opposed to said ?rst lvaria'ble re
veloping a motion as a function of said di?erential, a
pivoted multiplying linkage operable by said pressure
sistance, means responsive to temperature in said conduit
differential responsive means whose angular motion is 60 varying said second resistance, a balancing variable re
proportional to a function ‘of said pressure differential
sistance in a third leg of said bridge, and a range setting
uncorrected for pressure and temperature of said ?uid,
resistor in the fourth leg of said bridge, said bridge being
a ?ow corrected indicator linkage connected to and actu
adapted to be operable on an applied voltage and to de—
ated by said multiplying linkage, means for moving said
velop an output voltage determined by the relative re
corrected ?ow indicator linkage towards and away from 65 sistances of the variable resistances, an ampli?er receiving
the pivot of said multiplying linkage whereby to vary the
said output voltage and responsive thereto to produce an
magnitude of motion thereof relative to the motion of
ampli?ed output voltage and a reversing motor receiving
?ow linkage.
said pressure differential means and means responsive to
the ampli?ed output voltage driving the balancing resist
ance and the means for adjusting the motion developed as
the temperature and pressure of said ?uid for operating
said corrected ?ow indicator linkage relative to the multi 70 a function of the pressure differential.
plying linkage, said temperature and pressure responsive
8. In a ?uid ?ow meter for measuring the rate of ?ow
means comprising a bridge circuit having in one leg a
of a ?uid in a conduit having means for developing a
pressure differential, said meter having means responsive
?rst variable resistance, means responsive to the pressure
in said conduit varying said ?rst resistance, a second
to said pressure differential for developing a motion as a
variable resistance in a leg of said bridge opposed to said 75 function of said differential, and means responsive to the
3,053,083
8
temperature and pressure of said ?uid for adjusting said
motion," said temperature ‘and pressure responsive means
ances' of the variablere’sistances, an’ ampli?er ‘receiving
said output voltage and responsive thereto to produce an
ampli?ed output voltage and ‘a reversing motor receiving
comprising'a bridge circuit having in one leg a ?rst varia
ble resistance, nieans'responsive to‘the pressure in said
the ‘ampli?ed output'voltage driving the balancing resist
conduit varying said ?rst resistance, an adjusting resistor 5 ance and’the means‘for adjusting the motion developed as
in said one leg, at second variable ‘resistance in' a second
a junction of therpressure di?erential. ’
leg of said bridge opposed to said ?rst variable resistance,
‘References Cited in the ?le of this patent
means responsive to temperature in said conduit varying
‘said second resistance, a linearizing resistance in parallel
with'said second resistance, \a’balancin‘g variable resistance
in the third of the’ legs of said bridge, and a range setting
_UNITED‘STATES PATENTS
1°
2,570,410
.Vetter __ ______________ __ Oct. 9, 1951
7i7,060
FOREIGN PATENTS
?GreatBritaina _________ __ Oct. 20, 1954
1,027,418
Germany _____________ __ Apr. 3, 1958
resistor in the fourth leg of said bridge, said bridge being
adapted to be operable on'an applied voltage and ‘to de
velop an output voltage determined by the relative resist:
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