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Патент USA US3053248

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Sept. 11, 1962
M. A. ARPAIA
3,053,242
CARBURETING SYSTEM
Filed Sept. 5, 1959
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Sept. 11, 1962
M. A. ARPAIA
3,053,242
CARBURETING SYSTEM
Filed Sept. 5, 1959
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Sept- 11, 1962
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M. A. ARPAIA
3,053,242
CARBURETING SYSTEM
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United States Patent 0 "
3,053,242
Patented Sept. 11, 1962
1
2
3,053,242
either solid or ?nely divided state may be located in the
combustible mixture circuit and arranged to be heated in
any suitable manner including use of engine waste heat
CARBURETING SYSTEM
Michael A. Arpaia, 1530 Flower St., Glendale, Calif.
Filed Sept. 3, 1959, Ser. No. 837,993
26 Claims. (Cl. 123——122)
or any other suitable source of heat.
Copper is not only highly effective itself as a catalyst
but readily forms an oxide, particularly when heated in
the presence of oxygen, which oxide fractures easily and
This invention relates to carbureting systems for inter
sheds from the parent material in very small discrete par
nal combustion engines and more particularly to an im
ticles thereby serving to provide a continuous renewal
proved system of this type constructed and arranged to
provide automatic positive control over the supply of 10 supply of both the oxide and of the freshly exposed sur
face of the parent copper material. Additionally, the
combustible mixture to an engine and featuring preheat
shedding copper oxide prevents the accumulation of a
ing of the combustible mixture while passing in contact
deposit of lead and other precipitants from the hydrocar
with a catalytic material found to enhance combustion of
bon fuel. It has not been determined with certainty
the mixture thereby avoiding the discharge of non-com
busted hydrocarbons to pollute the atmosphere. Another
important function performed by the invention is that of
whether the copper oxide alone, the newly exposed copper
preventing all fuel flow to the engine during certain oper
ating conditions, as while decelerating or while the vehicle
high e?iciency catalytic effect on the hydrocarbons al
though it has been de?nitely established that the presence
surface or a combination of these two factors provide the
being propelled thereby is coasting downgrade. Other im
of the heated copper material in contact with unconsumed
portant functions performed by the present fuel supply 20 hydrocarbons is highly effective in promoting oxidation
of the fuel and in improving the operating ef?ciency of
system is the automatic supply of auxiliary air under cer
the engine generally.
tain operating conditions; the use of waste heat of com
Another important feature of the invention is the use
of an improved multiple-stage control valve located on
of a multiple stage control of the combustible mixture 25 the discharge end of the carburetor, and operable, when
?owing to the engine.
closed, to cut off all fuel ?ow to the engine, including
bustion to preheat the fuel mixture and to augment the
effectiveness of the catalytic material; and the provision
This invention is a continuation-in-part of the inven
tion disclosed in my co-pending application for United
States Letters Patent, Serial No. 780,460, ?led December
idling fuel. This two-stage valve is arranged for opera
tion selectively by the vehicle operator or in response to
pressure conditions within the intake manifold, the ad
15, 1958, entitled Fuel Carbureting System (now aban 30 justment of the operating linkage being such that pres
sure conditions indicative of engine idling and decelera
doned), which application in turn is a continuation-in
part of application for United States Letters Patent, Serial
tion operating conditions are effective to close the two
No. 568,237, ?led February 28, 1956, for Fuel Carburet
ing System, now Patent 2,864,597, granted December 16,
in detail in following portions of this speci?cation. Al
1958.
The present invention embodies marked improvements
in the construction and operation of the carbureting sys
tem and associated accessory shown in the aforementioned
earlier ?led applications. For example, it has been found
wise controlled by the operator at all times.
According to a simpli?ed embodiment of the inven
tion, the positive action fuel cut-off valve control and heat
stage valve, either partially or fully as will be described
ternatively, this valve can be opened or closed and other
exchange accessory assembly provided by the invention is
that highly superior results are achieved by pre-heating 40 insertable as a unit in lieu of the throttle valve assembly
commonly employed to connect the engine carburetor to
the combustible mixture and passing the same into contact
the intake manifold. The two-stage mixture control valve
with a suitable catalyst immediately prior to introducing
forming an important part of the auxiliary unit performs
the mixture into the engine cylinders. Such pre-heating
the function of the usual carburetor throttle valve and,
not only insures complete vaporization of all particles of
fuel and its more thorough mixture with the combustion 45 in addition, certain other functions essential to the practice
of this invention and lying outside the capabilities of con
air, but the catalytic material is found to have a highly
ventional throttle valve structures.
bene?cial effect on the oxidation of the hydrocarbon
It is a primary object of the present invention to pro
vapors. According to one preferred mode of practicing
vide an improved carbureting system for an internal
the invention, the pre-heating and catalytic treatment of
combustion engine of the type used to propel motor ve
the mixture is carried out in a compactly designed pre
heating assembly through which the mixture is passed after
hicles and featuring means for automatically interrupting
leaving the venturi of the carburetor and before its en
trance into the combustion chambers of the engine. How
ating conditions prevail.
all fuel flow to the engine so long as certain engine oper
'
Another object of the invention is the provision of
may be present in the combustion chamber and in the 55 means for subjecting unconsumed hydrocarbon vapors
supplied to an internal combustion engine to the catalytic
exhaust duct thereby to promote and assist in the more
effect of heated copper and oxides of copper.
‘
complete and e?icient consumption of the fuel before
Another object of the invention is the provision of
discharge of the products of combustion to the atmosphere.
ever, it is to be understood that portions of the catalyst
A material found to have a highly bene?cial catalytic
effect on and to promote the oxidation of hydrocarbon
vapors is copper and its oxides. Inasmuch as copper has
excellent heat conducting proper-ties this material may
serve in a dual capacity as a catalyst and as the material
means associated With an internal combustion engine for
subjecting hydrocarbon vapors supplied thereto to the
catalytic effect of heated copper and oxides of copper.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a
carbureting system for an internal combustion engine
wherein hydrocarbons being ‘supplied to the combustion
from which the heat exchanger used to pre-heat the com
bustible mixture is constructed. As herein shown by way 65 chambers pass in contact with a hot catalytic agent ef
fective to enhance chemical reaction of the hydrocar
of example, the heat exchanger comprises a serpentine
bons with oxygen.
copper tube arranged to separate the combustible mix
Another object of the invention is the provision of a
ture from the heating medium such as the exhaust gases
‘carbureting system for use with an internal combustion
issuing from the engine combustion chambers and pass 70 engine wherein the combustible fuel mixture is passed
ing to the exhaust system of the engine. However, it is
in heat exchange with a catalytic maintained hot by waste
to be understood that additional quantities of copper in
heat of the engine.
3,053,242
3
4
Another object of the invention is the provision for
supplying a fuel, air and catalytic material mixture to the
ponents of the accessory provided by this invention with
parts broken away to show certain constructional details,
the parts being shown in their operating position for en
gine deceleration operating conditions, the dot and dash
combustion chambers of an internal combustion engine.
Another object of the invention is the provision of
line showing of certain parts being the positions thereof
under engine idling conditions;
an accessory designed to be interposed in the fuel sup
ply circuit Of an engine and incorporating a heat ex
changer constructed to pass the combustible fuel mixture
FIGURE 2 is a fragmentary view similar to FIGURE
1 but showing the position of certain of the parts during
in heat exchange with the products of combustion issuing
‘from the engine.
‘full acceleration operating conditions;
FIGURE 3 is a fragmentary view taken along the
Another object of the invention is the provision of a 10
carbureting system making use of engine waste heat to
broken line 3-—3 on FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 4 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view taken
along line 4—4 on FIGURE ‘1, and showing the multiple
preheat a combustible mixture being supplied to the en
gine.
Another object of the invention is the provision of an
improved method of pre-conditioning a combustible fuel
and air mixture ?owing to an internal combustion engine.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a
stage mixture valve fully closed;
unitary auxiliary assembly arranged to be inserted be
6—6 on FIGURE 4;
FIGURE 7 is a cross-sectional view similar to FIG
FIGURE 5 is a cross-sectional view through the heat
exchanger along line 5-5 on FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 6 is a cross-sectional view taken along line
tween a carburetor exhaust outlet and the inlet to an en
gine intake manifold and including means for automati 20 URE 6 but showing the position of the carburetor throt
cally discontinuing all ?ow of fuel to the engine so long
tle valve and of the ‘multiple-stage valve during full accel
as certain engine operating conditions prevail.
eration operating conditions; and
Another object of the invention is the provision of a
FIGURE 8 is a partial cross-sectional view through a
multiple stage mixture ?ow control valve located between
modi?ed embodiment of the invention showing the posi
the carburetor outlet and the engine cylinders adapted 25 tion of the multiple-stage valve during idling operating
to be controlled selectively by conditions prevailing with
conditions.
in the intake manifold or by the operator through the
conventional acceleration control linkage.
Another object of the invention is the provision of an
Referring more particularly to FIGURES 1 to 4, the
fuel control and pre-conditioning accessory unit provid
ed ‘by this invention and designated generally 10 is shown
auxiliary unit insertable between a carburetor and an in 30 clamped between the ?anged end 11 of engine intake
take manifold and arranged to utilize portions of the ex
manifold 12 and the ?anged end 13 of carburetor throt
haust gases to preheat the combustible mixture ?owing
tle valve housing 14 by means of through bolts 15 ex
to the engine.
tending through the accessory housing and through ?anges
Another object of the invention is the provision of a
'11 and ‘13. It is pointed out that in the embodiment here
combustible fuel preheater utilizing exhaust gases divert 35 illustrated accessory device 10 is designed for use with
ed from the exhaust system and including automatic valve
a V-8 type engine having a pair of identical carburetors
means responsive to exhaust pressure conditions to regu
late automatically the ?ow of gases so diverted.
arranged in closely-spaced parallel relation between the
Another object of the invention is the provision of an
improved carbureting system for use on motor vehicles
bank. To this end accessory 10 as here shown includes
a pair of multiple-stage valve assemblies mounted on a
and including means operable automatically in response
common shaft operable selectively by the accelerator link
to engine operating conditions to control fuel flow in
accordance with power requirements and operable to dis
continue all fuel ?ow during engine deceleration there
age or by automatic means responsive to the pressure with
in one of the two engine intake manifolds. ‘It is pointed
out, however, that accessory .10 is equally suited for use
with a larger or smaller number of carburetors, it merely
being desirable to provide a separate set of multiple
stage valves for each carburetor barrel and for each as
two ‘banks of cylinders with each supplying a separate
by effecting operating economies and obviating the dis
charge of incompletely consumed fuel to the atmosphere.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a
carburetor accessory responsive to manifold pressure
conditions, the fuel and air control provided by the usual
sociated intake manifold.
One of the two identical carburetor fuel mixture dis
charge ducts is indicated at '16 and its mounting ?ange ‘17
is shown secured to ?ange '18 of throttle valve housing
engine carburetor assembly.
114 as by cap screws 19.
to actuate fuel and air control mechanisms in a manner
supplementing and overriding, under certain operating
Another object of the invention is the provision of
The fuel and air mixture ?ows
downwardly through throttle valve housing 14 under the
pressure-responsive means subject to engine manifold con
control of a conventional butter?y valve 20 pivotally sup
ditions operable to actuate a plurality of valves to effect 55 ported on a shaft 21. Operating lever 23 ?xed to the
control of fuel and air ?ow to the engine in accordance
outer end of shaft 21 is normally biased clockwise by a
with actual power requirements and additionally to pro
vide positive fuel cutoff while the vehicle propelled there
spring 24 having its remote end anchored to the assembly
casing by a headed pin 25. The linkage for operating
the throttle valve will be described presently.
by is decelerating and coasting down-grade, together with
automatic means for regulating the manifold pressure 60
during deceleration.
Yet another object of the invention is the provision of
automatic fuel shut-off mechanism for discontinuing all
fuel ?ow to the engine during deceleration in combination
with means ‘for restoring fuel ?ow automatically for en
gine idling requirements while the vehicle is still under
way and even though the operator’s foot is fully removed
from the accelerator.
These and other more speci?c objects will appear upon
reading the following speci?cation and claims and upon
considering in connection therewith the attached draw
ings to which they relate.
Referring now to the drawings in which a preferred
embodiment of the invention is illustrated:
FIGURE 1 is a side elevational view of essential com
As is most clearly shown in FIGURE 3, accessory 10
includes a generally rectangular housing 28 having formed
integral with one end thereof a generally cylindrical hous
ing 29 enclosing the pressure responsive actuator for the
multiple-stage combustible mixture shut-off valve forming
65 an important feature of the invention.
The interior con
struction of valve housing 28 will be best understood from
FIGURES 3 and 4 wherein it is seen to be formed in three
principal parts comprising a lower or heat exchange hous
ing 30, an intermediate partition 31, and an upper valve
housing 32, all having close ?tting surfaces held in sealed
engagement by through bolts 15. Desirably, suitable
gaskets are interposed between the several parts and par
ticularly between housing sections 30 and 32 and ?ange
11 of the intake manifold and ?ange 13 of the throttle
Preferably, these gaskets are of heat
75 valve housing.
5
‘3,053,242
insulating material to limit the transfer of heat from the
manifold to the carburetor.
Heat exchange housing 30 incorporates the catalytic
material found to have such a pronounced elfect in pro
6
cluding the supply of idling fuel and air to the engine when
main valves 58 are closed. Opening 63' is controlled by
a thin disc valve 64 having a short pin 65 ?xed to its
center and extending loosely through an opening in the
moting the union of the hydrocarbons with oxygen. A 5 bottom of a well 66 formed in bracket arm 56 (see
particularly convenient and effective manner of effecting
FIGURE 6). A light coil spring 67 urges valve 64
this contact with a catalytic agent is accomplished in the
toward seating engagement with the rim of opening 63
structure here illustrated by using the catalytic agent to
in the main valve plate. The upper end of pin 65 is
form a serpentine tube 35 and using this tube as the heat
headed over, as is indicated at 68 in FIGURE 6,, to hold
conducting means ‘separating the combustible mixture
from the hot exhaust gases issuing from the engine and
providing a convenient and inexpensive mode of main
taining the catalytic agent at an e?icient operating temper
ature. However, it is to be understood that additional
catalytic agent in the form of heat conducting ?ns, parti
tions or granular material distributed along the interior
of tube 35 may be employed.
One arrangement of the tubular heat exchanger and
catalytic agent 35 is shown in FIGURE 5, it being noted
that a partition 36 divides housing 30 into separate cham
idling valve 64 in assembled position.
Referring now more particularly to FIGURES 1, 3 and
4, the automatic pressure-responsive means operable to‘
control the position of the multiple-stage valve assembly
55 is seen to’ include a cylindrical housing 29 integral with
one end of valve housing 32 with its longer axis extending
horizontally across the top of the engine. A cylindrical
bore 73 interiorly ofhousing 29‘ slidably seats a piston
bers in order to maintain proper control over the fuel
mixture supplied from each carburetor to its associated
bank of engine cylinders. As shown, serpentine tube 35
includes a pair of bight portions 37, 38 located closely
74 mounted on a piston rod 75 slidably supported in an
end cap 76 secured to one end of housing 29‘. Piston
74 is secured to the threaded inner end of rod 75 by a nut
77 while the other thread end 78‘ of rod 75 has a snug
frictional ?t with a shouldered nut 79 threaded thereover.
The latter is adjustable to vary the eifective force on a
spring 86 encircling a piston rod in the area between the
beside the outer side wall of housing 30. The midportion 25 shoulder on nut 79 and end cap 76 and tending to shift
of bight 37 is connected through a conduit 39 to the
piston 74 to the right as viewed in FIGURE 1. Once the
upper side of an automatic flow control valve 40 (FIG
proper adjustment of spring 89 has been obtained, the
URE l) pivotally supported in an open-ended housing
exposed end of the piston rod may be enclosed by cup
41 connected by cap screws 42 to a midsection of the
shaped end cap 82 held in place on housing 29, as by cap
engine exhaust line 43 leading from engine exhaust mani
screws 83. Caps 7 6 and 82 are preferably provided with
fold’ 44. The midportion of bight 38 is similarly con
vent openings 84 connecting one end of piston 74 and the
nected by conduit 45 to the discharge side of automatic
interior of cap 82 to the atmosphere.
valve 40.
The left hand end of the piston chamber 29‘ as viewed
Valve 40‘ is mounted on a shaft 4-6 to the outer end of
in FIGURE 3 has rotatably supported therein a crank
which is secured a lever arm 47 slidably and adjustably
arm 83 mounted on a crankshaft 89 having one end 96}
supporting thereon a weight 48‘ effective to bias valve 40
opening through the side wall of housing 29. Connect
to closed position when the engine is not operating. How
ing rod link 91 has one end connected to the bifurcated
ever, when the engine is operating the exhaust pressure in
end 92 of piston rod 75, as by pin 93, while the other
manifold 44 is effective to pivot valve 40 toward open
end of link 91 is connected to the bifurcated upper end
position by an amount depending upon exhaust pressure
of crank 88, as by a pin 94. Fixed to the outer end 90
conditions. In consequence, a portion of the exhaust
of crankshaft 89 in any suitable manner is a suitably
gases are constrained to flow through conduit 39, heat
shaped cam 96 cooperable with arm 97 of a bell crank 98
exchanger tubes 35 and back by way of conduit 45 into
fixed to the outer end of valve shaft 57. The other arm
the low pressure side of valve 40‘ in exhaust conduit 4-3.
99 of bell crank 98 is provided with a short arcuate slot
Partition 31 separating heat exchange housing 30 from
valve housing 32 is provided with a pair of large area
passages 50 here shown as rectangular in shape and each
100 seating the hooked end of a linkage rod 101 having
its other end pivotally supported in the outer end of the
throttle valve operating arm 23. The free end of hell
having an area corresponding to that of vertical passage
crank arm 97 is connected to the usual vehicle accelera
51 providing communication between carburetor duct 16
tor pedal 102 (FIGURE 1) through any suitable linkage
and inlet 52 leading into valve housing 32. Pivotally sup 50 such as a lever 103 pivotally supported at 104 and having
ported within housing 32 are a pair of multiple-stage
its lower end connected to bell crank arm 97 by link 105.
valves designated generally ‘55, each valve assembly in
Provision for admitting supplemental air to prevent
cluding a rigid valve supporting arm 56 having one end
excessive lowering of the manifold pressure during de
?xed to a shaft '57 journalled horizontally lengthwise of
celeration, and for other purposes, includes an automati
housing 32 with one end opening through the housing wall 55 cally operating valve disc 108 ?xed to crankshaft 89 and
in a manner best shown in FIGURE 3.
Shaft 57' pivots
having a close sliding ?t with surface 109 on the ex
about its axis through an angle of approximately 90 de
terior face of piston housing 29. Plate 198 is provided
grees from its fully closed position during deceleration
with a pair of air ports 110, 111 spaced somewhat more
(FIGURE 6) and the fully opened position during max
than 90 degrees apart circumferentially of disc 108 and
imum acceleration illustrated in FIGURE 7.
60 respectively adapted to register simultaneously with the
The valve members per se of each assembly are loosely
mounted on each of the arms 56 and include a large area
plate valve 58 of thin ?exible material suf?ciently larger
outer ends of a pair of air passages 112 and 113, passage
112 opening into one of the mixture passageways 50 in'
partition 31 and passage 1113 opening into the other of
passageways 50 in the manner made clear by FIGURE
than mixture passageway 59 through partition 31 as to
seat and be supported on the peripheral edges of the pas 65
3. A pressure equalizing duct 114 also extends through
sageway in the manner made clear by FIGURE 3. The
partition 31 and piston housing 29 with its inner end
means for loosely supporting valve 58 from bracket arm
opening into the intake manifold by way of the heat ex
56 comprises a pair ‘of pins ?xed to the opposite sides
change housing 30 and mixture port 50‘ in partition 31.
of the valve member and extending loosely through open~
ings in bracket 56, valve 58 being urged away from bracket 70 The outer end 115 of duct 114 (FIGURES 3 and 4)
opens into the left hand end of piston chamber 73 to
56 by light springs 60 encircling pins 59‘. The upper ends
the end that this end of‘the piston will be subject to the
of pins 59 are upset or otherwise formed as indicated at
manifold pressure at all times irrespective of the adjusted
62 to hold the same assembled to arm 56. Valve mem
bers 58 are each provided with a small diameter circular
position of valve assembly 55 and of throttle valve 20.
opening 63 centrally thereof having several purposes in 75 Preferably, auxiliary air valve disc 198 and the ports car
3,053,242
-7
8
rled thereby are protected from damage and from the
entry of foreign matter by guard screening 117.
Referring more particularly to FIGURES 6 and 7, it
will be noted that the idling fuel supply includes a pas
sage 118 extending from the main fuel supply in the car
buretor proper downwardly through the side wall of
throttle valve housing 14 and into the fuel mixture pas
50, However, the small idling fuel control valves 64'.
are held positively in the open position shown in FIGURE
8 ‘by the described manifold pressure of 20.5 inches of
mercury acting on piston 74 holding the latter in the
dot and dash line position shown in FIGURE 1. In this
position of the piston, crank 88 and eccentric 96 ?xed
thereto are rotated to a position effective to hold arm 97
of bell crank 98 rotated counterclockwise to the dot and
sage 51. The flow of the idling fuel is controlled by a
dash line position illustrated in FIGURE 1. Under these
needle valve 119 of usual construction having a knurled
head 120.
10 conditions, arm 56' of the valve assembly is likewise
rotated slightly counterclockwise thereby holding idling
Referring now to FIGURE 8, there is shown a simpli
fuel valves 64' elevated slightly above port 63’. Accord
?ed embodiment of the present invention wherein the
ingly, the low pressure condition existing in the heat ex
same or similar parts are designated by the same refer
e'nce characters but distinguished therefrom by the addi
tion of a prime. The FIGURE 8 construction differs
from that shown in FIGURES 1 to 7 primarily in the
elimination of throttle valve housing assembly 14 and
in the modi?cation of the idling fuel supply in such
manner that the multiple-stage valve assembly 55 pro
change housing 30’, though tending to close idling valve
64', cannot do so.
Moreover, this low pressure condi
tion in the intake manifold and in the heat exchange
housing is communicated in part to the valve housing
32' through ports 63’ and is effective to vaporize the
idling fuel issuing from supply passage 123. Likewise,
vides full control over both the combustible fuel mixture 20 this low pressure condition is effective to draw atmos
pheric air downwardly through carburetor duct 16' open
and idling fuel requirements at all times. Not only does
ing into the top of valve housing 32' for admixture with
the simpli?ed construction effect a considerable saving in
the idling fuel. As this mixture passes downwardly
the number of components required, but of particular
through the heat exchanger it passes in direct contact
importance, this embodiment functions to preheat the
with the hot tubes 35’ causing every particle of fuel to be
fuel mixture as well as to provide complete control
vaporized for thorough mixture with the air prior to its
over the supply thereof to the engine. Furthermore, this
delivery to the engine cylinders through intake mani
unitary assembly is insertable in lieu of the conventional
fold 12.
throttle valve without modi?cation in the overall height
As has been indicated above, tube 35 not only serves
requirements of either the engine, the air ?lter, or any
other auxiliaries associated with the carbureting system. 30 to preheat the fuel mixture and assure vaporization of
droplets of hydrocarbon, but exposes this mixture to inti
It will be noted that idling fuel duct 118’ in carburetor
duct 16’ opens into an extension of duct 118' located
mate contact with copper oxide and with the freshly ex
posed surfaces of copper as small particles of the oxide
continually shed from the copper and pass into the com
being located in an extension 122 formed in partition
bustion chambers along with the preheated fuel and air
31'. The outlet end 123 of the idling fuel duct opens
mixture. The shedding particles of copper oxide are pre
upwardly into the valve chamber at a point closely adja
dominantly minute in size and remain in suspension while
cent main valve 58'. In the position of the parts shown
being transported into the combustion chamber and from
in FIGURE 8, idling mixture control valve 64' is shown
there to the ambient atmosphere along with the exhaust
in elevated position above port 63' in main valve 58'.
Under these conditions idling fuel supplied through duct 40 gases. It is believed that the presence of the minute par
ticles of copper oxide in the combustion chamber is fully
118' and outlet end 123 thereof merges with combustion
as important in promoting oxidation of the fuel as is the
air supplied by way of carburetor duct 16' for passage
contact with the catalyst outside the combustion cham
through port 63’ and over the hot heat exchange ducting
bers, but irrespective of this and of the mechanics in
35' in heat exchange chamber 30'. The fuel so preheated
volved, it is known that highly superior results are achieved
is routed directly to the engine cylinders by way of intake
by use of the described structure and method of supplying
manifold 12'. Other operating positions of the multiple
fuel to an internal combustion engine.
stage valve assembly 55' will be explained in greater
It is found that the throttling effect produced by the
detail below.
passage of air and fuel mixture through ports 63’ into the
In the operation of the described carbureting device,
very low pressure zone therebelow causes the air to ex
nut 79 controlling the pressure of spring 80 of the
pand. This expansion is accompanied by a marked reduc
manifold pressure responsive device is so adjusted that
tion in the temperature of the air thereby limiting to some
a normal intake manifold suction pressure of 20.5 inches
degree the temperature rise which would otherwise occur
of mercury under engine idling conditions is effective to
because of the very hot condition of the combined catalytic
hold piston 74 in the position indicated in dot and dash
agent and heat exchange conduit 35' following a period of
lines in FIGURE 1. In this position of the parts, it is
engine operation under moderate to high load operating
to be understood that the 20.5 inch manifold pressure is
conditions. Another bene?cial effect of this expansive
e?ective on piston 74 to hold crank 88 rotated sui?ciently
cooling of the mixture is the maintenance of partition 31’
clockwise from the full line shown in FIGURE 1 for the
in a cooler condition thereby minimizing interference with
end of cam 96 to contact arm 97 of hell crank 98 to hold
the latter rotated through a small angle counterclockwise 60 the flow of liquid fuel through supply passages 118' and
123‘.
about the axis of valve shaft 57 and sufficiently to occupy
The engine continues to operate in the manner described
the dot and dash line position shown in FIGURE 1.
so long as the accelerator pedal remains in its retracted
The auxiliary air control disc ‘108 will then be rotated to
position and the intake manifold pressure remains at its
a position wherein the air inlet ports 110 and 111 barely
normal idling operating value in the vicinity of 20.5 inches
are out of registry with the air ducts 112, 113, respec
of mercury. Should the operator depress the accelerator
tively, with the result that all air required for idling en
pedal, bell crank 98 is thereby rotated counterclockwise
gine requirements is supplied in conventional manner by
to rotate valve shaft 57' and the attached valve supporting
leakage past the imperfectly closing throttle valve 20.
arm 56’ thereby forcibly opening the main valve plates
Even though throttle valve 20 appears to be closed, con
siderable quantities of air lead past its peripheral edges 70 58' from sealing engagement with the top of passageways
50'. The increased ?ow of air and fuel thereby occasioned
for admixture with idling fuel flowing downwardly through
increases the richness of the fuel mixture with the result
duct 118. It is pointed out that the low intake manifold
that the engine speed and load carrying ability rises sharply
pressure of 20.5 inches of ‘mercury is effective to hold
the large and ?exible plate valves 58 tightly sealed against
and in accordance with the amount of fuel and air actu
their respective seats provided at the upper ends of ports 75 ally supplied to the engine. Likewise, the pressure in
in valve housing 32', the idling fuel control valve 119'
3,058,242
9
10
engine exhaust manifold 44 increases and rotates valve
40 counterclockwise to pass the much greater volume of
exhaust gases produced by the engine.
URES 1 to 7 is very similar to that described above in
connection with FIGURE 8, the main difference being
that the operation of the accelerator pedal 102 acts through
However, the
pressure drop or differential across valve 40 is effective
conduit 39, catalytic heat exchanger tubes 35" after which
the accelerator linkage connections to actuate the car
buretor throttle valve 20 relied upon primarily to control
the fuel and air mixture flow when the engine is operating
the partially cooled exhaust gases return to exhaust con
duit I43 on the low pressure side of valve 40‘ by way of
conduit 45. Under normal to high operating speeds of
understood that throttle valve 20 functions as do conven
tional carburetor throttle valves and that the automatic
to circulate a greater volume of exhaust gases through
at other than idling speed. In other words, it will be
the vehicle engine, heat exchange conduit 35’ may be 10 pressure responsive valve designated generally 10 pro~
vides an overriding and supplemental control for the
at which temperature the catalytic agent provided by the
mixture flow under certain operating conditions as, for
copper employed in the heat exchanger is extremely effec~
example, when the foot is removed from the accelerator
tive in vaporizing all particles of the liquid fuel and in
pedal 102. Under these conditions throttle valve spring
maintained at a temperature as high as 1200 degrees F.,
preheating this fuel as well as the combustion air with 15 24 is effective to rotate bell crank 23 clockwise to close
the result that extremely e?ective and efficient combustion
occurs upon entry of the fuel into the engine cylinders.
Should the operator remove his foot from accelerator
102, as when slowing down or when coasting down-grade,
the suction pressure developed within intake manifold 20
12 may be and is usually as low as 25 inches of mercury.
This low pressure is effective on piston 74 to move it to
throttle valve 20, it being‘ understood that even in its
closed position some leakage air ?ow takes place past its
peripheral edges.
In the closed position of throttle valve 20 the mixture
flows to intake manifold 12 under the control of the pres—
sure responsive piston 74. Since the pressure in the in~
take manifold differs widely depending on whether the
vehicle is coasting or at stands-till with the motor idling,
it will be understood that the position of the pressure
the left in opposition to spring 80 to the full line position
illustrated in FIGURE 1 carrying with it cam 96 and the
auxiliary air control valve plate 108 until auxiliary air 25 responsive two-stage valve assembly 55-‘ likewise varies
ports 110 and 111 in valve plate 108 are in accurate regis~
over a wide range. If, for example, the vehicle driven
try with air ducts 112 and 113 respectively. Auxiliary
by the engine -is coasting down-grade, its speed of travel
air is then admitted into the heat exchanger and into the
will depend on the grade, the previous rate of speed be
intake manifold 12’ to limit the pressure reduction char~
fore the operator’s foot is removed from the accelerator,
acteristic of decelerating operating conditions. The low 30 the nature of the road surface, and other factors. At
pressure in manifold 12' at this time is effective to hold
higher deceleration speeds the intake manifold pressure
both main valve 58' and the idling fuel or secondary valve
will be at its minimum value, that is, in the vicinity of
‘64' tightly and positively closed cutting off all fuel flow,
25 inches of mercury. This low suction pressure will
including both the main fuel supply and the idling fuel
be effective to hold both the main valve 58 and the idling
supply provided through passages 118' and 123.
35 fuel control valve 64 tightly seated to cut off all fuel flow
Valves 58’ and 64' remain closed until the vehicle ap
to the engine. Under these conditions, piston 74 will be
proaches the end of deceleration operation, whereupon the
in the full line position illustrated in FIGURE 1 and the
low pressure conditions in the intake manifold start ris
auxiliary air ports 110 and 111 in valve disc 108‘ will be
ing to a point where spring 80 of the pressure responsive
in full registry with the ends of air passages 112, 113‘,
device becomes effective to shift piston 74 to theright as 40 respectively, to admit a flow of air into the intake mani
viewed in FIGURE 1. As this occurs, link 91 operates
fold thereby limiting the pressure reduction in the mani
through crank 88 to rotate cam 96 clockwise into engage
fold. All fuel flow to the engine will remain cut off
ment with arm 97 of hell crank 98. This rotation forcibly
unless the operator should depress accelerator 102‘ to
rotates valve shaft 57' counterclockwise, as viewed in
rotate shaft 57 counterclockwise as viewed in FIGURE
FIGURES 1 and 8, thereby forcibly rotating arm 56' to 45 1 to forcibly open the valves.
open idling valves 64’. Slight opening of valve 64' is
It would be very dif?cult to open both valves 64 and 58
adequate to admit idling fuel and air mixture to intake
simultaneously due to the ‘large area thereof and the very
manifold 12 and to the engine cylinders and this occurs
low pressure prevailing in the intake manifold. As will
while the vehicle is under way. Accordingly, the fuel
be best understood from FIGURE 8, the headed upper
mixture is immediately ignited and the engine begins to 50 end of pin 65 ?xed to valve 64 is contacted by arm 56
idle long before the vehicle comes to a stop.
prior to the contact of this arm with the headed end 62
If the accelerator pedal 102 is not depressed to admit
additional fuel and air to the engine, the engine continues
to operate under idling conditions. However, under nor
of the pin 59 ?xed to the larger valve 53 with the result
that smaller valve ‘64 opens before larger valve 58. Im
mediately that the smaller valve opens to admit atmos
mal conditions, the operator will depress the foot pedal 55 p‘heric air through carburetor duct 16, the low pressure
condition in the intake manifold is relieved making it pos
sible to open the larger valve easily and without excessive
open position thereby increasing the fuel and air supply.
stress on the valve parts and the connecting operating
Under acceleration operating conditions, the manifold
linkage. Also the considerably higher pressure con
pressure is at a value of about 3 inches of mercury and 60 dition now prevailing in the intake manifold allows spring
spring 80 is then effective to hold piston 74 fully retratced
80 to move piston 74 to the right as viewed in FIGURE
to maintain the vehicle at a desired speed. Depression
of accelerator 102 rotates the valve assembly toward its
to the position shown in FIGURE 2. Any movement of
piston 74 occurring so long as the engine is operating at
acceleration or cruising speed is immaterial and neither
1 rotating valve disc 109 clockwise to move auxiliary air
ports 110, 111 out of registry with the inlets to air ducts
1,12, 113, respectively.
Normal cruising operation of
affects the fuel and air ?ow nor interferes in any way with 65 the motor then ensues as the two-stage valve assembly 55
the control of the fuel and air to the engine under the
is rotated upwardly by the manually controlled accelerator
control of the operator through adjustment of accelera~
and piston 74 resumes its normal cruising position at the
tor pedal 102. In this connection it is pointed out and
right hand end of cylinder bore 73'.
emphasized that the rotated position of shaft 57' by the
If it is assumed that the deceleration of the motor and
accelerator linkage is effective to control the volume of 70 of the vehicle is permitted to continue without interrup
fuel and air mixture ?owing to heat exchanger 30' and
tion, the position of the parts referred to above will con
to intake manifold 12' without need for the usual car
buretor throttle valve such as throttle valve 20 in the ?rst
described embodiment.
The operation of the embodiment illustrated in ‘FIG
tinue to be maintained until near the end of the decelera
tion period. As the end of deceleration approaches, the
decreasing speed at which the momentum of the vehicle
75 tends to turn the engine results in a slight rise of the in
3,053,242
12
take manifold pressure toward. atmospheric pressure.
This pressure rise allows spring 80 to shift piston 74
from the full line position shown in FIGURE 1 to the dot
and dash line position. This small movement of piston
presence of a combustion promoting catalyst and deliver
74- to the right serves to rotate cam 96 clockwise beneath
arm 97 of bell crank 98‘ causing shaft 57 to be rotated
utilizing waste heat from the engine derived from the
combustible mixture ?owing through said preheating and
ing the same to the engine to operate the same.
2. The improvement de?ned in claim 1 characterized
in that said mixture preheating means includes means
counterclockwise su?iciently for valve supporting arm 56
to elevate the small valve '64 to the position of the similar
valve 64’ in FIGURE 8, valve 64- being forcibly held in
?ow control device.
3. The improvement de?ned in claim 1 characterized
in that said mixture preheating and ?ow control device
this position by spring 80 and the connected parts includ 10 comprises a unitary assembly adapted to be inserted as
a unit between said carbureting assembly and the inlet
ing piston rod’75, link 91, crank 88, cam 96, bell crank 98
of the engine intake manifold.
and valve shaft 57.
4. The improvement de?ned in claim 1 characterized
It is also pointed out that the exhaust gas pressure in
in that said ?ow control valve is a multiple stage valve
the exhaust manifold 44 will vary depending upon the
including a main valve and a secondary valve arranged
engine operating speed and the volume of gases being ex
to open and close sequentially with respect to each other
hausted from the engine. The position of valve 40 in ex
haust pipe 43 is dependent on the gas pressure acting on
to control the ?ow of said combustible mixture.
5. The improvement de?ned in claim 4 characterized
the rear side of this valve as well as upon the position
in that said main and secondary valves are arranged in
of counterweight 4-8 on valve arm 47. It will be under
stood that a coil spring or its equivalent may be used in
series, and means operable to open said secondary valve
lieu of counterweight 48 to urge valve 40 toward closed
to initiate renewed ?ow of combustible mixture to the
position and to resist full opening of valve 40v during
engine before opening said main valve.
operation of the engine. Either arrangement assures an
6. The improvement de?ned in claim 4 characterized
adequate circulating supply of hot exhaust gases in inti
in that said main and secondary valves comprise thin
mate contact with the catalytic agent employed in heat
?exible plate members arranged in superimposed aligned
exchanger 35 to the end that the fuel mixture ?owing to
but spaced relation when open, said valves being adjust
the intake manifold will be properly pre-conditioned and
preheated and that all liquid fuel will be fully vaporized.
Under normal engine operating conditions the combined
catalytic agent and heat exchanger 35 should operate
able relative to one another and to a seat for the main
valve to vary the ?ow of combustible mixture and being
closeable against said seat and against one another to
30 prevent all ?ow of said combustible mixture in the fully
at a temperature between 500 degrees F. and 1200 degrees
F., the higher temperature being associated with higher
engine speeds and engine loads. As will be appreciated,
the heat exchanger operating temperature can be varied
by the volume of hot exhaust gases circulated in contact
with catalytic material 35 and controlled by regulating
the position of valve 40‘.
Although the preferred method of preheating the fuel
and air mixture is by the use of exhaust gases, it is to
closed positions thereof.
7. The improvement de?ned in claim 1 characterized
in the provision of means for passing hot ?uid from said
engine in heat exchange with said combustible mixture
and with a combustion promoting catalyst to preheat said
mixture before introducing said mixture into the engine
cylinders.
8. The improvement de?ned in claim 1 characterized
in the provision of means for conducting hot exhaust gases
be recognized that the hot engine cooling water may be 40 discharging from the engine cylinders into heat exchange
circulated through heat exchanger 35 in lieu of the ex
with said combustible mixture and a combustion promot
haust gases. However, this method of preheating is
ing catalyst at a point between said flow control valve and
subject to the disadvantages imposed by the much lower
said intake manifold.
temperatures and the much larger conduits required to
9. The improvement de?ned in claim 8 characterized
provide for a sufficient water ?ow to preheat the fuel
in that a portion only of the engine exhaust gases are
mixture. It is also to be recognized that the catalytic
conducted in heat exchange with said combustible mixture
material may be heated other than by waste heat from
and with said combustion promoting catalyst.
the engine as by burning portions of the fuel in a special
10. In combination with a combustible fuel and air
burner serving to maintain the catalyst at a desired and
mixture supply system for an internal combustion engine
e?icient operating temperature.
of the type using a fuel and air carbureting device dis
While the particular improved carbureting method and 50 charging directly into the intake manifold of an engine,
system for internal combustion engines herein shown and
that improvement which comprises a mixture ?ow control
disclosed in detail is fully capable of attaining the objects
auxiliary unit adapted to be inserted between said car
and providing the advantages hereinbefore stated, it is
'bureting device and said intake manifold, said auxiliary
to be understood that it is merely illustrative of the
unit having a two stage valve therein including a large
presently preferred embodiments of the invention and that 55 area main valve and a relatively small area pilot valve
no limitations are intended to the details of construction
including means for opening and closing said valves se
or design herein shown other than as de?ned in the ap
quentially and in reverse order on opening and on clos
pended claims.
ing, manually operable means for controlling said valves,
I claim:
and automatic means responsive to operating pressure
1. In a carbureting system for an internal combustion 60 conditions in the engine intake manifold for controlling
engine having a carburetor assembly positioned to deliver
a combustible fuel and air mixture to the engine intake
manifold, that improvement which comprises a com
said valves independently of said manually operable
means.
11. The combination de?ned in claim 10 characterized
bustible mixture preheating and ?ow control assembly
in that said manually operable means for controlling said
adapted to be interposed between said carbureting sys 65 two-stage valve includes a foot operable engine accelera
tem and said intake manifold, said assembly including a
tor pedal.
housing having a mixture inlet port adapted to be con
12. The combination de?ned in claim 10 characterized
nected to the discharge of said carburetor assembly and
in the provision of valve means for admitting auxiliary
a mixture outlet port adapted to be connected to a vehicle
propelling engine intake manifold, a normally open mix 70 air to said intake manifold at a point between said two
ture ?ow control valve positioned between said mixture
inlet and outlet ports, means responsive to sub-atmos
pheric pressure conditions within said intake manifold for
adjusting the position of said mixture flow control valve,
and means for preheating the combustible mixture in the 75
stage valve and the inlet to the engine cylinders to sup
port engine idling operation when said two-stage valve
is closed.
13. The combination de?ned in claim 10 characterized
in the provision of a cylindrical chamber within said
3,053,242
13
14
auxiliary unit, spring-biased pressure responsive means
the fuel and air mixture whereby the ?ow of said mix
ture into the depressed pressure zone Within the intake
movably supported within said chamber with one side
exposed to atmospheric pressure and the other side in
communication with the interior of the intake manifold,
and means operatively connecting said pressure respon
pand and vaporize more fully than would otherwise occur.
22. An auxiliary fuel control unit adapted for inser
sive means to said two-stage valve and operable to close
tion between the ?anged coupling normally interconnect
manifold causes fuel components of said mixture to ex
the latter fully under predetermined low pressure op
ing a c-arbureting device to the intake manifold of a ve~
erating conditions within said manifold indicative of decel
hicle-propelling engine, said fuel control unit comprising
eration engine operating conditions.
a low-height housing adapted to be interposed between
14. The combination de?ned in claim 13 characterized 10 the ?anges of said carbureting device and of said intake
in the provision of means for adjusting the spring bias
manifold and cooperable therewith to convey a fuel and
on said pressure responsive means to render the latter
effective to close said two-stage valve at a preselected
manifold pressure and cut oil the ?ow of combustible mix
ture to the engine by way of said valve.
15. The combination de?ned in claim 10 characterized
in that said two-stage valve includes a pair of ?exible
air mixture from said device to said manifold, said hous
ing having movably supported adjacent a valve seat therein
a pair of series-connected sequentially-operable valves for
controlling the flow of said mixture, heating means within
said housing for heating said mixture on the downstream
side of said valves while in contact with hot copper oxide,
and means responsive to a predetermined lowering of the
pressure on the discharge side of said valves for closing
area and having a flow port therethrough, and the other
of said valve plates being aligned with the ?ow port of 20 said valves and holding the same closed until forcibly
opened or until said depressed pressure condition ceases to
said ?rst-mentioned plate and movable relative thereto
exist.
for selectively cutting off all mixture flow or permitting
23. An auxiliary unit as de?ned in claim 22 character
controlled mixture ?ow therethrough.
ized in that said heating means for heating said mixture
16. That improvement in the mode of operating a ve
hicle propelling engine to prevent the admission to and 25 and said copper oxide normally operates at a temperature
substantially in excess of 500° F.
exhaust therefrom of unconsumed fuel which improve—
24. An auxiliary unit as de?ned in claim 22 character
ment comprises: means for passing a variable volume
ized in the provision of manually operable linkage means
mixture of fuel and air to the engine to satisfy power re
connected to said valves and operable in opposition to said
quirements of the vehicle under normal cruising condi
tions, means responsive to depression of the intake mani 30 pressure responsive means to open said valves sequentially
valve plates, one of said plates being of relatively large
fold pressure characteristic of deceleration operation of
the vehicle to positively cut off all flow of said fuel and
air mixture during deceleration and to re-establish the ?ow
notwithstanding the forcible closing thereof by the de
pressed pressure operating conditions Within the intake
manifold.
25. An auxiliary unit as de?ned in claim 22 character
of the fuel and air mixture as the manifold pressure rises
to a predetermined valve, and means for utilizing waste 35 ized in that said heater comprises walls of copper in heat
exchange on one side with the fuel and air mixture ?ow
heat of combustion of burned portions of said fuel and
ing through said housing and in heat exchange on the
other side with hot exhaust gases discharging from said
engine and ?owing to the engine exhaust gas duct for flow
immediately prior to the introduction of said mixture
40 to the atmosphere.
into the vehicle engine.
26. In a fuel supply system for the engine of a motor
17. That improvement de?ned in claim 16 characterized
air mixture to preheat newly formed portions of the mix
ture while in intimate contact with hot catalytic material
additionally by means for lay-passing fuel for engine
idling operation to the ‘engine intake manifold along with
a quantity of auxiliary air while said engine is operating
free of load at idling speed and While the intake mani 45
vehicle, that improvement which comprises a normally
closed pressure responsive valve in the engine exhaust gas
and thereafter opening a relatively large ?ow port.
19. That improvement de?ned in claim 16 characterized
additionally in that said manifold pressure responsive
from said engine.
duct, the exhaust gas pressure in said duct under engine
operating conditions being e?ective to open said valve to
ward the fully open position thereof, means for supplying
fold pressure is lowered sufficiently to maintain the nor
a fuel, copper oxide and air mixture to the engine, and
mal ?ow of fuel and air mixture positively cut off.
means for lay-passing exhaust gases from the engine side of
18. That improvement de?ned in claim 16 characterized
said valve in heat exchange relation with said fuel, copper
additionally by means for re-establishing normal flow of
fuel and air mixture after a period of no ?ow sequen 50 oxide and air mixture to preheat the mixture and then
back to said exhaust gas duct on the opposite side thereof
tially and in stages by ?rst opening a small area ?ow port
means includes means responsive to depressed intake 55
manifold pressure in cooperation with atmospheric pres
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,048,224
Stevens ______________ __ Dec. 24, 1912
engine during periods of low pressure operating condi
1,643,072
Iesdale ______________ __ Sept. 20, 1927
tions within the engine intake manifold.
20. That improvement de?ned in claim 18 character 60
ized additionally in that said manifold pressure responsive
1,795,037
Portail ________________ __ Mar. 3, 1931
1,852,918
1,970,169
Chandler ______________ _.. Apr. 5, 1932
Godward ____________ __ Aug. 14, 1934
sure to prevent ?ow of said fuel and air mixture to the
2,073,649
means includes means responsive to depressed intake mani
2,231,605
fold pressure conditions characteristic of certain engine
2,362,163
operating conditions to close said large area value while
leaving said small area valve at least partially open there 65 2,590,377
2,609,806
by causing the ?ow of fuel and air to be throttled through
2,640,472
said small area port controlled by said smaller valve.
2,964,597
21. That improvement de?ned in claim 16 character
ized additionally in that said manifold pressure responsive
means includes means responsive to depressed intake 70
7,018
manifold pressure conditions characteristic of certain en
gine operating conditions to restrict the ?ow passage for
28,404
Price ________________ __ Mar. 16, 1937
Stephenson et al _______ __ Feb. 11, 1941
Shipman ______________ __ Nov. 7, 1944
Cater ______________ __ Mar. 25, 1952
Winkler ______________ __ Sept. 9, 1952
Bicknell ______________ __ June 2, 1953
Arpaia ______________ __ Dec. 16, 1958
FOREIGN PATENTS
Great Britain ________ __ Mar. 23, 1904
Great Britain ________ __ Dec. 13, 1906
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
‘CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION
Patent No. 3,053,242
September 11, 1962
Michael A. Arpaia
It is hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered pat
ent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as
corrected below.
Column 13,
line 64,
line 35, for "valve" read -—— value -——;
for "value" read —— valve -—.
Signed and sealed this 26th day of March 1963.
(SEAL)
Attest:
ESTON G~. JOHNSON
Attesting Officer
DAVID L. LADD
Commissioner of Patents
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