close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US3053341

код для вставки
Sept» 11, 1962
G. c. coRLx-:Y
3,053,331
EXCAVATING DEVICE
Filed 001).- 25, 1959
BY
United States Patent Otllice
1
3,@53ß3l
Patented Sept. l1, 1962
2
of the casing and to which a crank arm or handle is
3,053,331
pivotally attached at the upper end of the rod to provide
Gale C. Corley, 1207 Beech St., Valparaiso, lind.
Filed Oct. 23, 1959, Ser. No. 848,383
5 claims. (ci. 1175-202)
leverage for directly actuating the cutting member. The
pivotable handle may be positioned in notches provided
EXCAVA'HNG DEVIQE
This invention relates to an improved earth underream
er for use in reaming the lower portions of previously
in the upper rim of the casing to lock the cutting mem
ber in a plurality of positions, thereby providing an easily
observable indication of the setting of the cutting member
at all times.
A further feature of the invention is the provision of
footing may be provided under poured concrete founda 10 an underreamer having a cutting member of the afore
tion piers, pilings, posts or the like.
said character with a cutting edge both on the leading
edges and on the trailing edges thereof so that it slices
In certain types of construction it is common practice
excavated holes or bores so that an enlarged base or
to use concrete columns which extend below grade level
as foundation supports for beam structures. Good en~
back into the fully loaded casing With a minimum of
effort.
gineering practice and some building codes require that
A still further feature is the provision of an under
the bottom of such columns be enlarged to provide proper
rearner having a cutting member driven by rotating the
hollow casing so that it is capable of transmitting high
support and prevent foundation settlement. Although
various types of underreamers have been proposed to
torsional forces without cluttering the interior of the
casing with driving apparatus obstructive to the entrance
perform this worlr, they have been found to embody un
duly complex and costly structures and to suffer from 20 and storage of excavated material.
Still another feature is the provision of an underreamer
such problems as clogging in retraction, diíiicult actua
tion of the cutters, and high torque requirements at ex
adapted for power operating and having helical guiding
tended positions of the cutters. As a result, it has been
means, such as a spiral auger, iixedly mounted in the
common practice to enlarge holes for foundation supports
hollow casing to facilitate the elevation and storage of
by primitive hand spades and this has been costly because 25 the excavated material during the cutting operation, and
of the hand labor required.
an annular flange mounted around the top of the casing
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to
to seal the top of the hole and to lock the positioning
handle in visible positions.
provide an improved underreamer having adjustable ex
cavating means for the graduated enlargement of a lower
Yet another feature is the provision of an underreamer
portion of a pre-bored foundation hole, which may be 30 having a trap door in the bottom thereof to facilitate
readily lowered into and withdrawn from the hole with
emptying the underreamer and which is locked by retract
ing the cutting member and is therefore controlled by
out interference from the excavating means and yet which
actuating the positioning rod.
will excavate a shaped underfooting cavity having a
large diameter in proportion to the diameter of the pre
The invention is illustrated in the accompanying draw
bored hole.
35 ing in which:
Another object is to provide a hollow underreamer
FIG. l is a perspective view of an underreamer con
adapted to receive and store the excavated material, which
structed in accordance with the invention;
will not join in heavy wet soil or clay when it is desired
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary perspective view of the lower
to retract the exacavating means, and from which the
portion of the underreamer illustrating the manner in
excavated material may be easily unloaded after the 40 which it operates in a pre-bored hole;
underreamer is removed from the bore hole.
FIG. 3 is a bottom plan view of the underreamer;
A further object is to provide an underreamer having
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary elevational view of a lower
excavating means positively actuated in both the expand
portion of the underreamer taken in section on line 4_4
ing and retracting directions and which may be locked in
of FIG. 3; and
a plurality of graduated positions easily observable by 45 FIG. 5 is a perspective view of another embodiment
the operator, and in which the amount of back torque
of the invention adapted for operation by a power driv
ing unit.
being exerted on the excavating means during the cutting
An underreamer provided in accordance with the in
operation tends to remain constant for such positions.
vention includes a hollow, elongated cylindrical casing
Still another object of the invention is the provision
of a strong underreamer having a minimum of parts and 50 having a cutting member retractable therein. The cut
ting member includes a vertical scoop-like blade mounted
which is very simple and economical to construct.
on the circular edge of a horizontal radial blade, the lat
A feature of the present invention is the provision of
ter being connected at its vertex to a positioning rod so
an underreamer having excavating means in the form of
a combined cutting and deflecting member including a 55 that the cutting member is pivotable through an opening
provided in the side of the casing. The longitudinal
base portion, which may be formed in the shape of a
positioning rod is pivotally mounted along the side of
quarter section of a circle, and a scoop portion mounted
the casing. A handle is pivotally connected to an upper
on the circular edge thereof. The base portion is pivotal
portion of the positioning rod for positively actuating
ly mounted at its vertex in a horizontal position offset
and positioning the cutting member located at the bot
from the center of the casing so that the cutting member 60 tom of the casing. The bottom of the casing is enclosed
is rotatable through an opening in the side of the under
by a plate having a hinged trap door therein which is
reamer casing to a plurality of extended cutting positions.
latched by actuating the cutting member. In a power
Another feature is the provision of an underreamer
driven embodiment of the invention a spiral auger is
having a single cutting member pivotally mounted on
mounted within the casing to elevate excavated soil, and
an axially offset longitudinal rod which extends the length 65 an annular flange is fastened to the upper edge of the
3,053,331
4
casing to prevent the elevated soil from spilling into the
24 provide a graduated locking mechanism for the cutter.
If a shallow cut is desired, then handle 24 is dropped into
bore hole. A plurality of spaced pegs or lugs mounted on
the next adjacent notch, thus locking the cutting member
the upper surface of the flange receive and lock the han
in a slightly extended position coresponding to this notch
dle in various visible positions, while a plurality of
setting. This setting is used, for instance, in hard soil
notches in the upper edge of the casing may serve this
or clay. Then casing 11 is rotated one complete revolu
function when the flange is not used.
Referring now to the drawing, FIG. 1 shows an under
tion in a clockwise direction, as indicated by the arrows
in FIG. 1. Since the excavating mechanism is non-ro
reamer embodying the invention and adapted for hand
tatably mounted with respect to the casing, the blades ro
operation. A hollow casing 11 shaped in the form of an
elongated cylinder is provided having7 a suitable diameter 10 tate with the casing. The material excavated from the
side wall of the hole, commonly referred to as “spoi1,”
and length to slidably fit within a pre-bored hole of a
is deflected into the hollow interior of casing 11 by scoop
given size. The casing should be tall enough to extend
17. Due to the fact that the casing itself is used for
a sufficient distance above the surface of the earth to per
transmitting torque, there is a maximum amount of spoil
mit convenient hand operation. A pair of opposite holes
12 are located near the upper end of casing 11 to receive 15 storage space available within the casing.
After the ñrst cut has been made, the cutting member
a pipe or bar 13 for use in rotating the casing by hand.
is further extended by moving handle 24 clockwise to the
The upper end of casing 11 is left open while the lower
next adjacent notch, and the casing is rotated once more.
end of the casing is enclosed by a circular bottom plate
This process is continued until the blades are fully ex
14.
An excavating or cutting member consisting of a hori 20 tended (FIG. 2) and an underfooting cavity 30 is com
pletely excavated. In loose soil, such as sand, larger
zontal blade portion 16, shaped generally in the form of
bites are possible and therefore some of the intermediate
a sector of a circle, and a vertical scoop-like blade por
notches and corresponding cutter setting need not be used.
tion 17, is rotatably mounted inside the casing adjacent
It is to be understood that cutting members of various
bottom plate 14. The side of casing 11 adjacent the ex
cavating member is cut out so that an opening 1S is pro 25 shapes and material may be provided for interchangeable
use with the underreamer of the invention. In the dis
vided of a size and shape to permit the excavating member
closed embodiment, the horizontal'blade 16 has a leading
to pivot therethrough (FIG. 2). Cutting edges, such as
knife edge 19. A similar shape is given to the leading
knife edge 19, are provided on the leading and trailing
edge of the scoop 17. In addition, scoop 17 is quarter
outwardly extending edges of blade portion 16 as indi
cylindrical in shape, conforming to the outer edge of
cated at 16a and 16b (FIGS. 1, 2 and 3). Similarly,
cutting edges are provided at the leading edge 17a and the
quarter circular blade 16 (FIG. 3).
Both members combine to form the correct geometric
trailing edge 17b of the scoop-like blade portion 17.
configuration to cut a bell-shaped cavity 30 at the bottom
The vertex of blade 16 is secured to the lower end of
of the hole (FIG. 2). It is well known that an under
a vertical shaft or rod 21 which is pivotally mounted on
bottom plate 14 near the inside surface of the casing and 35 footing of this shape provides the greatest strength in pro
portion to its mass. Of course, other cavity shapes may
which extends longitudinally to the top of the casing.
be produced by varying either the shape of scoop 17 or
The upper end of rod 21 is rotatably mounted in a suit
the combined shape of blade 16 and scoop -17.
able bearing bracket 22 welded to the inner wall of the
Since vertical scoop blade 17 pivots from rod 21 on a.
casing. An upright arm 23 is fastened or welded to the'
upper portion of rod 21 to pivotally support a handle 24. 40 center which is offset from the axial center of casing 11,
the radius of horizontal blade 16 may be almost as large
A portion of the upper edge of casing 11, disposed gen
as the diameter of the casing. This makes it possible
erally opposite bracket 22, is cut into a plurality of spaced
to excavate an underfooting cavity having a large diameter
notches 26 which are adapted to receive and position
compared to the diameter of the pre-bored hole, thus
handle 24.
As may be more clearly seen in FIGS. 3 and 4, the 45 effecting considerable savings in the amount of concrete
needed to support a given weight. It is also to be noted
bottom plate 14 is divided into two portions; a rigid por
that the angle of incidence of the leading edge of scoop
tion 14a welded to the inside wall of casing 11 and a larger
17 with the side of the hole is most abrupt or at its
portion 14b pivotally secured to portion 14a by a pair of
maximum when the cutting member is least extended.
hinges 27 to form a trap door opening downwardly from
the bottom of casing 11. Trap door 14b carries an L 50 When the cutting member is fully extended the leading edge
of scoop 17 is approximately tangential to the periphery
shaped lug 28 welded to its upper inside surface at a point
of the cavity. Thus the rake angle of the vertical blade
where it will be engaged by `a wedge Z9, fastened to the
bottom outside edge of blade 17, in the fully retracted
position of the cutting member.
In operation, a conventional post hole digger or other
hole drilling equipment is employed to dig a hole of the
desired depth and diameter. Then an underreamer, con
structed to ñt this hole and embodying the structure
Varies inversely with the depth of the cut, and consequent
ly the back torque exerted on the cutting member by the
material being excavated tends to remain constant.
Once the underfooting cavity has been completed, han
dle 24 is unlocked and returned counter-clockwise to its
original position, thereby retracting the cutting member
completely within the casing. The trailing edges of both
of the invention, is lowered into the pre-bored hole. The
cutting member blades 16 and 17 are fully retractable C) 0 horizontal blade 16 and vertical blade 17 are also sharp
ened to a knife edge so that they will easily slice into the
’within casing 11 (FIG. l) so that it can bear against the
spoil accumulated within casing 11. Retraction is fur
sides of the hole and thus serve as a guiding sleeve for
ther facilitated by the leverage provided by handle 24,
accurate underreaming. Pipe handle 13 may be centered
another important feature when excavating in wet, heavy
in casing holes 12 to provide handles on either side of
clay.
casing -11 for lowering the underreamer into the hole.
With the casing bottom plate 14 resting against the
During the cutting operation trap door 14b is unlocked,
but since it is resting on the bottom of the hole no spoil
bottom of the hole, the blades of the cutting member are
extended through opening 18 so as to bite into the earthen
can escape. Then as scoop 17 is retracted, wedge 29 en
side wall of the hole. Extension of the cutting member is 70 gages the L-shaped lug 28 to cam the door tightly closed.
accomplished at the upper end of the casing by merely
lifting handle 24 upward out of a notch 26 and moving
it clockwise, causing rod 21, horizontal blade 16 and
Hence, by locking the cutting member in the fully re
tracted position (by dropping handle 24 in the first notch),
the operator automatically locks the trap closed. The cas
ing is then lifted from the hole by means of handle 13
the plurality of spaced notches in cooperation with handle 75 and rested on the íìxed bottom portion 14a. Trap door
scoop blade 17 to rotate clockwise.
It will be seen that
3,053,331
6
14b may then be unlocked to dump the spoil by moving
elongated hollow cylindrical casing adapted for rotation
handle 2,4 clockwise one notch. Cooperation is thus
achieved between the cutter actuating-locking mechanism
and the trap door latch, with the operation and condition
of both being readily indicated to the operator by the po
sition of the handle 24 at the top of the casing.
In FIG. 5 a modified underreamer in accordance with
in a given direction, with the casing having an opening in
its side having leading and trailing edges, the combination
of a cutting member having a horizontal portion shaped
substantially in the form of a sector of a circle and having
cutting edges formed along both edges extending outward
described embodiment are given identical reference nu
ly from the vertex thereof, said cutting member also hav
ing a scoop portion disposed vertically along the circular
edge of said horizontal portion with cutting edges formed
along the leading and trailing edges of said scoop portion,
merals and their description not repeated. A helicoidal
shaft means rotatably supported within the casing on a
guide or auger 31 is non-rotatably mounted within cas
substantially Vertical axis near the leading edge of the
opening in the casing, said horizontal portion of said cut
the invention is shown adapted for power operation.
Those elements identical with the elements of the above
ing 11 to elevate spoil from the bottom to the top of the
casing as the casing is rotated. A central shaft 32 is
ting means being connected at the vertex thereof to said
welded to the auger blades to support an adapter cou 15 shaft means, means coupled to said shaft means for rotat
pling 33 carried on the upper end of the shaft. The
ing the same to position said cutting member, said cutting
adapter coupling may also be braced by supporting legs
member being movable to a position in which it extends
34. The chuck of a conventional portable air motor 36
through said opening and being retractable completely
is received in the upper end of the adapter coupling to
power drive the underreamer.
within the casing, and means for rotating the casing in the
20 given direction whereby said cutting member when eX
A large annular flange 37 is secured to the upper edge
of casing 11 to keep the elevated spoil from falling back
into the excavated hole. A plurality of positioning ele
tending through said opening undercuts a pre-dug hole in
which the underreamer is placed.
4. An underreamer for excavating an underfooting cav
ments, such as spaced pegs 38, are welded on the upper
ity in a pre-sunk hole including in combination, a hollow,
surface of the flange in lieu of the easing notches 26. 25 elongated cylindrical casing having an opening in its side
Handle ‘24 is again pivotally secured to positioning rod 21,
near the bottom thereof, a plate enclosing the bottom of
but now extends outwardly to be received and locked be
said casing below said opening, bearing means secured to
tween pegs 38. The outer edge of the flange extends be
yond the end of handle 24 so that it will not endanger the
the inside of said casing near the top thereof, a position
14 may also be provided on the bottom of the under
reamer, but it need only be used for iinal cleaning of the
underreamer since spoil is automatically ejected by the
spiral auger. Since positioning rod 21 is normally dis
in a position parallel to and offset from the axis of said
ing rod extending the length of said casing and being ro
operator when the underreamer is rotating. Trap door 30 tatably supported by said plate and said bearing means
casing, a cutting member having a horizontal blade shaped
substantially in the form of a sector of a circle with cut
ting edges formed along both edges extending outwardly
posed closely adjacent the inside wall of casing 11, there 35 from the vertex thereof, said cutting member also having
is no mechanism within casing 11 to interfere with the
elevation of spoil. It will thus be seen that this embodi
ment possesses all the advantages obtained by the struc
ture of the first embodiment, and only a few additional
horizontal blade with cutting edges formed along the lead
ing and trailing edges of said scoop blade, said cutting
erated underreamer for efñcient high speed operation.
cutting member is extendible and completely retractable
a vertical scoop blade secured to the circular edge of said
member being secured to said rod at the vertex of said
elements are necessary to readily convert the hand op 40 Áhorizontal blade and adjacent said opening so that said
I claim:
l. In an underreamer for excavating an underfooting
through said opening, a handle pivotally connected to the
upper end of said rod for actuating said cutting member,
cavity in a pre-dug hole, and which underreamer includes
said casing having a plurality of spaced notches along the
a vertically extending, hollow elongated cylindrical cas 45 upper edge thereof adapted to receive said handle to lock
ing and means for rotating the casing in a given direction,
said cutting member in a plurality of corresponding angu
and with the casing having an opening in its side with lead
lar positions, said plate having a hinged trap door there
ing and trailing edges with respect to the given direction
in for emptying spoil from said casing, said scoop blade
of rotation; the combination including longitudinally ex
having a wedge portion on the yback side thereof, said trap
tending shaft means rotatably supported within the casing 50 door having‘a locking portion adapted to -receive said
on a substantially vertical axis near the leading edge of
the opening, a cutting member shaped to pass through the
opening and having a horizontal portion generally in the
Wedge portion so that said trap door is locked closed in
rthe retracted position of said cutting member and means
for rotating said casing in a given direction whereby Said
cutting member undercuts the pre-dug hole when extended
form of a sector of a circle, with the apex thereof pivotal
ly mounted on said shaft means and with cutting edges 55 through said opening in said casing.
formed along both edges extending outwardly from the
5. A power driven underreamer for excavating an un
apex, said cutting member having a curved scoop portion
extending vertically from said horizontal portion and dis
posed substantially in an arc spaced from said axis with
derfooting cavity in a pre-sunk hole including in combina
tion, a hollow, elongated cylindrical casing having an
opening in its side near the bottom thereof, a plate
cutting edges formed along the leading and trailing edges 60 mounted in said casing below said opening, bearing means
of said scoop portion, and means for rotating said shaft
means to thereby pivot said cutting member so that said
secured to the inside of casing near the top thereof, a posi
tioning rod longitudinally extending along the inner sur
face of said casing and being pivotally supported by said
sector portion and said scoop portion travel through said
opening with said scoop portion passing near the trailing
plate and said bearing means, a cutting member having a
edge of the opening, said cutting member when extending 65 horizontal blade shaped substantially in the form of a
through said opening being positioned to undercut the
sector of a circle With cutting edges formed along both
pre-dug hole upon rotation lof the casing and being re
Áedges
extending outwardly from the vertex thereof and
tractable into the casing for withdrawal of the casing from
having a vertical scoop blade secured to the circular edge
the excavation.
2. The combination of claim l further including helical 70 of said horizontal blade with cutting edges formed along
guide means mounted inside the casing and extending
the leading and trailing edges of said scoop blade, said
through the length thereof, said guide means elevating
spoil produced by said cutting member upon rotation of
the casing.
3. In an underreamer having a vertically extending 75
excavating means being secured to said rod at the vertex
of said horizontal blade and adjacent said opening so that
the cutting member is extendible and completely retract
able through said opening, a handle pivotally connected
3,053,331
' 8
tothe upper end of said rod for actuating said cutting
mounted inside said casing and extending the length there
member, an annular ñange secured to the upper edge of
said casing and having a plurality of spaced lugs thereon
of whereby rotation of said casing in a given direction with
said cutting member extended therefrom undercuts the
adapted to receive said handle therebetween to lock said
pre-sunk hole and eleVates the resulting spoil therefrom.
cutting member in a plurality of corresponding angular po
sitions, said plate having a hinged trap door therein for
emptying spoil from said casing, said scoop blade having
References Cited in the ñle of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
a wedge portion on the back side thereof, said trap door
having a locking portion adapted to receive said wedge
portion so that said trap door is locked closed in the re
tracted position of said cutting member, means secured to
the top of said casing and adapted to couple a power drive
unit thereto for rotating said casing and a spiral auger
10
207,122
1,905,995
2,621,898
Julien ______________ __ Aug. 20, 1878
Bertran ______________ __ Apr. 25, 1933
Brodhead et al _________ __ Dec. 16, 1952
2,912,225
2,912,228
Kandle ______________ __ Nov. l0, 1959
Kandle ______________ .__ Nov. 10, 1959
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
678 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа