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Патент USA US3053495

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Sept. 11, 1962
F. M. MATTHEWS ETAL
3,053,482
NACELLE AND STRUCTURE COOLING SYSTEM FOR
Filed Aug. 23, 1961
.
USE WITH EJECTOR TYPE VTOL AIRCRAFT
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
INVENTORS.
FLORENCE M.MATTHEW$
HAL D. STRIBLING
BY
' ‘
Agent
sépt- 11, 1962
F. M. MATTHEWS ETAL
3,053,482
NACELLE AND STRUCTURE COOLING SYSTEM FOR
USE WITH EJECTOR TYPE VTOL. AIRCRAFT
Filed Aug. 23, 1961
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
GB M
GM “0%
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INVENTORS.
FLORENCE M.MATTHEWS
HAL D.$TRIBLING. '
BY
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Agent
.
Sept. 11, 1962
F. M. MATTHEWS ETAL
NACELLE AND STRUCTURE COOLING SYSTEM FOR
USE WITH EJECTOR TYPE VTOL. AIRCRAFT
Filed Aug. 25, 1961
:
3,053,482
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INVENTORS.
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FLORENCE M.MATTHEWS
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HAL D. STRIBLING
BY
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nited States Patent 0 ’ r
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3 053 482
NACELLE AND srntic'riinn COOLING SYSTEM
FOR USE WITH EJECTOR TYPE VTOL AIR
CRAFT
Florence M. Matthews, Marietta, and Hal D. Stribling,
Atlanta, Ga, assignors to Lockheed Aircraft Corpora
tion, Burbank, Calif.
Filed Aug. 23, 1961, Ser. No. 133,493
2 Claims. (Cl. 244-23)
3,053,432
Patented Sept. 11, 1962
‘FIGURE 4 is a partial cross-sectional plan view show
ing both the propulsion gas and cooling air?ow systems
of the aircraft shown in FIGURE 1.
Generally stated, the invention comprises the location
of slots or openings in the sidewalls of jet pump ejector
passages, the openings or passages providing an air?ow
path from a location exterior of the ejector passage where
by the main ?ow through the ejector passage will aspirate
air from the remote locations. By proper arrangement of
10 this air path into the main ejector passages, a continuous
?ow of cooling air can be directed through compartments
This invention relates to aircraft cooling systems, and
or against surfaces to perform cooling by either an im
more particularly a novel arrangement to provide a
pingement or scrubbing type action.
su?icient cooling air?ow for both a powerplant nacelle or
More speci?cally, in FIGURES 1, 3 and 4, the pro
compartment and fuselage structure adjacent hot propul
sive ?uid handling members in an aircraft propulsion 15 pulsion system of the depicted embodiment of the inven
tion is as shown in copending application Serial Number
system.
57,656 identi?ed above, wherein powerplant nacelles 4
A type of aircraft installation contemplated for this
on the aircraft have an air inlet 5 and exhaust outlet
invention is as shown and described in copending applica
6. Located within each nacelle 4 is a turbo-jet power—
tion Serial Number 57,656, entitled “Aircraft Propulsion
plant 7 arranged to receive air from the inlet 5 and to
System” and assigned to the same assignee as this applica
discharge its combustion products through tailpipe 8 and
tion.
In turbo-jet powered S/VTOL (short take-off and land
propulsive jet nozzle 11.
By operation of a pair of valves 23v and 24 in tailpipe
8 of each engine, the combustion products from each
during normal horizontal ?ight, such cooling air?ow drops 25 powerplant 7 may be directed straight aft through nozzle
11 or may be diverted into a duct 13 or 14 which extends
off considerably during hover and/ or relatively slow for
substantially parallel with the powerplant 7 on the inboard
Ward velocities. As recognized by those skilled in the art
side as can best be seen in FIGURE 4. When the pro
to which this invention pertains, this cooling air?ow is
pulsive gases of powerplant 7 are thus directed into ducts
over or past those portions of the propulsion system
13 and 14, they are exhausted in a downward direction
structure whose temperature ‘becomes elevated during op
through a plurality of crossover tubes and primary nozzles
eration; the function of the cooling air?ow being to re
22 into downwardly directed ejector passages 15; this de
duce or eliminate heat transfer from the propulsion sys
liverance of the combustion products from the ducts 13
tem structure at elevated temperature to surrounding or
and 14 into the ejector passages 15 being more clearly
adjacent airframe structure. To accomplish a su?icient
cooling air?ow during hover and/ or slow forward veloci 35 explained and claimed in copending application Serial
Number 88,571, entitled “Aircraft Propulsion Distribu
ties a previous arrangement was accomplished by the addi
tion System” and assigned to the same assignee as this
tion of a fan or blowing means to provide or augment a
case.
cooling air?ow. However, this is objectionable as it re
In order to provide a cooling air?ow for the engine
sults in weight and space penalties, and in some cases
compartment and nacelle structures during normal hori
may require utilization of power extraction from the
‘ zontal ?ight, the normal arrangement is to provide for a
powerplant to provide the cooling air?ow.
plurality of openings 40 in any appropriate or desired
Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to provide
locations in the outer surface or wall of the nacelles 4,
an arrangement for air?ow cooling of engine nacelles in
which can best be seen in FIGURES 1 and 2. In normal
an aircraft capable of operating in a normal horizontal
?ight regime as well as in STOL and/or VTOL ?ight 45 horizontal ?ight air ?owing into the openings 40 will ?ow
along and around the engine in a direction shown by ?ow
regimes.
arrows 41 and through a gap or passage 42 between the
Another object of this invention is to provide such
ing or vertical take-off and landing) aircraft having a
cooling air?ow through the engine compartment or nacelle
air?ow cooling of engine nacelles without necessitating
nozzle 11 and outer surface or structure of nacelle 4
whereupon the cooling air?ow mixes with the hot com
A further object of this invention is to provide cooling 50 bustion gases being discharged from nozzle 11. In this
manner, the propulsive e?iux from nozzle 11 serves as
for sidewalls of vertically directed ejectors through which
the primary ?ow of a jet pump with the cooling air
hot combustion gases are directed for vertical propulsive
functioning as the secondary ?ow.
thrust.
In some installations a ?rewall 7b is contained within
It is still another object of this invention to provide an
arrangement for combined air?ow cooling of engine 55 a nacelle to prevent passage of hot air surrounding the
combustion section of a turbo-jet powerplant from mov
nacelles and vertical ejector sidewalls which is relatively
additional equipment such as fan or blower devices.
simple and inexpensive and without penalties of additional
ing forward to the compressor section.
In this case, a
normal cooling ?ow arrangement is for the provision of
equipment, weight or powerplant losses due to power
inlet openings 43 at a position substantially forward of
extraction.
Other objects and advantages will become apparent 60 the longitudinal location of a ?rewall 7b with outlet
openings 44 immediately preceding the longitudinal loca
from the following description taken in connection with
the accompanying drawings showing one of the embodi
ments of the invention in which:
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of a VTOL aircraft
incorporating this invention;
FIGURE 2 is a partial cross-sectional elevation view
of one of the powerplant nacelles of the aircraft shown
in FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 3 is a transverse cross-sectional view of a por
tion of the fuselage and powerplant nacelle of the air
craft shown in FIGURE 1; and
tion of the ?rewall, as can best be seen in FIGURES
1 and 2.
In an aircraft of the VTOL or STOL type of opera
65 tion, whenever there is insu?icient ?ow of cooling air
through the engine compartment or nacelle 4, a substan
tial temperature rise is occasioned therein unless an ap
propriate or similar type air?ow is maintained through
the compartment. To accomplish an air?ow through the
nacelle structure and engine compartment there is pro
vided a plurality of passages 45 leading from the com
3,053,482
3
4
partment of nacelle 4 into ejector 15. In this arrange
ment, the mixture of primary air from nozzles 22 and
secondary ambient air from the upper exterior or surface
the nacelle compartment 4 through passages 45 leading
from the compartment into the ejector passages 15. In
this regime of operation the annular gap 42 between the
of the fuselage serves as the primary ?ow of a second
structure of nacelle 4 and nozzle 11 may be closed off
or controlled by any appropriate valve arrangement or
device 51.
jet pump, the secondary ?ow of the second jet pump
being the cooling air?ow entering the compartment of
nacelle 4 through passages 40 and exiting therefrom
through passages 45 as indicated by flow arrows 46. This
Likewise during vertical thrust operation, a cooling
air?ow may be provided for the interior compartment 48
secondary air or ?ow entering ejector passages 15 through
by a second set of openings or passages located on the
the openings 45 should be somewhat cooler than the pri 10 interior ejector passage walls 15a whereby the propulsive
mary flow which contains the hot combustion gases and
propulsion producing ?ow through the ejector passage 15
accordingly will provide some cooling effect on the
will aspirate air from compartment 48 through passages 45
outer wall 15b of ejector passage 15.
through a jet pump principle.
With longitudinal ducts 13 and 14 also carrying hot
Thus as can be seen, this invention provides a unique
combustion gases, a similar cooling ?ow arrangement
and novel cooling arrangement provided by a flow of
may be provided on the inner ejector passage walls 15a
cooling air over or past structural components and parts
and the compartment or spacing therebetween. This simi
subject to high or elevated temperatures, such cooling
lar arrangement may be accomplished by providing a
capacities being provided through a relatively simple and
plurality of passages or openings 47 in the inner walls
expedient arrangement that does not involve nor require
15a of the ejector passage 15 whereby the jet pump ac 20 additional operating equipment and Weight penalties there
tion of ‘the main ?ow through ejectors 15 will aspirate
from.
air from the compartment 48 in which the longitudinal
While a particular embodiment of the invention has
ducts 13 and 14 are contained. The cooling air may be
been illustrated and described, it will be obvious to those
introduced into the compartment 48 from either or both
skilled in the art that various changes and modi?cations
ends so that such air will flow toward the openings 47 as
may be made Without departing from the invention, and it
best shown by flow arrows 49 in FIGURE 4. As the air
is intended to cover in the appended claims all such modi
?ow approaches openings 47 it will be aspirated into ejec
?cations and equivalents as fall within the true spirit and
tors 15 to the lowering of pressure at the openings 47
scope of this invention.
by the main ?ow through the ejectors 15, this ?ow of
What is claimed is:
the cooling air through openings 47 being best indicated 30
1. In an aircraft having a turbo-powerplant in a com
by ?ow arrows 50 in FIGURES 3 and 4.
partment and arranged to direct propulsive ?uids either
‘Referring now to FIGURES 2 and 4, if desired, any
aft for horizontal thrust or downward through a ver
type of appropriate valve arrangement or valve device
tically directed ejector passage for vertical thrust, a cool
51 may be incorporated to control the passage of the
ing system arrangement comprising ?rst openings in side
cooling or secondary air?ow through passage 42 so as to 35 walls of the compartment for entrance of ambient air,
prevent, for example, the ingestion of any hot exhaust
a ?rst air exit from the compartment directed in an aft~
gases from nozzle 11 from ?owing in a reverse direc
ward direction, said ?rst exit arranged adjacent the pro
tion into the cooling air?ow for passages through open
pulsive ?uid discharge nozzle of the powerplant whereby
ings 45 into the main ejector passages 15 in the case of
said embient air is aspirated from the compartment by
extremely slow forward speeds in which a small amount 40 the horizontal thrust producing aftward e?lux of the
of the combustion products will ?ow through nozzle 11
due to the slight opening of the diverter valve 23. In
this arrangement any type of valving arrangement may
be incorporated such as leaf or petal type structures, and
any appropriate actuation means (not shown) as desired
powerplant, and second air exits from the compartment
directed to the vertically directed ejector passage where
by said ambient air is aspirated from the compartment
by the vertical thrust producing e?lux of the powerplant
may be utilized, it being further understood, for example,
tor.
directed downwardly through the vertically directed ejec
that such actuation means could be interconnected with
the actuation and control means of valves 23‘ and 24
so that upon diversion of the combustion products from
2. In an aircraft having a turbo-powerplant arranged to
direct propulsive ?uids either aft for horizontal thrust
or downward through a vertically directed ejector for
nozzle 11 into longitudinal ducts 13‘ and 14, the air?ow 50 vertical thrust, a vertically directed ejector sidewall cool
controlling or valve devices 51 may be partially or com
ing system arrangement comprising at least one slot in
pletely closed.
the ejector sidewall, said slot connected to and serving
In operation, during normal horizontal ?ight, a cooling
as exit from a source of supply of air cooler than the
air?ow is provided in the engine compartments or nacelle
propulsive ?ow through the ejector, said cooler air being
structures 4 by an air?ow being aspirated through the
aspirated into the ejector passage by the vertical thrust
compartment by the jet pump action of propulsive e?iux
producing ?ow through the vertically directed ejector to
from nozzles 11, the cooling air?ow being aspirated from
?ow downwardly over the ejector sidewall.
the compartment through gap or passage 42 through the
jet pump principle. The cooling air?ow is supplied to the
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
compartment by entrance through passages or openings 40 60
UNITED STATES PATENTS
which permit the ambient exterior air to enter the com
2,973,922
Davidson ____________ __ Mar. 7, 1961
partment due to the reduced pressure therein. During
FOREIGN PATENTS
operation of the vertical thrust producing portion of the
propulsive system, the cooling air?ow is aspirated from
1,199,711
France ______________ __ June 22, 1959
-M
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