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Патент USA US3055273

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Sept. 25, 1962
3,055,262
A. C. DUCATI ET AL
SPECTROSCOPIC LIGHT SOURCE AND METHOD
Filed Feb. 24, 1959
3001965
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3,055,262
SPECTROS€0PI€ LIGHT SOURCE AND METHOD
Adriano C. Ducati, Corona Del Mar, and Vernon H.
Blacinnan, Laguna Beach, Calif, assignors to Plasma
dyne Corporation, Santa Ana, Calif., a corporation of
California
Filed Feb. 24, 1959, Ser. No. 795,062
4 Claims. (Cl. 83-14)
3,055,262
Patented Sept. 25, 1962
formed of copper or other highly-conductive material,
therefore comprises a single-turn circuit. It is preferred
that the conductor 14 ?t closely around envelope 11 as
best shown in FIGURE 3.
Means are provided to supply a very short, high-current
pulse (or pulses) of current to the conductor 14 on op
posite sides of slit 16-, so that the current ?ows circum
ferentially around the envelope 11 through the above
mentioned single-turn circuit. Such means are illustrated
This invention relates to a photographic light source and 10 to comprise conductors or legs 17 and 18 formed integral
with conductor 14 at one end thereof and on opposite
method. More particularly, the invention relates to a
sides of the slit 16. Conductors 17 and 18 are connected,
spectroscopic lamp and to a method of forming spectra.
respectively, to relatively short leads 19’ and 26 leading
There is a number of situations, particularly in spectros
to a low-inductance capacitor means 21. A suitable trig
copy, where it is desirable to provide a light source which
gering means 22, for example of the spark-gap type em
15
is illuminated for only a very short period of time, on the
bodying a suitable triggering or ionizing electrode, is in
order of microseconds or less. In addition, it may be
terposed in the lead 20‘ in order to effect discharge of
highly important that the light source be capable of heat
capacitor 21 through the leads 19 and 20‘, legs 17 and
ing a substance, which is to be the subject of spectrum
18 and the single-turn conductor 14. The capacitor 21
analysis, to a su?iciently high temperature that the re
sulting spectrophotograph will illustrate the substance in a 20 is associated with conductor 14 in low-inductance arrange
ment, so that the capacitor will discharge in a very short
highly excited state. Such heating must be accomplished
period of time which may be less than a microsecond.
without contamination of the substance, such as by elec
Suitable means, indicated at 23, are connected through
trode material or by the envelope in which the substance is
leads 24 and 25 to the capacitor 21 in order to effect
contained. In producing spectrophotographs, schlieren
photographs, and the like, it may be highly desirable to 25 charging thereof, it being understood that the charging
‘means may be disconnected from capacitor 21 prior to
?ash the light source many times during a single second
operation of trigger 22.
in order that pressure differences, changes in energy level,
It is within the scope of the invention to provide means
etc., may be detected.
for supplying high-current pulses in rapid sequence to
In view of the above factors relative to such arts as
conductor 14. Such means may comprise a bank of ca
spectroscopy, schlieren photography, and the like, it is
pacitors
which appropriate sequentially-operated trigger
an object of the present invention to provide a photo
means, and may also comprise a suitable resonant net
graphic light source which is illuminated for only a very
work associated with the capacitor means.
small fraction of a second and which may be repetitively
Means are provided to charge envelope 11 with the
operated a large number of times per second.
35 substance which is to be the subject of a spectrophoto
A further object of the invention is to provide a spectro
graph, schlieren photograph, etc.
scopic lamp which effects substantially instantaneous heat
These means are il
lustrated to comprise a suitable source of gas 26 which
is connected through a conduit 27 to the end 12 of en
ing of a test substance to a very high temperature.
A further object is to provide a method of forming
11. A second conduit 28 is connected to the other
spectrophotographs, schlieren photographs, etc., in a 40 velope
end 13 of the envelope and has a pump 29 interposed
highly simple yet accurate and effective manner.
therein in order to draw gas through the envelope for
A further object is to provide a method of forming a
discharge to the atmosphere or to a suitable container.
A valve 31 is mounted in the ?rst-mentioned conduit 27 to
tion of the test substance by electrode, envelope or other 45 start and stop the gas ?ow.
Referring to FIGURE 2, the apparatus further com
material.
.
prises a suitable camera 32 of the type conventionally
These and other objects and advantages of the inven
employed in forming spectrophotographs or schlieren
tion will be set forth more fully in the following speci?
photographs, etc. Camera 32 is associated with a lens
cation and claims, considered in connection with the at
spectrophotograph, or a series of spectrophotographs
taken in rapid sequence, without effecting contamina
tached drawing to which they relate.
In the drawing:
FIGURE 1 is a schematic elevational view illustrating a
photographic light source constructed in accordance with
50
means 33 which extends therefrom to the slit 16 in con
ductor 14.
In performing the method of the invention, for example
with the apparatus described and illustrated herein, pump
29 is ?rst operated, with valve 31 open, to effect ?ow
the present invention, in combination with means for
charging such source with gas and for energizing such 55 of the test gas from source 26 through conduits 27 and
28, as well as through envelope 11. This is continued
source to effect illumination thereof;
'
fora period of time sufficient to be sure that the only
FIGURE 2 is a schematic view illustrating the combi
substance in the envelope 11 is the gas from the source
nation of the light source with a lens system and spectro
26. In the present description, it will be assumed that
scope; and
it is desired to make a spectrophotograph of the gas, al
FIGURE 3 is a transverse section taken on line 3—3 60
though the applicability of the method to schlieren pho~
of FIGURE 1.
tography and certain other processes will be appreciated
Referring to the drawing, and particularly to FIGURE
by those skilled in the art.
1, the photographic light source, or spectroscopic lamp,
Capacitor 21 is then suitably charged by means of
is indicated generally at 10 as comprising an elongated
tubular envelope 11 having opposed ends 12 and 13 65 charging circuit 23, after which trigger 22 is operated to
discharge the capacitor through leads 17—20 and through
which are illustrated as being rounded. Envelope 11 is
the single-turn conductor 14 circumferentially around the
formed of a suitable heat-resistant non-conductive trans
parent substance such as quartz or the like, and may
have a small diameter on the order of 1%; inch. Mounted
axis of envelope 11. The circuit parameters are so se—
lected that capacitor 21 Will discharge in a very short
concentrically around the central portion of envelope 11 70 period of time, for example a microsecond, and will de
liver a very high current such as ten thousand amperes.
The ?ow of current circumferentially around envelope
is a tubular conductor 14 which is provided with a longi
tudinal slit or gap 16. Conductor 14, which may be
3,055,262
3
ll
11 is concentrated at the interior surface of the con
13 of the envelope and energized by a radio-frequency
oscillator. Such pre-ionization increases the electrical
ductor 14, due to skin effect, and results in the formation
of an induced current sheet ?owing in the gas within
conductivity of the gas, and thus the amount of current
envelope 11. Such induced current sheet ?ows in the
flow in the above-indicated current sheet.
opposite direction from the direction of current ?ow 5
It is to be understood that the envelope 11 may com
through conductor 14, and is initially relatively close to
prise a sealed tube which may, for example, serve as a
the interior wall of the non-conductive envelope 11.
standard. Thus, a large number of sealed tubes 11 may
The sheet of induced current, composed of ions and
be provided, each containing a different gas, to form a
electrons, acts as a barricade through which the lines
of magnetic force, which are generated due to the cir~
cumferential current ?ow through conductor 14-, may not
set of standards.
Various embodiments of the present invention, in ad
dition to what has been illustrated and described in detail,
may be employed without departing from the scope of
penetrate appreciably. This is particularly true when the
rate of change of magnetic ?eld strength is great. This
the accompanying claims.
being the case, at least a majority of the lines of mag
We claim:
netic force initially pass (in a tubular con?guration, longi 15
1. A method of spectroscopy, which comprises pro
tudinally of envelope 11) between the inner surface of
viding an elongated envelope formed of light-transmissive
conductor 14 and the current sheet ?owing in the gas
insulating material, introducing a test gas into said en
within envelope 11, that is to say through the quartz
velope, disposing concentrically around the mid-portion
or other envelope material.
of said envelope a single-turn electrical conductor hav
The generally tubular magnetic ?eld collapses immedi 20 ing
a slit or gap therein longitudinally of said envelope,
ately and acts as a piston to drive (implode) the current
discharging a capacitor through said single-turn circuit
sheet (ions and electrons) radially inwardly toward the
to form a current pulse having an order of magnitude
at least in the range of thousands of amperes and con
tinuing for a time period on the order of microseconds
axis or center of envelope 11. As the current sheet col
lapses toward the center, in a shock wave, the gas is
compressed and greatly elevated in temperature because 25 to thereby effect a magnetic implosion in said envelope
of the speed and collision of particles. The inward move
and consequent extreme excitation, heating and luminosity
ment, or implosion, continues until the external magnetic
of said gas in said envelope, and bringing a spectroscope
pressure is counterbalanced by the internal pressure re
to bear on said gas at said slit or gap to form a spectrum
sulting from the compression and the temperature in
crease.
30
It is pointed out that the ends of the conductor 14 are
open (not formed of electrically-conductive material).
Thus, there are end openings through which the lines of
representing said gas.
2. A spectroscopic light, comprising an elongated small
diameter envelope formed of light-transmissive non-con
ductive material and containing a test gas, a generally
tubular electrical conductor mounted closely around said
magnetic force may pass to form continuous loops hav
envelope at the central portion thereof and generally
ing portions located externally and internally of the con 35 concentrically
therewith, said conductor having a slit
ductor 14. No electrical conductors should be disposed
formed longitudinally therein and causing said conductor
close to the conductor 14 to interfere with the external
to comprise a single-turn electrical circuit, said slit being
portions of the closed loops.
adapted to transmit light, capacitor means, and means
The result of the above-described implosion is that
to discharge said capacitor means through said single
the gas within envelope 11 becomes greatly heated and 40 turn circuit in such manner that a magnetic implosion
is brightly illuminated. The greatest heat, and the high
is created in said envelope causing extreme heating, ex
est-intensity light, are generally along the axis of the en~
citation and luminosity of said test gas.
velope, parallel to gap 16. The lens system 33 therefore
3. The invention as claimed in claim 2, in which gas
receives, through gap or slit 16, light rays which repre
supply and discharge means are associated with said en
sent the gas in a very highly excited condition.
Under certain conditions, the high temperature within
envelope 11 may cause contamination of the gas by means
of material from the envelope. Such contamination may
result from contact between the end walls and the very
high-temperature gas at the envelope axis.
45
velope and include means to cause flow of gas into one
end of said envelope and means to pump gas out the
other end thereof whereby said gas flows longitudinally
through said envelope.
4. The invention as claimed in claim 2, in which said
However, 50 capacitor
means is adapted to feed a current pulse of at
any such contamination is rendered unimportant since
the lens means 33 is directed at the gas in the center
of the tube, radially adjacent slit 16. Even when the
system is repetitively operated, as above-indicated, a large
least thousands of amperes through said conductor for a
time period on the order of microseconds.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
number of pulses will occur before the gas adjacent end 55
12 travels from such end to the region of slit 16.
UNITED STATES PATENTS
The gas pressure within the envelope may vary through
1,698,691
Buttolph ______________ __ Jan. 8,
a wide range, depending upon the particular conditions
1,871,226
Skala _________________ _.. Aug. 9,
desired. For example, the gas pressure may range from
Bethenod _____________ __ Mar. 7,
0.10 atmosphere down to 10*5 atmosphere or even lower. 60 2,149,414
2,544,078
Glassbrook ____________ __ Mar. 6,
To aid in the above-described implosion action, the gas
?owing through the envelope 11 may be pro-ionized such
as by passing radio-frequency waves through the cavity
within the envelope. For example, electrodes (not
shown) may be located near the opposite ends 12 and
1929
1932
1939
1951
1956
1957
1957
1959
2,753,479
2,800,622
2,817,032
2,883,580
Aughey et al ____________ __ July 3,
Lion _________________ __ July 23,
Batteau ______________ __ Dec. 17,
Kilpatrick ____________ __ Apr. 21,
2,939,048
Waniek ______________ .. May 31, 1960
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