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Патент USA US3055538

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Sept. 25, 1962
w. s. SEH-'ERT
Filed Aug. 28, 1959
,N N
United States Patent Otlîce
Wilbur S. Seifert, Mount Vernon, ind., assigner to Whirl
pool Corporation, a corporation of Delaware
Fiied Aug. 28, 1959, Ser. No. 836,677
1 Ciaim. (Ci. 21S-«42)
Patented Sept. 25, 1962
‘Another feature of the invention is to provide an im
proved apparatus for setting rivets of this type by pulling
on the expanding member with a pulling force while
pushing on the head of the rivet about its periphery there
on with an opposite pushing force to form the second
head and adjusting the angular relationship between these
forces where necessary to apply the pushing force sub
This invention relates to an apparatus for setting rivets
stantially uniformly to said area.
of the type having a tubular portion with a head at one
Other features and advantages of the invention will be
end and an expanding member in the tubular portion 10 apparent from the following description thereof taken in
adapted when subjected to a pulling force relative to the
conjunction with the accompanying drawings. Of the
tulâular portion to form a second head at the opposite
FIGURE 1 is a fragmentary longitudinal sectional view
This type of rivet is well known and widely used for
partially broken away of a blind rivet pulling apparatus
securing two pieces of material such as two sheets of 15 embodying the invention,
metal together. It is a type of blind rivet in which the
FIGURE 2 is an end elevational view -of the head of
rivet extends through aligned openings in the sheets of
FIGURE 1 taken from the left-hand end thereof.
material and the pulling force is exerted on the expanding
FIGURE 3 is a fragmentary longitudinal sectional view
member while a pushing force is exerted on the external
through -this left-hand end of the pulling apparatus illus
end of the rivet in order to form a second head on the 20 trating its relationship to two pieces of metal preparatory
internal end of the rivet and attach the two pieces of
to being joined by a blind rivet.
material securely together. Not only is this type of rivet
FIGURE 4 is a fragmentary sectional view showing the
well >known and widely used but the apparatus for setting
set rivet in position -but before smoothing 4the outer end
such a rivet is also well known and widely used.
In one type of apparatus for setting such a rivet an 25
FIGURE 5 is a fragmentary longitudinal sectional view
‘ .l anvil bears against the external head of the rivet with a
through the left-hand end of the pulling apparatus illus
reactive force that is opposite to the pulling force on the
trating its relationship with two pieces of metal while
expanding member that is exerted by the apparatus.
being assembled with a blind rivet, the pulling apparatus
The apparatus of this type is customarily powered by
being shown canted to one side of a line perpendicular to
pneumatic or hydraulic force. In the customary blind 30 the metal pieces.
rivet setting tool the anvil must be held with its rivet en
The setting apparatus of this invention comprises a
gaging surface exactly even and parallel with the outer
housing 10 having `an outer operating end 11 provided
or working surface of the outer piece of material being
with a centrally located axially aligned and outwardly
joined so that the rivet will align precisely in its opening
opening cavity or socket ‘.12 therein. Positioned in this
in the pieces of material.` This is necessary in order to 35 socket 12 is a rivet setting anvil 13 having an axial open
prevent shifting of the rivet in its opening during the
ing 1-4 therein expanded at its outer end ina conical sec
setting of the rivet which would leave an edge gap on one
tion 15‘. The anvil 113 has an annular ilat rim 16 on the
The inspection requirements on such rivets are
outer end of the anvil at the periphery thereof. The an
usually extremely severe. Thus with countersunk blind
vil 13 which is generally cylindricalfwith a round inner
rivets of this type that are used in airplane construction 40 end 16a resting against the inner surface 20 of the socket
there must be not more than a 0.002 inch spacing between
112 is held in place by a pair of axially aligning, diametri
the head of the rivet and the opening in which it is
cally extending ratchet pins 17. These ratchet pins have
located at any point on the periphery of the rivet. This
sloped inner ends litl within the opening 25 of the anvil 13
of course is a severe requirement and a very high per
with the sloped portions thereof facing the front or
centage of the rivets installed in the customary manner
conical end 15 of the anvil. The ratchet pins 17 are held
fail to pass this test. However, by using the apparatus
in position by means `of a curved spring 19 engaging a
of this invention the percentage of rivets that fail to pass
groove 2»1 adjacent the end of each pin y1’7 but located
this test are cut to a very small fraction of the total that
inwardly of the outer surface 22 of the housing 10. The
fail to pass the test when using conventional rivet setting
spring 19 has one end Z3 turned radially inwardly t0
50 occupy a similarly shaped opening in the housing 10 to aid
The present invention avoids this difiiculty by provid
ing an angular rocking movement or swiveling between
the anvil and the portion of the apparatus that engages
the expanding member so that the anvil automatically
shifts when necessary relative to this portion of the rivet
gun to permit the rivet to align itself evenly in its opening
before the pulling force is exerted. This insures setting
in holding the spring in place.
The anvil is loosely mounted in the socket 12 for rock
ing movement relative thereto and the pins 17 are loosely
mounted relative to the openings 24 in the housing 10
and openings 25 in the anvil -13 that are occupied by the
the rivet securely and uniformly in its opening and rela
«A blind rivet of the type that Áis usable with the ap
paratus of FIGURE l is disclosed in FIGURE 3. This
tive to the outer or `working surface of the outer member
blind rivet 26 has a tubular portion 27 adapted to ex
being joined. Where in the former type of apparatus the 60 tend through aligned openings in two pieces of superposed
rivet gun had to be held at exactly right angles to the
outer surface of the outer material being joined with a
sheet metal 228 and 29 or the like. The rivet has an
outer head 30 of frustum shape provided with an essen
tolerance of approximately 1°, the apparatus of this in
tially flat outer surface 31. -‘The opening in the outer
metal sheet 29 is countersunk as indicated at 32 to receive
vl0" from the vertical without affecting the perpendicular 65 this head. iSlidably mounted within an axial opening 33
alignment of the anvil.
in the rivet 26 is an expanding member 34 having a shank
One of the features of this invention therefore is to
35 provided with spaced serrations 36 on an end of the
vention permits movement of the rivet gun as much as
provide an improved apparatus for setting rivets of the
shank 35 that extends outwardly beyond the head 30.
above type in which means 'are provided for automatically
On the inner or blind end of the member 34 the shank 35
`aligning the anvil at substantially right angles to the 70 is enlarged as indicated at 36a and is provided on its ex
treme inner end with an enlarged end I37. This type of
working surface of the material being joined.
rivet including the expanding member 34 is well known
and Widely used in this type of installation.
V The portion of the apparatus for exerting the pulling
force is contained within the hollow interior of the hous~
ing 10. This portion includes a generally cylindrical col
let 3S having a hollow interior 39 deñned at the front by
an end portion 40. This end portion of the collet is pro
vided with an opening 41 having the outer section thereof
tapered toward the front of the apparatus. This opening
41, which is axially aligned with the opening 14 in the
anvil and an opening 42 in a wall 43 that defines the
bottom Z0 of the socket 12, is adapted to receive chuck
jaws 44 of the customary type. These jaws are slidable
within the opening 41 and are provided on their inner
surfaces with serrations (not shown) adapted to engage
'the serrations 36 on the shank 35 of the expanding mem
ber. The jaws which are three in number are held in
assembled relationship by means of a neoprene jaw re
the position shown in FIGURE 3. Because of the loose
mounting of the anvil 13 as previously described and as
shown in FIGURE 5, the anvil seats itself and thus the
rivet at right angles to the outer surface of the member
29 even when the axis 65 of the housing 10 and the ele
ments contained therein are at something other than a
90° angle to this surface of the member 29. Thus with
the apparatus of this invention the anvil and therefore
the rivet is self-aligning so that its axis 65 is always at right
angles to the member 29. In the embodiment shown the
angle of the apparatus not including the anvil to the outer
surface of the member 29 Varied as much as 10° from an
exact vertical and the angle of the axis of the anvil 13
was still at 90° to this outer surface. The apparatus is
then operated in the customary manner to move the draw
bolt 50 and thus the jaws 44 sharply rearwardly. This
results in a forward reactive force being exerted by the
anvil 13 against the rivet head 30. This reactive force is
taining ring 45 extending around the outer surfaces of
applied to the anvil 13 through the housing `10. As shown
the jaws and held in an annular recess.
20 in FIGURE 5, the shank 35 of rivet 26 is slightly bent
Bearing against the ear surfaces of the jaws 44 is the
during the pulling operation whenever the axis 65 of the
enlarged end 46 of a generally tubular jaw follower 47.
housing `10 is not coincident with axis 66 of anvil 13 due
This jaw follower is axially reciprocable within the hollow
to the fact that the direction of the pulling force is an
interior 39 of the collet 38. Extending around the fol
gularly displaced to one side or the other of axis 66.
lower 47 is a relatively weak helical spring 4S having one 25
As is customary the pulling force on the expanding
end bearing against the enlarged end 46 of the follower
member 34 causes the enlarged end 36a on this member
47 and the other end bearing against a threaded extension
to enter the tubular portion 27 of the rivet and expand it
49 of a generally cylindrical drawbolt 50. This end 49
outwardly against the portions of the sheets 28 and 29
is threaded into the adjacent end of the collet 38, as
ldefining the aligned openings. Continued pulling causes
vshown in FIGURE l, and the interior of this end 49 is 30 the inner blind end of the portion 27 to expand radially
hollow as indicated at 51 in order that the follower 47
may be telescopically received therein. The drawbolt 50
has a laterally extending opening `52 that cooperates
to form a second and inner head 62. As is customary
with rivets of this type continued pull on the member 34
causes the serrated end 36 to break, usually in the area
with la similar opening in the housing 10` so as to com
of one of the serrations.
The rivet connection is com
municate with the exterior of the apparatus. lThis open 35 pleted by cutting the expanding member 35 at a point be
ing 52 is in communication with the opening 51 which in
yond the rivet head 3i) as indicated at 63 in FIGURE 4.
turn communicates with an axial opening 52 in the fol
The rivet connection is completed by grinding down the
lower 47 which itself communicates with the interior
extended portion of the member 34 until it is substantially
of the jaws 44.
Hush with the rivet head surface 31.
The section 53 of the drawbolt 50 that contains -the 40
Then, when the next rivet shank 3S is inserted into the
opening S2 is of substantially the same outer diameter as
`anvil opening 14 it pushes the remainder of the previous
the collet 38. The outer surfaces of both are adjacent
the inner surface of the housing 10 and are slidable rela
tive thereto. The rear end portion 54 of the drawbolt is
of reduced diameter and has -the forward end of a rela
tively strong helical spring 55 arranged therearound.
The forward end of this spring bears :against the rear end
of the section 53 of the drawbolt. The rear end of this
spring 55 bears against an inturned annular flange 56
that extends inwardly from a tubular retaining cap 57 that
is provided with an internally threaded, enlarged inner
end 58 that engages similar threads on the adjacent end
of the housing 10. "I'he retaining cap 57 and housing 10
are of substantially the same outer diameter so that the
cap S7 constitutes an extension of the housing y10.
A pneumatic or hydraulic operated blind rivet gun
(not shown) of customary type is adapted to operate the
force supplying portions of the apparatus. When this is
rivet into the opening 52. This next rivet is fastened in a
pair of aligned holes in the same manner and the opera
tion completed. As the remainder of the rivets are moved
rearwardly by the insertion of successive rivet shanks 35
these remaining portions fall through the opening 52 to
the exterior of the apparatus.
As can be seen from the above description the anvil 13
which has »an angular rockable mounting with respect to
the axis 65 of housing 10 is always seated at a right angle
to the outer surface of the member 29. This automati
cally insures proper alignment of the rivet in its opening.
In addition in order to press the peripheral edge portion
of the rivet head 30 securely against the metal member
29 the anvil bears against this surface 32 only at the
peripheral edge because of the provision of the annular
anvil contacting surface portion 16. As is shown in FIG
URE 3 the anvil contacts a rivet head only in this annular
peripheral area.
done the threaded outer surface 59 of the retaining cap
57 is locked to the gun and an operating portion of the 60
Having described my invention as related to the em
gun (not shown) is adapted to engage the threaded end
bodiment shown in the accompanying drawings, it is my
cavity 60 on the end of the drawbolt 50. By this means
intention that the invention be not limited by any of the
the rearward pulling force is exerted on the drawbolt 50
details of description, unless otherwise specified, but
which in turn exerts a pulling force on the collet 38 and
:rather be construed broadly within its spirit and scope
the chuck jaws 44 in the customary manner.
65 as set out in the accompanying claim.
`In operation the serrated end 36 of the expanding
The embodiment of the invention in which an exclusive
member 34 of a rivet assembly is inserted into the pulling
property or privilege is claimed is defined as follows:
apparatus through the anvil opening 14 and opening 42 to
Apparatus for settling countersunk rivets of the type
the interior of the chuck jaws 44. As the spring 48 is a
having a tubular portion with a head at one end and an
weak spring the jaws are pushed back and the jaw follower 70 `expanding member in the tubular portion adapted when
47 is also moved rearwardly. With the end 36 within the
jaws 44 the spring 48 pushes the jaws against the inclined
subjected to a pulling force relative to the tubular portion
to form a second head at the opposite end, comprising: a
sides of the opening 41 to hold the jaws in engagement
with the serrations. The rivet assembly is then inserted
in the opening through the metal members 28 and 29 to
means associated with said housing member and movable
relative thereto adapted to engage said expanding mem
housing member having a longitudinal axis; engaging
ber for exerting said pulling force; lan anvil having a sur
face adapted to seat on and bear against said head only in
References Cited in the file of this patent
lan area at the periphery thereof with `a reactive force op
posite to said pulling force; and means mounting said
anvil on said housing lmember for angular rocking move 5
ment relative to said axis wherein said reactive force is
applied substantially uniformly to said peripheral area.
Quint _______________ __ Sept. 27, 1921
Jensen _______________ __ May 14, 1946
Van Heeke ___________ __ lan. 21, 1958
McIlvin ______________ __ Sept. 16, 1958
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