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Патент USA US3055761

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Sept. 25, 1962
v. D. DRUMMOND ETAL
3,055,745
CATALYTIC REACTOR
Filed Nov. 7. 1952
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
48
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__________________
12.
INVENTORS.
_V/RGIL
D.
RA PHA £1.
’
BY
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(
MERLE
L.
DRUM/"0ND
KA TZEN
001.0
F i A'r'roRyEY.
2.
Sept. 25, 1962
v. D. DRUMMOND ET AL
3,055,745
CATALYTIC REACTOR
Filed Nov. 7, 1952
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
2,
‘Aw
1
INVENTORS.
-
26
5
BY
V/RG/L
RA PHA
MERLE
0.
.
DPUMMOND
K4 T2 EN
GOUL 0
3,?55§,745
Patented Sept. 25, 1962
2
The catalytic process for which the catalytic reactor of
our invention is adapted comprises accelerating a gaseous
reactant turbulently upward to a high velocity in excess
of that which can maintain catalyst particles having a
3,(i55,745
CATALYTIC REACTOR
Virgil D. Drurnmond, South Port, Conn, and Merle L.
Gould and Raphael Katzen, Cincinnati, ()hio, assignors
mesh size of 80 mesh or smaller suspended as a ?uidized
to Vulcan-‘Cincinnati, Inc, Cincinnati, Ohio, a corpo
bed, and then substantially reducing the velocity of the
ration of Ohio
Filed Nov. 7, 1952, Ser. No. 319,376
7 Claims. (Cl. 23—-288)
gaseous reactant to a lean-phase velocity slightly above
that which can maintain such catalyst particles suspended
as a ?uidized dense-phase bed, and substantially eliminat
ing its turbulency. The gaseous reactant is then passed
upwardly in substantially straight line ?ow at an incre
mentally lower dense~phase velocity sufficient to maintain
a ?uidized dense-phase bed of such catalyst particles.
This invention relates to a catalytic reactor, and more
particularly to a catalytic reactor for the catalytic oxida
tion of ole?ns.
'
This invention has as an object the provision of a cata
lytic reactor useful for exothermic catalytic reactions.
The gaseous reactant is catalytically converted into reac
The invention has a further object the provision of 15 tion product by contact with the ?uidized dense-phase
a catalytic reactor useful for the catalytic oxidation of
bed of catalyst particles and then the reaction product
ole?ns to ole?n oxides.
is withdrawn from the ?uidized dense-phase bed of cata
This invention has a further object the provision of a
lyst particles at a lean~phase velocity below the dense
catalytic process for effecting exothermic catalytic reac~
phase velocity.
tions.
20
By “catalyst bed” or “catalyst particles” We mean a
This invention has as a different object the provision of a
catalyst bed or catalyst particles comprising a catalytic
process for effecting ?uid catalytic operations.
component disposed as the catalytic component per se or
This invention has as another object the provision of
a process for effecting the catalytic oxidation of ole?ns
to ole?n oxides.
‘
25
These and other objects are e?ected by the catalytic
reactor and catalytic process of our invention. The
catalytic reactor of our invention comprises a lower
manifold chamber having an inlet for introducing gaseous
reactants thereto and an upper manifold chamber.
corn-posited with other materials and which may also
contain other particles such as inert ?ller particles and/ or
The
catalytic suppressor particles, etc. By “lean-phase veloc
ity” we mean a velocity for the gaseous reactant which
can maintain a ?uidized lean~phase bed, sometimes re
ferred to as a ?uidized dilute-phase bed, of catalyst par
ticles having a mesh size of 80 mesh or smaller. By
“dense-phase velocity” we mean a velocity for the gas
reactor outlet is beyond and in gas-communication with
eous reactant which can maintain a ?uidized dense-phase
the upper manifold chamber. Between the upper and
bed of particles having a mesh size of 80‘ mesh or smaller.
lower manifold chambers are a plurity of upright open
In a preferred modification of the aforementioned
catalytic tubes in gas-communication with the manifold
process, the incoming gaseous reactant feed is divided
chambers. It is advantageous that the catalytic tubes be 35 into a plurality of separated gaseous reactant streams.
disposed in a median chamber, intermediate the lower
Each of the gaseous reactant streams is accelerated tur
and upper manifold chambers, so that heat-exchange can
bulently upward at a high velocity in excess of that which
be effected between the tubes and a heat-exchange medi
can maintain catalyst particles of 80‘ mesh size or smaller
um contained in the median chamber. Each upright open
as a ?uidized bed. The velocity of each of said gaseous
catalytic tube is provided with an ori?ce at its base of a
reactant streams is then reduced to a lean-phase velocity
relatively small cross~sectional area when compared with
slightly above that Which can maintain such catalyst
the cross~sectional area of the main body of the catalytic
particles in a ?uidized dense-phase bed and simultane
tube, so that the gaseous reactants issuing therefrom are
ou-sly the turbulency of the impelled gaseous reactant is
impelled turbulently upward through the main body of
substantially eliminated. Each of the gaseous reactant
the catalytic tubes at a velocity greater than either the
46 streams is then passed upwardly in substantially straight
inlet velocity of the gaseous reactants, or the velocity of
line ?ow through separate ?uidized captive dense-phase
the gaseous reactants in the main body of the catalytic
catalyst beds of particles and through an equilizer ?ui
tubes, namely, a velocity necessary to maintain a ?uidized
dized dense~phase catalyst bed surmounting and connect
bed of catalyst particles of 80 mesh size or smaller.
ing each of the separate ?uidized captive dense-phase
In a preferred embodiment of our invention it is most 50 catalyst beds. The gaseous reactant in each stream is
advantageous to provide such catalytic tube with a calm
catalytically converted into reaction product by contact
ing-section (having a cross—sectional area intermediate
with the ?uidized densedphase catalyst beds and the
the greater cross-sectional area of the main body of the
equalizer ?uidized dense-phase catalyst bed. After pass
catalytic tubes and the lesser cross-sectional area of the
ing through the equilizer ?uidized dense-phase catalyst
basal ori?ce) interjacent the basal ori?ce and the main 55 bed, the reaction product and ‘any unconverted gaseous
body of the catalytic tube to both reduce the velocity of
reactant are removed at a lean-phase velocity below the
the incoming gaseous reactants to the velocity necessary
for maintaining a ?uidized dense-phase catalyst bed in
the main body of the catalytic tube and to eliminate the
dense-phase velocity.
By “?uidized captive dense-phase catalyst bed” We
means a ?uid bed which forms a self-contained entity
turbulency of the impelled gaseous reactants so that a
60 and from which particles are not withdrawn for the pur~
substantially straight line ?ow of gaseous reactants is
poses of regeneration or for other purposes and to which
maintained through the main body of the catalytic tube.
particles are not added except to replace a minor amount
Elimination of the gas turbulency prevents any appreci
of the bed which has been lost during the course of the
able abrasive disintegration of the ?uidized dense-phase
process.
catalyst bed contained in the catalytic tubes.
The process for which the catalytic reactor of our
65
In another preferred embodiment of the reactor of our
invention is adapted [is especially useful for exothermic
invention, at least one ?lter should be provided in the
upper manifold chamber above the catalytic tubes to re
tain the catalyst particles ‘within the reactor. The ?lter
reactions such as the Fischer-Tropsch reaction, and in
particular for the catalytic oxidation of ole?ns to ole?n
oxides. Thus, in the catalytic oxidation of an ole?n
is in gas~comrnunication with the reactor outlet so that
such as ethylene to ethylene oxide, it is desirable to con
the reaction products and unconverted gaseous reactants 70 trol the temperature of the reaction within de?nite limits.
are removed therefrom.
Inasmuch as the reaction is highly exothermic it is neces
3,055,745
3
sary to remove the exothermic heat of reaction rapidly
from the reaction. The embodiment of the process of
our invention which comprises passing the gaseous re
actant, in the instant case a mixture of ethylene and a
gas containing molecular oxygen, such as air, upwardly
through a plurality of separate ?uidized catalyst beds
permits the rapid removal of heat from each of the beds
and a close control of the temperature.
As illustrative of the catalytic reactor of our inven
4
tube height relationship such that a fluidized dense-phase
bed of particles can be maintained therein. Moreover,
since the reactor of our invention has primary utility as
a reactor for exothermic catalytic reactions, it is also
necessary that the cross-sectional area of the tube be
limited such that a su?icient amount of external tube
surface is available to carry away the heat of reaction.
As will be more fully explained below, the reactor of
our invention permits the rapid removal of heat from
tion, reference should be had to the accompanying ?gures 10 the catalytic tubes 20. For many exothermic reactions,
and in particular for the catalytic oxidation of ole?ns to
which are hereby incorporated into our application and
ole?n oxides such as the catalytic oxidation of ethylene
made a part thereof.
to ethylene oxide, a suitable internal tube diameter for
FIGURE 1 is a diagrammatic representation, partly in
main body 23 when using ?uidized particles comprising
section and partly in elevation, of a catalytic reactor of
particles small enough to pass through an 80 mesh Tyler
our invention.
FIGURE 2 is a cross-sectional view taken on line 2-2
screen comprises an internal tube diameter of between
of FIGURE 1.
FIGURE 3 is a diagrammatic representation, partly
in section and partly in elevation, of a catalytic tube of
the catalytic reactor of our invention.
about 2 to 6 inches. Moreover, it is advantageous that
the catalytic tubes have a main body tube height com
prising a height of about 60 times the main body internal
diameter, although, of course, the height to internal tube
FIGURE 4 is a sectional view of an embodiment of
the ?lter of the catalytic reactor of our invention.
it is preferable to adjust the size of the opening in the
Referring to FIGURE 1, catalytic reactor 10 comprises
a compartmented cylindrical vessel having a lower man
ifold chamber 12 provided with a recator inlet 14. A
dump outlet 16 is provided at the base of lower manifold
chamber 12. Dump outlet 16, is not normally used but
may be used when it is necessary to remove the material
inside of reactor 10. The ceiling of lower manifold
chamber 12 consists of a transverse plate 18. A plurality
of upright or vertical open cylindrical catalytic tubes
designated 20 are threaded into transverse plate 18. Ex
cept for the basal openings in the catalytic tubes 20,
transverse plate 18 is solid and thus the catalytic tubes 20
provide the sole exit for gases introduced into lower
manifold chamber 12 from inlet 14.
The arrangement of the catalytic tubes 20 in catalytic
reactor 10 can best be seen by reference to both FIG
URES 1 and 2. As seen therein the catalytic tubes 20
diameter ratio can be varied. We have ‘also found that
basal ori?ce so that a ?uidized dense-phase bed of catalyst
particles can be maintained in the main body 23 of each
of catalytic tubes 20 of suf?cient height and diameter
that the pressure drop of gaseous reactants passing there
through is about equal to or somewhat less than the
pressure drop of such gaseous reactants across the basal
ori?ce 21 of the catalytic tube 20.
Referring again to FIGURE 1, it is seen that median
chamber 28 is provided with an inlet 30 at its base and
an outlet 32 at its top. Heat-exchange between catalytic
tubes 20 and a heat-exchange medium contained in median
chamber 28 is effected by the passage of the heat-exchange
medium upwardly from inlet 30 through median chamber
28 in heat-exchange relationship with catalytic tubes 20
and out of median chamber 28 through outlet 32. As
heretofore indicated, the reactor of our invention has
maximum utility for exothermic catalytic reactions, in
are disposed within a median chamber 28, formed be
tween transverse plate 18 and transverse plate 36. The
top of catalytic tubes 20 are ?tted into transverse plate 36
which is solid. Only a minor fraction of the total num
ber of catalytic tubes 20 are shown in FIGURES 1 and
which case heat is transferred to the heat-exchange
sectional area of median chamber 28 contains interspaced
20. Any suitable heat exchange medium can be utilized,
such as Water, Dowtherm, etc. In order to increase the
medium from the catalytic tubes 20.
However, the
catalytic reactor of our invention can also be utilized
for endothermic catalytic reactions, in which case the
heat-exchange medium is heated prior to being introduced
2, it being understood that substantially the entire cross 45 through inlet 30 and heat is transferred to catalytic tubes
catalytic tubes 20‘.
Referring to FIGURE 3, it is seen that each of the
catalytic tubes 20 comprises a basal ori?ce 21, a calming
section 22 and a main body 23‘.
An advantageous ar
rangement for seating basal ori?ce 21 into catalytic tube
20 is that shown in FIGURE 3, namely by having ori?ce
21 located within a hollow threaded bushing 26 threaded
rate of heat-exchange, the external surface of the catalytic
tubes 20 can be increased by the addition of ?ns or heat
exchange ?anges (not shown). Reactor heat expansion
can be compensated for by expansible joints 34 located
on the reactor shell wall of median chamber 28.
Upper manifold chamber 38 is disposed above trans
verse plate 36. A refrigerant member 40, comprising
into the base of the catalytic tube 20. In the modi?cation
shown in FIGURE 3, ori?ce 21 is located at the base 55 pipes containing a coolant such as cold water or cold
Dowtherm, is contained in the lower portion of upper
of hollow threaded bushing 26. It is, of course, to be
manifold chamber 38. Above the refrigerant member 40
understood that ori?ce 21 could be inserted into the base
are located a plurality of ?lters designated 42, attached
of catalytic tube 20 by other means.
at their top by plate 44 which is attached to the shell
Calming-section 22 which is interjacent to basal ori?ce
>21 and the main body 23 of catalytic tube 20 comprises 60 wall of reactor 10.
Referring to FiGURE 4, it is seen that each of ?lters
a tube having a relatively smaller cross-sectional area than
42 comprises a hollow tube having a porous ?lter wall 45.
that of the main body 23 but also having an appreciably
Filter wall ‘45 can be made of any suitable solid porous
larger cross-sectional area than that of basal ori?ce 21.
?lter materials which impedes the passage of solid par
The cross-sectional area of the calming-section 22 should
hear such relationship to the height thereof that the tur 65 ticles but permits the ?ow of gases therethrough. We
have found that porous sintered alumina is especially
bulent ?ow of gaseous reactants issuing from basal ori?ce
suitable therefor. Each of ?lters 42 is bolted by means
21 at a velocity in excess of that which can maintain
of top ?anges and bolts 42 to plate 44.
catalyst particles of 80 mesh size or smaller as a ?uidized
Referring again to FIGURE 1, it is seen that ?lters
bed is substantially reduced in velocity to a lean-phase
velocity slightly above that which can maintain such 70 '42 are in gas communication with the upper portion 46
of upper manifold chamber 38 and reactor outlet 48.
catalyst particles in a ?uidized dense-phase bed, and si
As illustrative of the process for which the catalytic
multaneously the turbulent ?ow of such gaseous reactants
reactor of our invention is adapted, we shall describe the
is transformed to straight line flow.
catalytic oxidation of ethylene to ethylene oxide. It is,
The main body 23 of each of catalytic tubes 20‘ com
prises a cylindrical tube having a cross-sectional area to 75 of course, to be understood that this example is merely
3,055,745
,
6
5
illustrative and that the process of our invention can be
applied to other reactions.
A gaseous charge comprising ethylene and air at a
temperature of about 60° C. and pressurized to a pressure
of up to about 200 pounds per square inch, preferably
about 100 to 150 pounds per square inch, is introduced
into lower manifold chamber 12 through reactor inlet 14.
300° C., and most advantageously the temperature indi
cated above.
The e?luent from the equalizer ?uidized dense-phase
catalyst bed comprising ethylene oxide, minor amounts of
by-product gases such as carbon dioxide and unconverted
ethylene and ‘air is withdrawn at a lean-phase velocity
through upper manifold chamber 38 and is cooled to a
Within lower manifold chamber 12 the gaseous stream
temperature of about 150° C. by heat-exchange contact
of ethylene and air divides into a plurality of streams.
with refrigerant member 46. It is desirable to cool this
Each of these streams is directed upwardly through one 10 effluent to retard further reaction on ?lters 42. The
of the catalytic tubes 2t} disposed in median chamber 28.
The main body 23 of each of the catalytic tubes 20 con
tains a ?uidized captive dense-phase bed of catalyst par
ticles comprising particles of about 80 mesh size or
smaller. By 80 mesh size We mean particles that will
pass through an 80 mesh Tyler screen.
Each stream passes upwardly through ori?ce 21 at the
base of each of the catalytic tubes 20 and is thereby
impelled turbulently upward at a high velocity, in excess
of that which can maintain 80 mesh size catalyst particles
such as those disposed in the main body 23 of catalytic
tube 20 as a ?uidized bed.
After issuing from basal
ori?ce 21, the mixture of ethylene and air passes through
cooled effluent then passes upwardly through ?lters 42.
Filters 42 remove any entrained particles from the e?iuent
gases, which particles are returned to the equalizer ?uid
ized dense-phase catalyst bed. We have found it desir
able to precoat the ?lter wall 45 of each of ?lters 42 with
a layer of non-catalytic or inert ?ller particles prior to
placing the reactor on-stream in the processing stage.
In this manner the buildup of silver particles upon the
surface of the ?lter wall 45 of each of ?lters 42 is mini
mized. In many cases, where the inert ?ller particles
comprise a material having an appreciably lower specific
gravity than silver, precoating of the ?lter wall 45 of each
of ?lters 42 is not necessary inasmuch as the silver par
calming-section 22 in which its velocity is reduced to a
ticles will slough off of the ?lters 42 due to gravity.
lean-phase velocity, slightly above that which can main 25
The ?ltered ef?uent passes through the upper portion 46
tain such catalyst particles as a ?uidized dense-phase bed
of upper manifold chamber 38 and is removed from re
and simultaneously its turbulency is substantially reduced.
Thus, a minor amount of catalyst particles are disposed
in the form of a ?uidized lean-phase bed or ?uidized
dilute-phase bed in the upper portion of calming
section 22.
The ethylene and air issues from calming-section 22
in substantially straight line ?ow at a dense-phase velocity,
actor 10 through reactor outlet 48. It may then undergo
processing to separate the ethylene oxide from the un
converted ethylene and air such as by Water absorption.
30 The unconverted ethylene and air can, if desired, be re
cycled.
The reactor of our invention is particularly useful for
exothermic catalytic reactions such as the catalytic oxi
that is a velocity su?icient to maintain the catalyst par
dation of ole?ns to ole?n oxides. It permits high yields
ticles disposed in the main body 23 of catalytic tube 20 35 of pro-ducts to be obtained and a close control of the tem
in the form of a ?uidized dense~phase catalyst bed. We
perature of reaction. The process for which the catalytic
have found that a velocity of the order of those conven
reactor of our invention is adapted permits the ei?cient
tionally employed to maintain fluidized dense-phase cat
catalytic oxidation of ole?ns to ole?n oxides.
alyst beds is to be preferred, such as a linear gas velocity
It is to be understood that the particular details of
of about one-half to two feet per second. As heretofore 40 apparatus construction and of operation, and the exam
mentioned, the catalyst particles disposed in the main
ples of this invention given hereinabove are intended as
‘body 23 of each of catalytic tubes 20 are in the form
exemplary and are not to be construed as limiting the
of a suspended ?uidized captive dense-phase bed. In
scope of this invention except as it may be limited by the
following claims.
addition, an equalizer ?uidized dense-phase catalyst bed
is disposed above each of catalytic tubes 20 surmounting 45
Having described our invention what we claim as new
and connecting each of the ?uidized dense-phase catalyst
and desire to protect by Letters Patent is the following:
beds in each of the catalytic tubes 20 and partially resting
1. A catalytic reactor for gaseous reactants in motion
on transverse plate 36. The equalizer ?uidized dense
therethrough, comprising a lower manifold chamber pro
phase catalyst bed maintains a uniform catalyst level
vided with a reactor inlet for introducing the gaseous
throughout reactor 10, and thereby equalizes the pres 50 reactants, an upper manifold chamber, said reactor hav
sure drop and other process variables in the ?uidized
ing an outlet beyond and in gas-communication with said
captive dense-phase catalyst beds in catalytic tubes 20.
upper manifold chamber, a plurality of upright open cata
Any of the conventional catalyst compositions can be
lytic tubes intermediate said manifold chambers, each of
used in each of the catalyst beds in catalytic tubes 20.
said upright open catalytic tubes terminating in a basal
55
Elemental silver-containing oxidation catalysts are most
ori?ce of a relatively smaller cross-sectional area than
useful.
the main body of each of said upright open catalytic tubes,
The oxidation of ethylene which is effected by the
the cross-sectional area of said ori?ce bearing such rela
contact of the ethylene and air with the catalyst particles,
tionship to the cross-sectional area of the main body of
is highly exothermic. A signi?cant portion of the
said upright open catalytic tubes that gaseous reactants
entering said ori?ce are impelled turbulently upwardly
exothermic heat of reaction is removed from catalytic
therethrough at a velocity greater than the inlet velocity
tubes 20 by heat-exchange medium introduced into
thereof and a velocity in excess of that which can main
median chamber 28 through inlet 30 and removed from
tain catalyst particles having a mesh size smaller than
median chamber 28 by outlet 32. The rate of heat
about 80 mesh suspended as a ?uidized bed, a calming
exchange removal can be controlled by regulating the
?ow-rate of heat-exchange medium through median 65 section interjacent said ori?ce and the main body of said
upright open catlytic tubes, said calming-section having
chamber 28, or, if desired, each of catalytic tubes 20
can be provided with ?anged ?ns, so that a larger heat
exchange surface is thereby obtained. For the catalytic
oxidation of ethylene, we have found it desirable to main
tain temperatures of about 265 ° C. within each of cat
alytic tubes 20. While an average oxidation temperature
of between about 100 to 400° C. can be used in the
a cross-sectional area intermediate the greater cross-sec
tional area of the main body of said upright open catalytic
tubes and the lesser cross-sectional area of said basal ori
?ce, the cross-sectional area of said calming-section bear
ing such relationship to the height thereof that impelled
gaseous reactants passing therethrough from said ori?ce
are reduced to a lean-phase velocity substantially below
catalyst beds in catalytic tubes 20, it is preferable to main
that of gaseous reactants issuing from said basal ori?ce
tain an average temperature of between about 175 to 75 but above that of gaseous reactants in the main body of
3,055,745
7
said upright open catalytic tubes and the turbulency of
such impelled gaseous reactants is substantially eliminated
so that a substantially straight line ?ow of said gaseous
reactants is maintained through the main body of said
upright open catalytic tubes at a dense-phase velocity.
2. A catalytic reactor in accordance with claim 1 in
which the main body of each of said upright open cata
lytic tubes is cylindrical and has an internal diameter of
between about 2 to 6 inches and a height of about 60
times the internal diameter.
10
ing a mesh size smaller than about 80 mesh suspended
as a ?uidized bed, a calming-section interjacent said basal
ori?ce- and the main body of said upright open cylin
drical catalytic tubes, said calming-section having a cross
sectional area intermediate the greater cross-sectional
area of the main body of said upright open cylindrical
catalytic tubes and the lesser cross-sectional area of said
basal ori?ce, the cross-sectional area of said calming-sec
tion bearing such relationship to the height thereof that
impelled gaseous reactants passing therethrough from said
basal ori?ce are reduced to a lean-phase velocity sub
3. A compartmented cylindrical catalytic reactor for
stantially below that of the gaseous reactants issuing from
gaseous reactants in motion therethrough, comprising a
said basal ori?ce but above that of the gaseous reactants
lower manifold chamber provided with a reactor inlet for
in the main body of said upright open cylindrical catalytic
introducing the gaseous reactants, an upper manifold
chamber, said upper manifold chamber having at least 15 tubes and the turbulency of said impelled gaseous reac
tants is simultaneously substantially eliminated so that a
one ?lter for retaining solid particles in said reactor but
substantially straight line ?ow of said gaseous reactants
permitting the ?ow of gases therethrough, said reactor
is maintained through the main body of said upright open
having an outlet beyond and in gas-communication with
cylindrical catalytic tubes at a dense-phase velocity.
said ?lter, a plurality of upright open cylindrical catalytic
5. A compartmented cylindrical catalytic reactor for
tubes intermediate said manifold chambers, each of said 20
gaseous reactants in motion therethrough, comprising a
upright open cylindrical catalytic tubes terminating in a
lower manifold chamber provided with a reactor inlet
basal ori?ce of relatively smaller cross-sectional area than
for introducing the gaseous reactants, an upper manifold
the main body of said upright open cylindrical catalytic
chamber, said upper manifold chamber having a plurality
tubes, the cross-sectional area of said basal ori?ce bearing
such relationship to the cross—sectional area of the main 25 of ?lters for retaining solid particles in said reactor but
permitting the flow of gases therethrough, said upper
body of said upright open cylindrical catalytic tubes that
manifold chamber having a refrigerant member below
gaseous reactants entering said ori?ce are impelled tur
said ?lters for cooling said upper manifold chamber, said
bulently upwardly therethrough at a velocity greater than
reactor having an outlet beyond and in gas-communica
the inlet velocity thereof and a velocity in excess of that
tion with said ?lters, a median chamber intermediate
which can maintain catalyst particles having a mesh size
said lower and upper manifold chambers, said median
smaller than about 80 mesh ‘suspended as a ?uidized bed.
chamber having an inlet and an outlet for the ingress and
a calming-section interjacent said basal ori?ce and the
egress of a heat-exchange medium, a plurality of upright
main body of said upright open cylindrical catalytic tubes,
open cylindrical catalytic tubes disposed in said median
said calming-section having a cross-sectional area inter
chamber, said upright open cylindrical catalytic tubes
mediate the greater cross-sectional area of the main body
arranged so that heat-exchange can be effected with a
of said upright open cylindrical catalytic tubes and the
heat-exchange medium contained in said median cham
lesser cross-sectional area of said basal ori?ce, the cross
ber, each of said upright open cylindrical catalytic tubes
sectional area of said calming-section bearing such rela
terminating in a basal ori?ce of relatively smaller cross
tionship to the height thereof that impelled gaseous re
actants passing therethrough from said basal ori?ce are 40 sectional area than the main body of said upright open
cylindrical catalytic tubes, the cross-sectional area of said
reduced to a lean-phase velocity substantially below that
basal ori?ce hearing such relationship to the cross-sec
of gaseous reactants issuing from said basal ori?ce but
tional area of the main body of said upright open cylin
above that of gaseous reactants in the main body of said
drical catalytic tubes that gaseous reactants entering said
upright open cylindrical catalytic tubes and the turbulency
ori?ce are impelled turbulently upwardly therethrough
of said impelled gaseous reactants is simultaneously sub
at a velocity greater than the inlet velocity thereof and
' stantially eliminated so that a substantially straight line
a velocity in excess of that which can maintain catalyst
flow of said gaseous reactants is maintained through the
particles having a mesh size smaller than about 80 mesh
main body of said upright open cylindrical catalytic tubes
suspended as a fluidized bed, a calming-section interjacent
at a dense-phase velocity.
said basal ori?ce and the main body of said upright open
4. A compartmented cylindrical catalytic reactor for
cylindrical catalytic tubes, said calming section having a
gaseous reactants in motion therethrough, comprising a
cross-sectional area intermediate the greater cross-sec
lower manifold chamber provided with a reactor inlet
tional area of the main body of said upright open cylin
for introducing the gaseous reactants, an upper manifold
drical catalytic tubes and the lesser cross-sectional area
chamber, said upper manifold chamber having at least
of said basal ori?ce, the cross-sectionl area of said calm
one ?lter for retaining solid particles in said reactor but
ing-section bearing such relationship to the height thereof
permitting the flow of gases therethrough, said reactor
that impelled gaseous reactants passing therethrough from
having an outlet beyond and in gas communication with
said basal ori?ce are reduced to a lean-phase velocity
said ?lter, a median chamber intermediate said lower and
substantially below that of the gaseous reactants issuing
upper manifold chambers, said median chamber having
an inlet .and an outlet for the ingress and egress of a 60 from said basal ori?ce but above that of the gaseous
reactants in the main body of said upright open cylin
heat-exchange medium, a plurality of upright open cylin
drical catalytic tubes and the turbulency of said impelled
drical catalytic tubes disposed in said median chamber,
gaseous reactants is simultaneously substantially elimi
said upright open cylindrical catalytic tubes arranged so
nated so that a substantially straight line flow of said
that heat-exchange can be effected with a heat-exchange
medium contained in said median chamber, each of said 65 reactants is maintained through the main body of said
upright open cylindrical catalytic tubes at a dense-phase
upright open cylindrical catalytic tubes terminating in a
velocity.
basal ori?ce of relatively smaller cross-sectional area
than the main body of said upright open cylindrical
6. A compartmented cylindrical catalytic reactor for
catalytic tubes, the cross-sectional area of said basal ori
gaseous reactants in motion therethrough, comprising a
?ce bearing such relationship to the cross-sectional area 70 lower manifold chamber provided with a reactor inlet for
of the main body of said upright open cylindrical catalytic
introducing the gaseous reactants, an upper manifold
tubes that gaseous reactants entering said ori?ce are im
chamber, said upper manifold chamber having a plurality
pelled turbulently upwardly therethrough at a velocity
of ?lters for retaining solid particles in said reactor but
greater than the inlet velocity thereof and a velocity in
permitting the ?ow of gases therethrough, said upper
excess of that which can maintain catalyst particles hav 75 manifold chamber having a refrigerant member below
3,055,745
1t)
said ?lters for cooling said upper manifold chamber, said
reactor having an outlet beyond and in gas-communica
reactants and including a tube-plate forming the upper
wall thereof, an upper manifold chamber having a tube
plate forming the lower wall thereof and having an out
let for the discharge of the products of the reaction, a
tion with said ?lters, a median chamber intermediate said
lower and upper manifold chambers, a plurality of up
right open cylindrical catalytic tubes disposed in said
median chamber, said upright open cylindrical catalytic
plurality of upright catalytic reactor tubes intermediate
said tube-plates and sealed thereto and communicating
tubes arranged so that heat-exchange can be effected with
a heat-exchange medium contained in said median cham
ber, the main body of each of said upright open cylin
drical catalytic tubes having an internal diameter of
between about 2 to 6 inches and a height of about 60
times the internal diameter, each of said upright open
cylindrical catalytic tubes terminating in a basal ori?ce
of relatively smaller cross-sectional area than the main
body of said upright open cylindrical catalytic tubes, the
therethrough with the corresponding manifold chambers,
an ori?ce beneath and in communication with each reac
tor tube and operatively disposed between it and the
lower manifold chamber and constituting the sole com
munication for the passage of fluid therebetween, the
cross-sectional area of the ori?ce bearing such relation
ship to the cross-sectional area of the catalytic reactor
tube and to the cross-sectional area of said lower mani
15 fold chamber and of the inlet thereof that gaseous react
cross-sectional area of said basal ori?ce bearing such
relationship to the cross-sectional area of the main body
of said upright open cylindrical catalytic tubes that gas
eous reactants entering said ori?ce are impelled turbu
lently upwardly therethrough at a velocity greater than ~
the inlet velocity thereof, and a velocity in excess of that
which can maintain catalyst particles having a mesh size
smaller than about 80 mesh suspended as a ?uidized bed,
a calming-section interjacent said basal ori?ce and the
ants passing from said lower manifold chamber through
said ori?ce are impelled upwardly therethrough at a
velocity very much greater than the velocity of said gases
in said lower manifold chamber and also very much
greater than the velocity of said gases in the catalytic
reactor tube; said ori?ce being so short as not signi?cantly
to limit the rate of flow of such reactant gases through
the catalytic reactor tube, and a calming-tube intermedi
ate said ori?ce and said reactor tube, said calming-tube
main body of said upright open cylindrical catalytic tubes, 25 having cross-sectional area less than that of the reactor
said calming-section having a cross-sectional area inter
tube and greater than that of the ori?ce and having a
mediate the greater cross-sectional area of the main body
length and cross-sectional area in relation to the cross
of said upright open cylindrical catalytic tubes and the
sectional area of the ori?ce such that the turbulence in
lesser cross-sectional area of said basal ori?ce, the cross
the reactant gas, created by the ori?ce, will be substan
sectional area of said calming-section hearing such rela 30 tially dissipated in the calming-tube and the ?ow through
tionship to the height thereof that impelled gaseous react
the reactor-tube will be relatively non-turbulent.
ants passing therethrough from said basal ori?ce are
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
reduced to a lean-phase velocity substantially below that
of the gaseous reactants issuing from said basal ori?ce
UNITED STATES PATENTS
but above that of the gaseous reactants in the main body 35 2,173,984
Shapleigh ____________ .._ Sept. 26, 1939
of said upright open cylindrical catalytic tubes and the
2,198,555
Wilson ______________ __ Apr. 23, 1940
turbulency of said impelled gaseous reactants is simul
2,430,443
Becker ______________ __ Nov. 17, 1947
taneously substantially eliminated so that a substantially
(2,475,025
Hu? _________________ __ July 5, 1949
straight line flow of said gaseous reactants is maintained
2,539,847
McGrath _____________ __ Jan. 30, 1951
through the main body of said upright open cylindrical 40 2,554,435
Wiber _______________ __ May 22, 1951
catalytic tubes at a dense-phase velocity and expansible
2,555,129
Hagerbaumer ________ __ May 29, 1951
joints on the walls of the median chamber for compen
2,628,965
Sullivan _____________ __ Feb, 17, 1953
sating for reactor heat expansion.
2,631,159
Keith _______________ __ Mar. 10, 1953
7. A catalytic reactor for gaseous reactants in motion
FOREIGN PATENTS
therethrough, comprising a lower manifold chamber pro- 45
vided with a reactor inlet for introducing the gaseous
680,467
Germany ____________ __ Aug. 10, 1939
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