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Патент USA US3056070

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Sept. 25, 1962
H. LANGER
CATHODES FOR ELECTRON TUBES
3,056,060
Filed March 25, 1960
:
rl.
IJ
FIG?)
INVENTOR.
HELMUT LANGER
FIG. 2
BY
AGENT
3,56,%®
Patented Sept. 25, 11962
2
3,tl56,t)6tt
The other end of the heater coil forms a leg 19‘ which
CATHGDES FGR ELECTRGN TUBES
extends into one end of a length of metal tubing 20 and
Helmet Langer, Stamford, Conn., assignor to The Mach
into a metal sleeve 21 located within tubing 20. In as
lett Laboratories, Incorporated, Springdale, Conan, a
corporation of (Ionnectieut
5 sembling a heater 9 with the sleeve ‘21 and tubing 20‘, the
parts are initially assembled in desired relation, with the
Filed Mar. 25, 1960, Ser. No. 17,666
8 Claims. (Ql. 313-47!»
This invention relates to electron discharge devices
lower end of sleeve 21 being located at a predetermined
known distance from the lower end of tubing 20. With
the sleeve in this position and with the heater 9 spaced
and has particular reference to novel indirectly heated 10 a proper distance from the adjacent end of tubing 20,
a relatively short time.
In the operation of electric discharge devices, and par
ticularly electron tubes for high frequency and ultra-high
frequency applications, one serious problem is the lengthy
sleeve, so as to hold the leg ?rmly and immovably in po
sition. In this way the heater 9 becomes ?xed at a prede
15 terminecl known distance from the tubing 20‘.
warm-up time required to heat the cathode to a tempera
ture suitable for e?icient operation. Conventional tubes
After the heater unit is assembled, tubing 20 is mounted
employing indirectly heated planar cathodes usually re
'
extending member or pin 22
quire 40 to 60 seconds warm-up time before the tube
can be operated e?iciently.
The tube of the present invention is provided with a
versely of and closes inner terminal 15. The spacing
novel cathode structure which is so constructed and ar
between the end of pin 22 and the emitter 10 is a pre
a disc 23 which extends trans
determined value. Thus, the engagement of sleeve 21
with pin 22 automatically determines the spacing of the
a relatively expansive area thereof, whereby preoperative 25 heater 9 from emitter lltl. Terminal 15, disc 23, pin 22,
warm-up time is reduced to about 10-12 seconds.
tubing 20, sleeve 21, and leg 19' complete the other side
of the circuit to the heater 9.
It is, accordingly, a primary object of this invention to
provide an electron tube with a novel cathode structure
The emitter Jill is preferably a thin sheet of nickel
which permits ei?cient operation of the tube after rela
alloy located about .005" from the heater 9' and having
tively short warm-up periods.
an oxide coated surface for
copious electron emission when
Another object is the provision of a novel cathode struc
heated. The heater coils and portions of legs 17 and
ture embodying planar emitter and heater elements so
19 are preferably coated with aluminum oxide so that the
turns of the coil may be closely wound and may actually
engage one another without shorting.
expansive area thereof.
To avoid shorting of the heater 9‘ with emitter 10 under
35
Another object is to provide a cathode structure of the
thermal expansion stresses, both are. preferably bowed to
a predetermined concavity as shown. Thus, they will
above character which includes a novel ba?le structure
embodying gettering means located in the areas of the
remain substantially parallel to each other during opera
tion of the tube. Such concavity of the emitter also
40 causes expansion in a direction toward the heater rather
than toward a grid with which the cathode may be used.
It is particularly pointed out that a so~called “planar”
ture.
Other objects will become apparent from the following
description taken in connection with the accompanying 45
drawing, in which
FIG. 1 is an axial sectional view of
embodying this invention;
a cathode structure
FIG. 2 is a transverse sectional view taken substantially
on line 2—2 of FIG. 1 looking in the direction of the 50
arrows; and
relatively uniformly heated.
FIG. 3 is a transverse sectional view taken substantially
on line 3~3r of FIG. 1 looking in the direction of the
Additionally, means is provided in the present struc
ture for e?‘iciently concentrating heat in the area of the
Referring
ture shown in FIG. 1 comprises a substantially planar
emitter.
Such means comprises a group of spaced trans
55 versely extending disc-like ba?les 24, 25 and 26 which are
mounted on the end of the tubing 20 adjacent the heater
9. The tubing 26 is provided with a circumferential
?ange or rim 27 which may be drawn out of the material
of the tubing or may be attached to the tubing a short
distance from
'
annular spacers 28 between the baffles.
of the tubing 20 is ?ared over as shown
The extreme end
at 29‘ in FIG. 1
Adjacent the inner surface of the emitter and in prede 65 to retain the ba?le assembly in place.
The ba?les are of a diameter nearly approaching the
termined closely spaced relation thereto is a coiled heater
diameter of the heater 9‘ and thus by re?ection efficiently
con?ne heat to the area of the emitter.
The baf?e structure possesses additional novelty in that
70 one of the discs, preferably middle disc 25, is made of ti
tanium or other selected gettering material. Since this
disc is located in one of the hottest areas of the cathode,
3,056,060
3
5. A quick-heating cathode structure for electron tubes,
it will function as a getter at elevated temperatures which
other areas of the structure will not reach.
An additional getter for functioning at lower tempera
tures is provided by a short length 30 of barium or the
like which is af?xed to the inner side of foil 12 where it
may operate at a predetermined time and temperature
comprising a terminal structure including a pair of hollow
cylindrical terminals located in spaced relation one with
in the other, a tubular support mounted at one end on the
terminal structure in conductive relation with the outer
terminal, a disc-like emitter secured at its periphery to the
opposite end of the tubular support, a sealing member
within the inner terminal, an axially extending pin ?xed
by radiation from the heater-bathe assembly.
It will be apparent from the foregoing that an improved
cathode structure for an electron tube has been pro
at one end to the sealing member and having its opposite
particular construction and arrangements of the elements
accomplishing these improvements, permits the tube to be
ef?ciently operated with relatively short warm-up times.
end terminating at a predetermined distance from the
emitter, a tubular member mounted upon the pin and
containing therein a ?xedly located sleeve, a heater lo
cated adjacent the emitter and having one end ?xed to said
sleeve, one end of the sleeve abutting the end of the pin,
the spacing between the heater and the abutting end of
vided which, by more efficient heating of the cathode emit
ter and concentration of heat at the emitter and by the
10
It is to be understood that modi?cations may be made
the sleeve being predtermined whereby when the heater,
in the structures shown and described without departing
from the spirit of the invention as expressed in the accom
sleeve and tubular member are assembled as a unit on the
panying claims.
tance from the emitter.
I claim:
1. A quick heating cathode structure for electron tubes,
comprising a terminal structure including a pair of hollow
6. A cathode structure for electron tubes, comprising
a pair of hollow cylindrical terminals located in spaced
relation one within the other, a cylindrical support mount
cylindrical terminals located in spaced relation one within
ed at one end on the outer terminal, a sealing member
within the inner terminal, sealing means between the ter
the other, a tubular support mounted at one end on the
terminal structure in conductive relation with the outer
terminal, a sealing member within the inner terminal, an
axially extending pin ?xed at one end to the sealing mem
her, a disc-like emitter secured at its periphery to the op
posite end of the support, a ?at coiled heater closely ad
jacent the inner side of the emitter and substantially par 30
pin the heater will be positioned at a predetermined dis
minals and insulating one from the other, a disc-like emit
ter secured to the opposite end of the cylindrical support,
allel thereto, ba?le means disposed adjacent the opposite
side of the heater, and a tubular member carrying the
a heater adjacent the inner side of the emitter, an elongat
ed member connected at one end to the sealing mem
ber and extending axially a predetermined distance to
ward the emitter, a tubular member telescoped upon and
?xed to the. elongated member, and means within the tu
bular member for limiting the extent to which the tu
battle means and mounted on said pin, one end of the
ular member is telescoped onto the elongated member,
heater being connected to said tubular member and the
other end being connected to the outer terminal.
2. A cathode structure substantially as set forth in
claim 1 wherein the tubular member has a circumferential
?ange spaced from its end nearest the heater and against
said means supporting one end of the heater.
7. A cathode structure substantially as set forth in
claim 1 wherein the ba?le means comprises a group of
which one side of the ba?le means resides, and further
has means on its extreme end engaging the opposite side
of the battle means for retaining the baffle means in po
material.
sition.
3. A cathode structure substantially as set forth in
claim 1 wherein the tubular member contains a sleeve,
the adjacent end of the heater is located within the sleeve,
and means is provided for rigidly securing the end of the
heater, the sleeve, and the tubular member in assembled
relation.
4. A cathode structure substantially as set forth in
claim 3 wherein said means comprises pressure-induced 50
constrictions in the tubular member and sleeve whereby
the assembled parts are frictionally retained in assembled
relation.
spaced discs extending transversely of the structure, one
of the discs being formed at least in part of a gettering
8. A cathode structure substantially as set forth in
claim 1 wherein the ba?ile means comprises three spaced
discs, the middle disc being formed of titanium.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,271,666
2,303,166
2,521,364
2,850,661
Smith _______________ __ Feb. 3,
Laico _______________ __ Nov. 24,
Haller _______________ __ Sept. 5,
Nemes ______________ __ Sept. 2,
1942
1942
1950
1958
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