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Патент USA US3056198

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Oct. 2, 1962
E. A. STALKER
3,056,188
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CONTINUOUS
FABRICATION
OF COMPRESSOR BLADES
Original Filed Sept. 18,
1952
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
F|G-1
‘
FIG-2
9
29
INVEN T0R.
EDWARD A.STALKER
ATTORNEYS
a
Oct. 2, 1962
E. A. S TALKER
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CONTINUOUS
FABRICATION 0 F‘ COMPRESSOR BLADES
Original Filed Sept. 18, 1952
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
3,056,188
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ATTORNEYS
Oct. 2, 1962
E. A. STALKER
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CONTINUOUS
3,056,188
FABRICATION OF COMPRESSOR BLADES
Original Filed Sept. 18, 1952
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
FIG-15
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FIG-14
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' FIG-16
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INVENTOR.
EDWARD A. STALKER
tin
ATTORNEYS
‘
United States Patent O?tice
l
3,056,188
Patented Oct. 2, 1962
2
aosarss
so that the ?ows leaving them have a minimum amount
of turbulence to cause vibrations of the rotor blades.
Edward A. Stalker, Bay City, Mich, assignor to The
Stalker Corporation, Essexville, Mich, a corporation
Undue amounts of turbulence developed at the trailing
edge will reduce the life of the rotating blades because
of the induced vibration and fatigue.
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CONTINUOUS
FABPJCATIGN (PF CDMPRESSOR BLADES
of Michigan
,
Continuation of application Ser. No. 319,183, Sept. 18,
1952. This application June 27, 1956, S61‘. No. 594,269
10 Claims.
(or. 29-1563)
Referring to the drawings, a stator blade shown gen
erally at it)‘ according to this invention (FIG. 1),
is comprised of a blade body 12 and a blade base 14.
The blade body is itself comprised of the skin 15 and the
stem 16 within as shown in FIG. 3.
This invention relates to blades for compressors and
particularly to stator blades for axial flow compressors.
An object of the invention is to provide a sheet metal
blade which is economical to produce.
Another object is to provide a process for producing 15
sheet metal blades which is conducive to use in mass
production.
Stem 16 is preferably formed between rollers 17 and
18 (FIG. 6) which indent the ?utes 19 de?ning the
splines 25) with the upper center spline having a cor
rugated surface 21 to effect rigidity as shown in FIGS.
3, 5 and 6.
As shown in FIG. 4 the base serves to mount the
blade in grooves 22 provided in a compressor casing 23.
Base 14- (FIGS. 1 and 2) is comprised of two upper ele
ments 25 and 26 superimposed on the lower element
Other objects will appear from the description, draw
ings and claims.
The above objects are accomplished by the means 20 23 and fused or bonded thereto at 29. The upper element
illustrated in the accompanying drawings in which-—
is made of two separate sheet metal stampings so as to
FIG. 1 is a side elevation of a blade and base as
sembly in accordance with the present invention;
de?ne an opening 3t) of the contour of the root end of
the blade when assembled. Since the rear of the open
FIG. 2 is a top view of the blade and base of FIG. 1;
ing is very narrow, a punch for cutting the opening 30
FIG. 3 is a section along line 3-3 of FIG. 1;
25 from a single piece of metal would have: a short life.
FIG. 4 shows a blade assembly supported in a frag
By de?ning the opening by mating elements 25 and 26
ment of a compressor case;
together the punch can be very strong and durable since
FIG. 5 is a plan view of a blade stem;
it is necessary to cut only a portion of the opening 30
FIG. 6 is a schematic view showing the rollers for
from each respective part. The blade skin 15 and stem
corrugating the blade stems;
16 ?t into the opening 39 of the base which serves to
FIG. 7 is an enlarged fragmentary view of the blade
locate these pieces relative to each other. The sides
showing a groove therein;
of the opening are fused as by solder to the blade in
FIG. 8 is a schematic view of the machine for pro
sheer making a very strong joint.
ducing blades;
The blade body 12 is produced by a continuous proc
FIG. 9 is a detailed end view of the cutter for cutting 35 ess illustrated in FIGS. 8-16. ‘Referring particularly to
a groove in the blade strip;
FIG. 8, a ?at metal strip 40 is passed over table portion
FIG. 10 is a section of a forming die along line Iii-10
42, having suitable guides 4-3 to properly position the
of FIG. 8;
sheet as it advances to a cutter wheel 44 which cuts a
FIG. 11 is a section of the same die as in FIG. 10
continuous groove 45 therein. Cutter wheel 44 is
along line l1-ll1 of HG. 8;
40 mounted on shaft 46 carried by supports 47 mounted on
FIG. 12 is a section through another forming die
table portion 42 and is driven by a motor (not shown).
along 12—-12 of FIG. 8;
Where the nose radius of the blade is very small, of the
FIG. 13 is a section along line 13—13 of FIG. 8 of
order of magnitude of the blade wall thickness or less, it
a third die;
is necessary to provide this groove along a line on the op—
FIG. 14 is a section along line 14-44 of FIG. 8 of 45 posite face of sheet 40 that is to be the leading edge of
a fourth die;
the blade after forming. When the skin 15 is folded
FIG. 15 is a view of the formed blade body stn'p
engaged by welding wheels along the trailing edge there
of;
about groove 45, the sides 49 fold closely together, to
form a narrow radius in the leading edge, so that they
may be readily soldered to ?ll the groove of reduced
FIG. 16 is a section along line 16~16 of FIG. 8 50 width. In the event that a longer nose radius is used
showing a grinding or cutting wheel in relation to the
the grooving operation may be omitted.
formed blade body strip;
FIG. 17 is a fragmentary view of a blade body at
The strip 40 is continuously fed through various fabri
cating stages of the machine by means of a pair of feed
its aft end enlarged to show the metal removed by the
rollers 52 that ?rst direct sheet 40 into a forming die
cutter of FIG. 15;
55 indicated generally at 55. Die 55 is made up of an
FIG. 18 shows a blade assembly in a ?xture for
outer die 56 having a shaped cavity 57 and an inner die
soldering; and
FIG. 19 is a View in perspective of a suitable shear
60 having a tongue portion 61 projecting within the
cavity. The ‘forming portions of the die parts are spaced
for cutting off the formed strip to the proper lengths.
apart to receive sheet 40 and are held together at their
The sheet metal blade and the process for producing 60
?anged parts 64 by bolts 65 that in turn secure the die
it is directed primarily to blade structures which have
to the bed 68 of the machine. The ?at sheet enters die
a constant chord length and blade section and which are
55 and is gradually bowed until it assumes the, general
therefore especially suited for stator blades. To reduce
ly U-shaped con?guration as shown in FIG. 10. As the
the weight of the blades they must be made hollow,
but this ‘feature should not unduly increase the cost of 65 strip progresses through die 55 the ‘blade is gradually
formed into the shape shown in FIG. 11. After leaving
fabrication. If the blades require much handwork their
die 55 the now partially formed strip enters a second die
cost will be too high. It is possible to reduce the weight
indicated generally at 75 whereupon the sides 71-72
and the cost of the blades by the use of sheet metal
stampings and a continuous forming operation in the
of the blade are formed into the cross-sectional contour
process of this invention where the steps are largely aut0~ 70 as shown in FIG. 12, with the trailing edges thereof
matic and require very little manual attention. In ad
drawn nearer together. Die 75 is constructed similarly
dition, stator blades require rather sharp trailing edges
to die 55 having an outer die portion 76 and an inner die
3,056,188
portion 77 held together by means of the ?ange portions
78 and bolts 79.
In some instances it is desirable to heat the formed
strip before subjecting it to further forming operations.
This may be in the form of a- suitable heater such as a
gas, or induction type, shown diagrammatically by dotted
lines at 80. Heater 80 surrounds the blade strip to be
heated as it passes through to effect a more pliable con
dition of the metal before it enters a third die 85.
Die member 85 is constructed of two parts 87-88 10
having cavity portions 89 and 90 respectively. The por
tions 87-88 are secured together by means of bolts 92
and secured to the bed of the machine by bolts 95. As
shown in FIG. .13 the blade is formed substantially into
4
with a suitable cement (acryloid for instance) and
painted on the parts at or near the joints to be soldered.
Solder is also placed at the nose groove 45 so that it is
?lled with fused metal while in the furnace. Preferably
the stem 16 is soldered to the skin 15 and to the base 14
at its end although in many instances the solder is omitted
from the interior of the skin. The stem even though
free from the skin will damp the local vibrations of the
skin.
From the above description it can be seen that the
forming of the blade body is accomplished by a continu
ous process whereupon the sheet strip enters at one end
of the machine and is operated upon as it progresses
through the various stages of the machine and emerges
its preferred shape as it passes through the opening 15 from the opposite end a ?nished length of hollow blade
body stock. The process is continuous and rapid, all
formed by the die parts. The position of the blade sec
operations being performed without the need of indi
tion is de?ned relative to the die block by the line 108‘
vidual hand work.
tangent to the under surface of the blade section.
By forming the trailing edges of the skin so that the
The strip then passes through a fourth die indicated
generally at 105 (FIGS. 8 and 14) which is constructed 20 grinding can be done externally, the economy of the proc
ess is greatly advanced and the problem of ?tting the
in the same manner as die 85 except the cross-sectional
sheets together as by scar?ng to give an accurate trailing
shape of the die opening 106 of die 105 has its reference
edge is economically and practically solved.
axis 107 displaced angularly by the angle 20 from the
This application is a continuation of copending appli
position of the reference axis 160 of die 85. Thus the
strip is twisted by the angle 6 in the space midway be 25 cation Serial No. 310,183, ?led September 18, 1952, now
abandoned.
tween dies 85, 105 as it passes therebetween.
While the forms of apparatus herein described consti
Positioned between dies 85 and 105 is a fusing ?x
tute preferred embodiments of the invention, it is to be
ture 110 having an overhanging guide portion 111 to
understood that the invention is not limited to these pre
both guide and support the blade strip 40. Carried by
cise ‘forms of apparatus, and that changes may be made
a base portion ‘112, is a pair of welding wheels 115—116.
therein without departing from the scope of the inven
The welding wheels receive the trailing edges of the blade
tion which is de?ned in the appended claims.
port-ions 71-72 therebetween and pass a current through
What is claimed is:
the respective trailing edges as the blade moves between
1. A continuous process for forming hollow sheet
the wheels thus securing the portions 71—~72 together in
face to face relation and with ‘both edges exteriorly ex 35 metal blades for axial flow compressors and the like
which comprises feeding a continuous ?at sheet metal
posed. This may be in the form of a resistance seam
strip forwardly, progressively bending said strip during
weld or a bonding of solder, that is, the strip may have
said continuous movement thereof about a line represent
a coating of copper or other solder such as silver solder
on one side.
The heat from the flow of electric current
ing the nose of the blade and with a radius less than that
between the electrode wheels fuses this soldering ma 40 of the portions of the blade adjacent the nose into two
terial. Bonding of the trailing edges ?xes the blade body
with the proper degree of twist developed by the off-set
axis reference lines of the spaced apart dies 85, 105.
Finally the formed strip passes through a cutting or
grinding ?xture 120 having an overhanging guide portion 45
portions having the general shape of upper and lower
faces of a blade respectively, thereafter additionally
forming said two portions by bending during said con
tinuous movement thereof to substantially ?nal blade
shape including a reverse curve in one of said portions
121 and a back up portion 122 serving to support the
hollow blade body strip 40‘ as it passes through.
while leaving said portions integrally joined, and weld
ing the trailing edges of the blade strip together with both
may be done by a conventional form of ?ying saw or
shear such as shown in FIG. 19 and well known in the
ment about said line and with a radius less than that of
the portions of the blade adjacent the nose into two por
edges exteriorly exposed to produce a fully formed blade
Mounted on the ?xture is a suitable cutter or grinding
strip adapted to be cut into individual blade lengths.
wheel 125 which reduces the trailing edge of the strip
2. A continuous process for forming hollow sheet
to a relatively sharp edge, wheel 125 being driven by a 50
metal blades for axial ?ow compressors and the like
motor 126 through a universal connection 127. FIG. 17
which comprises forming a longitudinal groove in a con
shows the trailing edge enlarged to illustrate the material
tinuously moving ?at strip of sheet metal along a line
removed by the grinder, such portion being indicated at
representing the inner face of the nose of the blade, pro
128 and shown by cross-hatching. The ?nal operation
is to cut the ?nished formed strip to proper lengths, which 55 gressively bending said strip during said continuous move
tions having the general shape of upper and lower faces
art as ‘for example that shown in Patents 1,936,331,
of a blade, heating the partially formed moving blade strip
1,946,926 or 2,079,974, whereupon they are ready to be
assembled into the base portion 14. The strip may in 60 to render the material thereof more pliable, additionally
forming the moving blade strip to substantially the ?nal
addition be pulled through the machine by means of a
blade contour, securing the trailing edges of the blade strip
cable 129 attached to the end thereof.
together with both edges exteriorly exposed, twisting said
After the blade bodies are ‘cut to the proper length,
blade strip during said continuous movement to perma
each is inserted into the recess 30 of the blade bases.
Preferably the corrugated stem 16 is inserted lengthwise 65 nently displace the line tangent to the lower surface there
of through a predetermined angle, and intermittently cut
of the blade and solder is applied at all the joints where
fusing or bonding is required.
The blade assembly is then supported on a ?xture 130
(FIG. 18), preferably in an upright position with a
ting the continuously formed blade strip into individual
blade lengths.
3. A continuous proces for forming hollow sheet metal
weight 131 on the upper end to press the blade body 12 70 blades for axial ?ow compressors and the like which com
prises feeding a continuous ?at strip of sheet metal, form
against the base I14 and to properly align it relative there
ing a longitudinal groove in said moving strip along a
to. The ?xture and its blade assembly are then passed
line representing the inner face of the nose of the blade,
through the furnace to fuse the parts together by the
progressively bending said moving strip about said line
solder. The solder may be in the form of wire like clips
placed at the joints or may be powder or ?lings mixed 75 and with a radius less than that of the portions of the
5
8,056,188
blade adjacent the nose into the general shape of upper
and lower faces of a blade, twisting said blade strip during
said continuous movement to permanently displace the line,
tangent to the lower surface thereof through a predeter
mined angle, continuously welding the trailing edges of
the twisted blade strip togetheriwith both edges exteriorly
exposed, intermittently cutting the continuously moving
formed blade strip into individual blade lengths, insert
ing corrugated stems within the separated blade lengths,
and securing said separated blade lengths with the stems
therein in base portions to constitute individual blades.
4. Apparatus for continuously forming hollow sheet
r
-
6
of sheet metal along a line representing the inner face
of the nose of the blade, continuously passing said strip
through forming dies and progressively bending said strip
during said continuous movement thereof about said line
with a radius less than that of the portions of the blade
adjacent the nose forming two portions having the general
shape of the upper and lower faces of a blade, addition
ally forming said blade strip during said continuous move
ment thereof by passage through continuous dies to sub
stantially the ?nal blade contour of the upper and lower
faces of a blade respectively and with both free edges of
the strip exteriorly exposed and located adjacent each
metal blades for axial ?ow compressors and the like
other, and permanently securing the free edges of said
which ‘comprises means for feeding a continuous ?at strip
formed strip to each other during said continuous move
of sheet metal, means for forming a groove extending 15 ment to form the ?nished blade strip with said free edges
longitudinally of said moving strip, dies for receiving said
de?ning the trailing edge thereof.
strip from said grooving means and progressively fold
ing the two sides thereof toward each other during the
8. A process for forming hollow sheet metal blade
strips adapted upon separation to form blades for axial
?ow compressors and the like which comprises forming
longitudinal groove in a continuously moving ?at strip of
sheet metal along a line representing the inner face of the
nose of the blade, progressively bending said strip during
continuous feeding thereof about said groove with a ra
dius less than that of the portions of said blade adjacent
said groove to form upper and lower surfaces of a blade
with said groove being located on the inner face of the
blade nose, means for receiving said blade strip from
said continuous movement thereof about said line with a
said dies and for continuously heating the partially
radius less than that of the portions of the blade adjacent
formed blade strip during the continuous feeding thereof 25 the nose forming two portions having the general shape
to render the material thereof more pliable, means for
of the upper and lower faces of a blade, thereafter addi
receiving said heated blade strip and additionally forming
said blade strip during the continuous feeding thereof to
tionally forming said blade strip during said continuous
securing the trailing edges of the ?rmly formed blade
strip together with both edges exteriorly exposed.
5. Apparatus ‘for continuously forming hollow sheet
ing blade strip during continuous travel thereof to pro
groove in said moving strip extending longitudinally of
said strip, means for receiving said grooved strip during
the continuous feeding thereof and progressively folding
ing edge thereof.
movement thereof by passage through continuous dies to
substantially the ?nal blade contour of the upper and
substantially the ?nal blade contour of the upper and
lower surfaces, and means for receiving said blade strip 30 lower faces of a blade respectively and with the free edges
from said additional forming means and for continuously
of the strip located adjacent each other, twisting the mov
duce a spanwise twist in said strip, and permanently secur
ing the free edges of said formed strip during said con
metal blades for axial flow compressors and the like 35 tinuous movement thereof to each other with both edges
which comprises means for continuously feeding a ?at
exteriorly exposed to retain said twist and to form the
strip of sheet metal, means for continuously forming a
?nished blade strip with said free edges de?ning the trail
9. Apparatus for forming a continuous hollow sheet
metal blade strip adapted for subsequent separation into
the two sides thereof toward each other about said groove
blades for axial ?ow compressors and the like which com
with a radius less than that of the portions of Said blade
prises means for continuously feeding a sheet metal strip
adjacent said groove to form upper and lower surfaces
forwardly, dies for receiving said continuously moving
of a blade with said groove being located on the inner
strip and progressively folding the two sides thereof toward
face of the blade nose, means for thereafter receiving said 45 each other about a transverse line representing the nose
formed strip during the continuous feeding thereof and
of the blade with a radius less than that of the portions of
twisting the blade strip to permanently displace the line
the blade adjacent the nose to form upper and lower blade
tagent to the lower surface thereof through a predeter
surfaces, said dies having surfaces for forming said upper
mined angle, and means for receiving said strip from said
and lower surfaces of said strip as the continuous moving
twisting means and continuously welding the trailing edges 50 strip passes therethrough to the contour of the upper and
of said twisted blade strip together with both edges ex
lower ?nished surfaces of a blade leaving said portions
teriorly exposed to retain said twist.
integrally joined to each other along said line and with
6. A process for ‘forming hollow sheet metal blade
the opposite edges of said strip being free, means for
strips for subsequent separation into ‘blades for axial ?ow
receiving said moving blade strip after it reaches said
compressors and the like which comprises continuously 55 dies and twisting said blade strip during continuous for
feeding a flat sheet metal strip forwardly, continuously
ward travel thereof to produce a spanwise twist therein,
passing said strip through forming dies and progressively
and means for receiving said blade strip from said twist
bending said strip during the continuous movement there
ing means and for permanently securing the free edges
of about a line representing the nose of the blade, and
of said formed blade strip together with both edges ex
with a radius less than that of the portions of the blade 60 teriorly exposed during said continuous movement to form
adjacent the nose into two portions having the general
the trailing edge of the blade strip to retain said span
shape of upper and lower faces of a blade respectively,
wise twist therein.
passing said strip following said bending through dies
10. Apparatus for forming a continuous hollow sheet
during said continuous movement thereof to form said
metal blade strip adapted for subsequent separation into
portions to substantially ?nal blade shape including a 65 blades for axial ?ow compressors and the like which com
reverse curve in one of said portions while leaving said
prises means for continuously feeding a sheet metal strip
portions integrally joined to each other along said line
forwardly, means for forming a longitudinal groove in
and with the opposite edges free, and thereafter securing
said moving strip along a line representing the inner face
said free edges of said formed blade strip together with
of the nose of the blade, dies for receiving said moving
both edges exteriorly exposed and with said upper and 70 strip from said grooving means and progressively folding
lower faces spaced apart ‘to form said hollow blade strip.
the two sides thereof toward each other about said line
7. A process for forming hollow sheet metal blade
representing the nose of the blade with a radius less than
strips adapted upon separation to form blades for axial
that of the portions of the blade adjacent the nose to
?ow compressors and the like which comprises forming a
form upper and lower blade surfaces, said dies having
longitudinal groove in a continuously moving ?at strip 75 surfaces for forming said upper and lower surfaces of said
3,056,188
7
2,123,842
2,422,810
2,444,465‘
2,507,825
2,533,227
2,577,336
2,618,845
2,699,598
each other along said line and With the opposite edges of
said strip being free, and means for receiving said strip
from said dies and for thereafter securing said free edges
of said blade strip together with both edges exteriorly ex
posed and with said upper and lower faces spaced apart
to form said hollow blade strip.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,313,025
Smith ______________ __ Aug. 112, 1919
8
1,516,556
strip to the contour of the upper and lower ?nished sur
faces of a blade leaving said portions integrally joined to
10
Wilkinson ___________ __ Nov. 25,
Cox ________________ __ July 12,
Tiedmann ___________ __ June 24,
Peters _______________ __ July 6,
Smith ______________ __ May 16,
Dalaney ___________ .._ Dec. ?12,
Lampton ____________ __ Dec. 4,
Quarnstrom ________ __ Nov. 25,
Daughtery ___________ __ Jan. 118,
1924
@938
1947
1948
1950
1950
1951
1952
1955
FOREIGN PATENTS
467,394
723,392
Great Britain ________ __ June 16,
Great Britain _________ .._ Feb. 9,
1937
1955
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION
Patent No‘, 3,056, 188
October 2, 1962
Edward A. Stalker
It is hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered pat
ent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as
corrected below.
Column 4, line 37, after "forwardly," insert -— con
tinuously passing said strip through forming dies and ——;
line 69, for "proces" read —- process —-; column 5, line 32v
for "firmly" read —— finally ——; line 48, for "tagent" read
-—
tangent
——.
Signed and sealed this 5th day of March 1963.,
(SEAL)
Attest:
ESTON Ga JOHNSON
Attesting Officer
DAVID L. LADD
.
'
Commissioner of Patents
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