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Патент USA US3056224

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Oct- 2, 1952
A. ANDERSEN, JR
3,056,214
PORTABLE BATCH TYPE DRYER
Filed July 10. 1957
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
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Oct- 2, 1962
A. ANDERSEN, JR
3,056,214
PORTABLE BATCH TYPE DRYER
Filed July 10. 1957
5 Sheets~Sheet 2
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Oct. 2, 1962
A. ANDERSEN, JR
3,056,214
PORTABLE BATCH TYPE DRYER
Filed July 10, 1957
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
3 ——>
Fz' '2
Oct. 2, 1962
A. ANDERSEN, JR
3,056,214
PORTABLE BATCH TYPE DRYER
Filed July 10. 1957
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
Inventor
Art/L 20' An dens'en, J1.’
Parker 8:! Cyarier
Attorney
nit
3&56214
rates atent
ilatented Oct. 2, 1962
1
3,656,214
PSRTABLE ?A'I‘tCi-i TYRE DRYER
Arthur Andersen, In, Box ESQ, Republic, Mich.
Filed .Iuiy 1d, 1957, Ser. No. 673,552
3 Claims. (63!. 34-45)
My invention relates to improvements in dryers of the
portable batch type for grain or other granular, lumpy
or comminuted material, and has for one object to pro
vide automatic control means whereby after the neces
sary adjustments have been made by ‘the operator, batch
after batch will be cycled automatically without further
attention through the dryer.
Another object of my invention is to provide such con
trols and safety devices as will prevent start of operation
and will stop operation when anything is wrong. Thus
the material to be dried and the apparatus are both pro
tected against damage in the event that no attendant is
present to make corrections.
Other objects will appear from time to time in the
speci?cation and claims.
My invention is illustrated as applied to a type of grain
2
When the bin has been entirely emptied, a sensing ele
ment or switch at the bottom of the bin, sensing the ab
sence of grain will start the next cycle, the operation of
which is the same as the ?rst cycle, except that in ‘the ?rst
instance the operator must throw the switch to start opera
ion. In all successive cycles, the sensing means in the
bottom of the bin determines the absence of grain and
starts the successive cycle.
While my invention is primarily adapted to the drying
of grain, it could, of course, be used for drying of other
granular material and while I have referred to grain for
convenience, it is understood that my invention is not so
limited and that grain is used as a generic term to de
scribe any granular or nodular material, even coal, ore,
sand or any other material needed to be dried which is
su??ciently comminuted and where the particles are of
such size that they will ?ow under gravity or under the
impulse of the feed auger.
My invention is illustrated more or less diagrammat
ically in the accompanying drawing, wherein-—
FIGURE 1 is a perspective View of the grain dryer;
FIGURE 2 is a transverse vertical cross section through
dryer wherein two generally concentric horizontally dis
the dryer;
posed tubular foraminous walls de?ne a generally annular
bin, enclosing a plenum chamber, into which hot gas for
drying, or cold air for cooling after drying, may be forced
under pressure to pass radially out through the column
of material held in the bin.
The operation will consist in a series of successive com
through the dryer taken along the line 3-3 of FIG
URE 2;
FIGURE 4 is a diagramamtic representation of the
operating and safety control system;
plete cycles. Each cycle includes ?lling, drying, re?ll
after shrinkage, cooling and discharge and when the dis
FIGURE 3 is a longitudinal vertical cross section
FIGURE 5 is a perspective view of the outside front
end of the dryer;
charge stage is completed, a new ?lling stage will be in
FIGURE 6 is a section on an enlarged scale along the
line 6--6 of FIGURE 5.
augurated and the cycle will be repeated.
The operator is charged with the responsibility of
the speci?cation and drawings.
making sure that an adequate supply of material to be
dried is available and will set a control for the desired
Like parts are indicated by like characters throughout
Inner and outer forarninous bin walls 1 and 2 are
joined by vertical front and back walls 3 and 4 to de?ne
drying time. Having done this, he supplies by any suit
a generally annular, horizontally disposed drying bin en
able means, electric current to the apparatus. He pushes
circling a hot gas plenum chamber 5 into which may be
a button to automatically light the pilot light in the
discharged hot products of combustion from the burner
burner and when the pilot light is in operation, he then
housing 6. The details of the burner including the pilot
pushes the starter button to start operation. Thereafter
light and fuel supply are not further illustrated. A fan
cycling will continue, as long as there is grain available
7 driven by motor 8 supplies air for combustion and
to ‘be dried, fuel available to furnish the drying heat and
forces the hot gas into the plenum chamber 5 whence it
temperature of the drying gas does not exceed a prede
passes out through the grain column in the annular bin
45 to dry the grain. After the gas has passed through the
termined safe limit.
Assuming then that material, power and heat are all
grain, it escapes to the atmosphere through the outer
foraminous wall 2.
available because in the absence of any one of them the
automatic cycling will not start, grain will be fed into the
The ?lling hopper 9‘ discharges through duct 10 in
bin until it is full and the column of grain has reached its
back wall 4 to the top of the bin. A feeder auger 11
50 driven by motor 12 extends from the bottom of the
maximum height.
At that time feed will automatically stop, the pilot light
hopper 9 through duct 10‘ to the front wall 3. The feed
will light the burner and the fan will force hot gas into
auger thus extends clear across the upper boundary of the
the plenum chamber inside the bin and this hot gas as it
drying column contained in the drying bin. A discharge
passes out through the column of grain will dry it. As
auger 13 driven by motor 14 extends clear across the
the grain dries, it shrinks, the grain column is reduced 55 drying bin from the front wall 3, at the bottom of the
in height and additional Wet grain must be supplied to
column for discharge through the duct 15 in the back
keep the column full. A switch, responding to the ab
wall 4. A control cabinet 16 on the front Wall 3 con;
sence of grain, the column having shrunk, stops the fan
tains control and safety elements as will later be de
and heat and starts the feed auger to bring in more grain
scribed.
and such stopping, and starting of the feed auger con
In the control cabinet 16 are a time clock 21 which
tinues during the entire drying stage to maintain the col
may be set to any desired drying time. Cabinet 16 also
umn uniform in height.
contains on and off control push button switch 22 by
When the timer indicates that a suiiicient drying time
which the operator may start or stop- the operation. In
has elapsed, it automatically shuts off the burner while
the ?lling hopper 9 or at any other suitable point in
continuing power to the fan to force cold air instead of 65 the wet grain supply system, exposed to the pressure of
hot gas through the column of grain, thus cooling the
the grain is a wet grain supply pressure sensitive control
grain down to the temperature, below the drying tem
switch 23 which senses the presence or absence of grain
perature, desired for storage.
and prevents operation of the dryer when wet grain is not
When safe storage temperature has been reached, the
present and available. On the front wall 3 at the top of
fan will stop and the anger at the bottom of the bin will 70 the column and adjacent to the discharge end of the feed
commence to discharge the dried, cooled grain, and dis
screw 11 is a full load control pressure sensitive switch
charge will continue until the bin is empty.
24, which, when the bin is full and the column is at
3,056,214
3
4
maximum height, responds to grain pressure built up by
circuit switch 340 to open and the entire system beyond
the pilot circuit will be shut off.
If the circuit remains operative and if the supply of
grain is present as sensed by pressure sensitive switch 23
and if the temperature is within the safe limits as sensed
by the high temperature limit switch 35 and if adequate
the screw and gravity to shut off power to the motor 12,
but which, as the grain shrinks in drying, senses the re
duction in pressure resulting from the shortening of the
column and calls for operation of the feed screw 11
to provide make up wet grain to bring the column back
to full height.
When the pre-set drying time has elapsed, the time
clock 21 shuts off the burner but the fan 7 continues to
gas pressure is available as sensed by low pressure shut
off switch 33 and if the overload heat circuit is closed
by the overload heater coil 36, then when operator closes
force ambient air for cooling into the plenum chamber 10 on and o? switch 22 or when the machine is recycling,
the momentary contact switch 26‘ sensing that the bin
5. This continues until the grain has reached the desired
temperature for storing. At this point the cooling tem
is empty makes contact, the machine will start operation
and loading will commence.
perature control switch 28 responsive to the temperature
The loading motor 12 will load the bin and current
of the grain in the bin will shut off the fan 7, the dis
will be supplied through the loading motor outlet box 37
charge motor 14 will be started and will unload the
bin.
When the bin is empty pressure sensitive empty switch
26 will supply momentary contact to start the timer 21
on the heat and load cycle when the entire operation will
be automatically repeated. The position of the plenum
chamber is such that the grain column between the walls
1 and 2 is thinner at the top than at the bottom and
sides. Resistance to ?ow of hot gas through the make
up grain in this area of relative column thinness is
enough less than resistance elsewhere that more hot gas
will pass through the make up grain. The make up grain
being thus exposed to more gas for a shorter length
of time will also be adequately dried.
Since my dryer while portable is to be used where grain
is in storage on farms and the like and since such farms
habitually have electric current available, the power to
operated and control my dryer is preferably though not
necessarily electric. The fan and augers might be driven
if necessary to operate a separate loading motor not illus
trated to feed grain to the hopper 9.
When the drying col
umn is ?lled, pressure sensitive full load switch 24 will
open, causing relay 43 to open the circuit to loading motor
12, causing the loading motor to stop the feed. At the
same time, the fan control relay 39 will close the circuit
to the magnetic contactor 40 causing the fan motor 8 to
start. 38 is a full load control manually operable switch.
At the same time the heat circuit control switch 34-1 will
close the heat circuit, starting the ?re which will continue
to raise the temperature of the drying gas until operating
temperature control 27 opens when preset temperature has
been reached. Thus during the initial loading and during
reloading to compensate for shrinkage, the fan and heat
circuits are open so that the power demand on the farmer’s
electric system is either the loading load or the drying
load but never both at once.
Under these circumstances the burner will cycle on
by internal combustion engines and the controls might be
and off to maintain the preset temperature. One line ob
pneumatic or hydraulic. The fuel for the burner is 35 tains current from one side of the loading circuit, the
preferably bottled or natural gas, but oil or any other
other 110 volts is obtained from one side of the fan motor
fuel may be used and any standard burner with conven—
circuit at the junction point 42 so that if the fan is not
tional self-ignition may be used.
receiving current through the magnetic fan contactor as,
In the modi?ed form shown in FIGURES 5 and 6,
the heat circuit will not operate. This is a safety feature
pressure sensitive switch 24 takes the form of a hopper 4.0 to insure that there is air to support combustion.
4% communicating with the interior of the bin bounded
The loading motor continues to operate until a full
on its lower side by a ?exible diaphragm 4M upwardly
load has been supplied to the bin at which time full load
and outwardly inclined. 492 is the switch member actu
pressure sensitive switch 24 senses the drying chamber is
ated by the diaphragm. The diaphragm will yield to
fully loaded and stops the feed. When shrinkage of the
actuate the switch both in response to the pressure gen
mass occurs due to removal of moisture, the column
erated by the auger 11 and in response to the weight of
shrinks in height, the pressure drops off and switch 24
the grain resting on its as an inclined ?oor.
senses the shrinkage and closes the loading motor circuit
The use and operation of my inveniton are as follows:
until the bin is again full. This happens periodically as
The operator connects current to the machine. He
drying and shrinkage continue.
sets the time clock 21 for the time necessary to adequately 50
When the time for which the clock 21 has been set has
dry the material. He sets the operating temperature con
trol switch 27 for the temperature of the hot gas neces
sary to dry the grain. He sets the cooling temperature
control switch 28 for the temperature desired for storage.
He makes certain that there is a supply of material to
be dried, su?icient in quantity for automatic operation.
At least ten percent or more than the individual batch
should be present before work starts.
He then pushes switch button 29 to light the pilot light
in the pilot circuit, thus by-passing the pilot control
relay 34 and opening the pilot solenoid valve 30 closing a
circuit through ignition transformer 31 so that the pilot
will have gas supply and ignition. When the pilot has
been lighted and su?icient heat has been developed to
energize the thermocouple lead through pilot control re
lay 34, he can take his ?nger oil the push button 29
because the control relay will hold the circuit closed.
Should the pilot fail, the circuit will be opened by
the pilot control relay 34 and gas supply will be shut oil
by pilot gas supply solenoid operated valve 30. A pres
elapsed, it opens the load and heat circuits by the double
pole, double throw switch 43 and the cooling and un
loading circuit will be closed. However, the fan will
continue to operate to cool the material until the cooling
temperature control 28 reaches the preset cooling tempera
ture. At this point, the circuit is closed through the un
loading motor 14 and if desired, means to convey mate
rial away from the machine may also receive current
through the unloading auger outlet box. The fan control
relay 39 opens the fan holding circuit at 41} stopping the
fan. Unloading will continue until the drying bin is emp
tied at which time momentary control switch 26 repeats
the process.
If at any time, wet grain supply is exhausted, wet sup
ply switch 23 sensing the absence of grain will open,
shutting o? the entire system.
The length of time necessary to dry the grain and the
temperature at which the grain can safely be stored de
pend upon its character, and moisture content and may
70 be determined in advance. Usually the grain will be
sure drop will then occur when the demand for heat opens
stored at a temperature less than the temperature at
temperature controlled solenoid valve 32., causing a
drop in pressure between solenoid control valves 30 and
which it is dried. The operator having made such deter
mination, sets the timer and the cooling temperature con
32. At this point low pressure shut off switch 33 as a
trols accordingly.
He then closes the master switch to
result of drop in pressure will open, causing magnetic 75 cause the dryer to operate. If fuel, power and grain to
3,056,214
6
be dried are available, closing the switch will start opera
tiOn but if any one is lacking, the dryer will not operate.
The dryer will operate in a series of successive cycles
and each cycle includes the following steps: Grain is fed
into the bin gradually ?lling it until the column of grain
reaches the top of the bin, and the grain exerts a pres
(i) a thermostat adapted to sense the temperature of
the grain in the column,
(j) means responsive to said thermostat to de-ener
gize said air circulating means when the temperature
of the grain has been lowered to a desired minimum
and for simultaneously actuating said discharge
sure on the pressure sensitive switch to stop the feed.
means,
The burner lights and the fan begins to force hot prod
(It) second pressure sensitive means adapted to con
ucts of combustion into the plenum chamber so that
they may pass out through the column to dry the grain. 10
The grain shrinks as it dries and the height of the col
umn decreases. Thus relieving the pressure of the grain
at the top of the column and allowing the feed to be re
sumed until the column is again ?lled. This stopping and
tact the grain at the bottom of the bin,
(1) and means actuated by said second sensitive means
to de-energize said discharge means and reset said
starting of the feed continues during the entire drying 15
timer for another cycle.
2. In a grain drier comprising:
(a) a bin having inner and outer perforated side walls
de?ning a drying column,
stage so that the column is always full to the top. Thus
(b) a heater and means for circulating air through
continuing periodic supply of make up grain is fed to the
top of the column and such make up grain being located
said heater and column,
(c) means for feeding grain to the top of said column,
(d) means for discharging grain from the bottom of
in a thinner portion of the column receives more heat for
more rapid drying to compensate for the shorter time it is 20
said column,
exposed.
(e) control means for said feeding means,
At the time set, the timer turns oi the fuel and no
more heat is supplied but the fan continues to force cool
air into the plenum chamber which air as it passes out
through the column cools the grain down toward the de 25
sired storage temperature. When such temperature is
reached, the switch to supply current to the unloading
(1‘) a ?rst pressure sensitive means adapted to contact
the grain at the top of the column and connected to
said control means to stop the operation of the feed
means when the column is full,
(g) means actuated by said ?rst sensitive means when
motor is closed, the fan stopping operation immediately
air circulating means, said ?rst pressure means sens
when the unloading motor starts to work and the un
loading screw discharges the dried and cooled grain from 30
the bin. Grain continues to be discharged until the bin
is empty. When the bin is empty, the pressure sensitive
switch at the bottom of the bin adjacent the point of dis
charge senses absence of grain, momentarily closes a cir
cuit to start the reloading for the next cycle and the 35
cycle is repeated as above.
If the operator has made a mistake and set the timer
for too short a drying period, he can easily advance the
timer without any other elfect except to delay the time
when the timer shuts oi the ?re to inaugurate the other 40
sequence.
I claim:
1. In a grain drier comprising:
(a) a bin having inner and outer perforated side walls
45
de?ning a drying column,
(b) a heater and means for circulating air through said
heater and column,
(c) means for feeding grain to the top of said column,
(d) means for discharging grain from the bottom of
said column,
the column is full to energize said heater and said
50
(e) control means for said feeding means,
(1‘) a ?rst pressure sensitive means adapted to contact
the grain at the top of the column and connected to
said control means to stop the operation of the feed
55
means when the column is full,
(g) means actuated by said ?rst sensitive means when
ing shrinkage of the grain after a period of time and
thereafter operating to de-energize said heater and
air circulating means and to re-energize said feeding
means, the cycle of operation of the sensing means
being repeated until the column becomes stabilized,
(h) and said control means including a timer adapted
to thereafter de-energize said heater when a prede
termined drying time has elapsed.
3. The apparatus of claim 2 and also including:
(i) a thermostat adapted to sense the temperature of
the grain in the column,
(j) means responsive to said thermostat to de-energize
said air circulating means when the temperature of
the grain has been lowered to a desired minimum
and for simultaneously actuating said discharge
means,
(k) second pressure sensitive means adapted to contact
the grain at the bottom of the bin,
(l) and means actuated by said second sensitive means
to de-energize said discharge means and reset said
timer for another cycle.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,069,193
Behr et a1. ___________ __ Ian. 26, 1937
the column is full to energize said heater and said
2,307,294
Persons ______________ .._ Jan. 5, 1943
air circulating means,
2,373,339
2,654,961
2,740,204
2,772,487
Roberts _____________ __ Apr. 10,
Manecke ____________ __ Oct. 13,
Seltzer et a1. __________ _- Apr. 3,
Arndt _______________ .._ Dec. 4,
(h) said control means including a timer adapted to
de—energize said heater when a predetermined drying 60
time has elapsed,
1945
1953
1956
1956
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