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Патент USA US3056268

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Oct. 2, 1962
Filed June 25, 1959
K66 ‘ atent O
Patented Oct. 2, 1962
38 within the wall 4 through coaxial chambers 40 and
42 surrounding the ignition chamber and thence between
Frederick W. Brnnkhardt, South Glastonbury, Conn., as
signor to United Aircraft (Iorporation, East Hartford,
the cap 30 and a cooperating outer cap 44.
In setting the ignitor in operation propellants are sup
plied to the nozzle 22 and to an inlet pipe 46 communicat
ing with the nozzle 20. These propellants at this time
are supplied at tank pressure which is relatively low but
5 Claims. (Cl. 60-356)
adequate to assure an intermixing of the propellants
This invention relates to an ignitor for use particularly
within the chamber 14 so that they may be ignited by the
in liquid propellant rockets.
10 spark plug 18 to form a pilot ?ame.
The pending application of Tinkelenberg, Serial No.
The supply of propellants to the main chamber 2 is
822,687, ?led June 24, 1959, ‘describes a pre-ignition
controlled by pumps which are set in operation sub
chamber in which the propellants are ?rst mixed and
stantially at the time that the supply ‘of propellants to
ignited at low pressure in conjunction with a communicat
the nozzle 22 and duct 46 is turned on. The pilot or
ing ignition chamber in which further and more extensive 15 pre-ignition ?ame in the chamber 14 is started prior to
combustion takes place to produce a substantial torch of
the pressure delivery of propellants to the main fuel
combustion products into the main rocket chamber. A
chamber so that there will be, when the propellants begin
feature of the present invention is the control of the
to reach chamber 2, an igniting ?ame already available.
?ow of one of the propellants to the pre-ignition and
As the pumps begin to be effective so that the pressure
ignition chambers as a function of the supply pressure of 20 at which the propellants are supplied to the ducts 22 and
Conn., a corporation of Delaware
Filed June 25, 1959, Ser. No. 822,901
the propellant.
46 increases, the supply of propellant (the fuel) is
One feature of the invention is an ignitor of this char
shifted from the nozzle 20 to the manifold 34. This is
acter having propellant discharge openings in each cham
accomplished by a suitable valve, one example of which
ber with a valve for dividing the propellant flow to the
is shown in detail in FIG. 2.
chamber in response to varying propellant supply pres 25 In the arrangement shown, the valve casing 48 has a
sure. Another feature is the ignition of the propellants
valve 50 slidable therein and this valve is held in the
in the pre-ignition chamber and when ignition has begun
the transfer of the supply of one of the propellants from
the pre-ignition chamber to the ignition chamber so that
position shown during starting by the compression spring
52 acting on the end of the valve. The valve 50 has a
central passage 54 such that when the valve is moved
further combustion will take place in the auxiliary 30 against the force of the spring 52 ?uid will ?ow through
the passage 54 through side ports 56 communicating
Other features and advantages will be apparent from
therewith and around the plug end 58 of the valve into
the speci?cation and claims, and from the accompanying
a chamber 60. This plug end 58 closely ?ts the casing
drawing which illustrates an embodiment of the invention.
and effectively cuts off ?uid flow into duct 62 until the
FIG. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view through the 35 valve is moved against the pressure of spring 52 to carry
the plug into the chamber 60. From this chamber a
FIG. 2 is a sectional view on a larger scale of the valve.
conduit 62 connects with the manifold 34. The valve 50
Referring ?rst to FIG. 1 the main combustion chamber
has a head 64 in a position to engage with the port 66
2 has an end wall 4 with an opening 6 therein to receive
in casing 48 which communicates with the duct 20 there
the ignitor assembly 8. The wall 4 includes a sleeve 10 40 by to close off this duct as pressure increases in the fuel
inlet duct 46.
surrounding the ignitor and providing a second opening
12 axially spaced from the opening 6.
Accordingly, as pressures build up within the propellant
The ignitor assembly includes a pre-ignition chamber
systems the unbalanced pressure acting on the valve 50
14 in the wall 16 of which is positioned a spark plug 18,
will move the valve against the compression of the spring
a nozzle 20 for one of the propellants, for example, the 45 52 closing oil the conduit 20 and admitting fuel past the
fuel, and another nozzle 22 for the other propellant, for
plug end 58 of the valve and through duct 62 to the
example, the oxidizer. The nozzle 22 is located sub
manifold 34. Fuel is then delivered into the chamber
stantially in axial alignment with the axis of the chamber
26 through the passages 36 and this fuel mixes with the
oxidizer from the nozzle 22. The pilot ?ame within the
The chamber :14 is connected by a throat or passage 50 chamber 14 is carried by the increasing pressure of the
24 to the ignition chamber 26, the latter being de?ned
oxidizer and fuel into the ignition chamber 26 from which
by a sleeve 28 attached at one end to the throat 24 and
the pressures of the propellants force the combusting
having the opposite end partially closed by a cap 30.
propellants in the form of a torch through the opening
The cap has a central opening 32 for the discharge of
32 and into the main combustion chamber.
combustion products into the main chamber 2. The 55
The particular arrangement for the supply of the
chambers 14 and 26 are in axial alignment and the pass
propellants under pressure to the main combustion cham~
age 24 forms an axial connection between the chambers.
her 2 and also to the ignition mechanism. is not a part of
The nozzle 22 is substantially in axial alignment with
the present invention. It is believed su?icient to note that
the passage 24 so that as propellant pressures increase,
the function of the valve '50 is to divert the fuel delivered
the oxidizer from this nozzle will be discharged through 60 to the ignitor from the duct 20 leading to‘ the pre-ignition
passage 24 into chamber 26.
chamber to the manifold 34 and thence into ignition
Surrounding the throat 24 is a ring 34 forming a mani
chamber 26' when increasing pressures on the propellants
fold for one of the propellants, preferably the fuel, and
are high enough so that combustion within the ignition
this propellant is discharged through a ring of openings
chamber 26 is essential for the purpose of igniting the
36 surrounding the throat and arranged in such a way 65 propellants in the main chamber.
as to direct the fuel into ignition chamber 26. These
It is to be understood that the invention is not limited
openings 36 are preferably arranged at an acute angle
to the speci?c embodiment herein illustrated and des
to the axis of the two chambers so that the ?uid dis~
cribed, but may be used in other ways without departure
charged through the several openings converges at a point
from its spirit as de?ned by the following claims.
substantially midway of the ignition chamber.
I claim:
The walls of the'ignition chamber may be cooled by
the flow of a propellant or other coolant ‘from the space
1. An ignitor for a main combustion enclosure com
prising a pre-ignition chamber and an ignition chamber,
means including a passage supplying a ?rst propellant to
the flow of said second propellant solely to said pro-igni
tion chamber at low propellant pressures.
5. An ignitor as in claim 1 in which said passage is dis
posed between said chambers and is coaxial therewith
ignition chamber to said ignition chamber, and a valve 5 and in which the ?rst of said propellants is directed into
said pre-ignition chamber substantially in alignment with
responsive to the pressure of a second propellant supply
said passage.
ing said second propellant to said pre-ignition chamber
responsive to low pressure of said second propellant, said
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
valve responding to increased pressures of said second
propellant to supply second propellant to said ignition 10
chamber and simultaneously reduce the supply of said
Heigis ______________ “Oct. 28, 1941
second propellant to said pre-ignition chamber.
Allen et a1. __________ __ Feb. 6, 1951
2. An ignitor according to claim 1 wherein said valve
Schneider ___________ __ Sept. 21, 1954
excludes said second propellant from said ignition cham
Zucrow _____________ __ May 17, 1955
ber at low pressures of said second propellant.
Allen ______________ __ Dec. 18, 1956
3. An ignitor according to claim 1 wherein said valve
said chambers, said pre~ignition chamber being axially
aligned and serially connected with said ignition chamber
whereby said ?rst propellant will ?ow through said pre
excludes said second propellant from said pre-ignition
chamber at elevated pressures of said second propellant.
4. An ignitor as in claim 31 in which said valve delivers
Welch et al ____________ __ Jan. 1, 1957
Reddy ______________ __ Aug. 4, 1959
Burton et al. __________ __ Mar. 15, 1,96Q
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