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Патент USA US3057220

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Oct. 9, 1962
D. B. DUNCAN ETAL
3,057,211
PROGRAMMED COMPUTER
Filed April 28, 1958
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
mvY
INVENTORS.
DONAL B. DUNCAN
HENRY E. SINGLETON
ATTORNEY
Oct. 9, 1962
D. B. DUNCAN ETAL
3,057,211
PROGRAM/IED COMPUTER
Filed April 28, 1958
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
FILTER _l
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|29
INVENTORS.
DONAL B. DUNCAN
HENRY E. SINGLETON
BY
(LQ/QAM
ATTORNEY
Oct. 9, 1962
3,057,211
D. B. DUNCAN ETAL
PROGRAMMED COMPUTER
Filed April 28, 1958
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
GYRO
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INVENTORS.
DONAL B. DUNCAN
HENRY E. SINGLETON
GTOYYRO
BY
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OMM 65am/
ATTORNEY
1
United States Patent O ice
3,05 7,21 l
Patented Oct. 9, 1962
l
2
3,057,211
terms of range angle, the output of the scanner will
either directly provide the desired feedback terms or rela
PROGRAMMED COMPUTER
Donal B. Duncan, Arcadia, and Henry E. Singleton,
})owney, Calif., assignors to North American Aviation,
nc.
Filed Apr. 28, 1958, Ser. No. 733,226
8 Claims. (Cl. 74---5.34)
tively simple functions thereof.
The recorded functions of range which are carried by
Ul the computer, although fairly complex, are substantially
functions only of the vehicle path and comprise but rela
tively small components which depend upon vehicle ve
locity.
Therefore, variations of velocity from pro
The invention relates to computers and more particu
larly to a computer for use with a programmed inertial
grammed values will have little or no effect upon the
navigator.
In the illustrated embodiment of the invention the
computer memory is in the form of an elongated record
medium or tape having the desired functions of feed
back terms coded thereon as binary indicia in the form
inertial guidance systems typically comprise a plurality
of acceleration sensing devices which measure vehicle ac
celerations along the axes of a set of two or more or
system.
of punched holes having a density which is the recorded
function of range. The tape is scanned by a tape reader
at a rate equal to the first derivative of range by caus
ing the range output of the range distance meter to
erated space is in effect the space defined by the fixed
position the tape rela-tive to its reader. A pulse is gen
stars as distinguished, for example, from the surface of
the rotating earth. The gyroscopes are utilized to main 20 erated each time a punched hole passes the tape reader
whereby the density or repetition rate of the pulses from
tain the accelerometers in a known orientation. Thus,
thogonal axes and a plurality of gyroscopes which de
fine a set of three orthogonal reference axes having some
definite relation to inertial space. Inertial or unaccel
a sing‘le integration of acceleration signals will give vehicle
the tape reader is the product of the recorded function
velocity components along a set .of known axes and a
and range rate. Depending upon nature of the recorded
double integration will give displacement or distance
function, the pulses from the tape reader, after smooth
made good with reference to such axes. The accelerome 25 ing to obtain a signal proportional to pulse density, may
be integrated, differentiated or fed directly as the de
ters will respond to factors other than those due solely
sired feedback function.
to change of vehicle motion and thus must be biased or
An object of this invention is to provide an improved
torqued to enable the output thereof to be interpreted
inertial navigator,
correctly as changes of motion of the vehicle. The gyro
Another object of this invention is to provide an im
scopes too must be biased or torqued if they are to be 30
proved computer.
maintained in any attitude which is not fixed in relation
A further object of this invention is to generate inertial
to inertial space. For this reason the inertial navigator
navigator feedback terms substantially independent of pro
must include a computer which takes into account earth
rotation, gravity and other factors and generates the re
quired gyroscope and accelerometer correction torques.
grammed velocity.
Still another object of this invention is to provide a
computer requiring but a single input.
Another object of the invention is to provide given
signals since they are functions of the position and ve
functions of distance made good by a vehicle travelling
locity (as determined by the accelerometers) of the ve
a preselected path.
hicle carried navigator.
Further objects of this invention will become apparent
The position of the vehicle and its navigator on the 40
from the following description taken in connection with
surface of the earth is defined by two coordinates. In
the accompanying drawings, in which
the usual computer these two position coordinates are
FIG. l is a functional block diagram of an autonavi
the inputs from which the computer calculates the feed
These correction torques or signals are termed feedback
back terms or approximations to the feedback terms and
gator utilizing the computer of this invention;
45
FIG. 2 illustrates geometry of a guidance problem to
generates the required functions.
be handled by an autonavigator;
An autonavigator bearing vehicle is frequently pro
FIG. 3 illustrates certain details of portions of the
grammed to follow a preselected path over the surface
computer;
of the earth. In accordance with the present invention,
And FIG. 4 illustrates details .of a circuit for operating
knowledge of the programmed path is utilized to provide
a programmed computer having a memory or storage 50 upon certain recorded functions.
In the drawings like reference numerals refer to like
for functions of the desired feedback terms which have
parts.
been previously calculated for a programmed vehicle
Referring now to FIG. l, a typical stable platform is
path. One of the two position coordinates can always
illustrated as comprising a platform 10 on which are
be expressed as a function of the other. Thus, the prin
fixedly mounted X and Y distance meters 11 and 12, and
oipa'l feedback terms can be expressed as some function
stabilizing single axis gyroscopes 13 (X), 14 (Y) and
of one coordinate or the product of the rate of change
15 (Z). The platform 10 is mounted in the vehicle
of such coordinate with another function of the one co
(not shown) to be navigated by means of a three axis
ordinate. There is initially stored in the computer various
gimbal system schematically depicted by gimbals 16 and
functions of one position coordinate which is the inde
pendent variable of range angle or distance made good. 60 18 which, as is well-known, will permit complete (three
degree) rotational freedom of the platform with respect
The information stored in the computer is scanned at
to the vehicle. The platform is mounted for rotation
a rate determined by the independently variable position
abou-t X in roll gimbal 16y which is »in turn pivotally
coordinate which may be the output of one of the ac
mounted for rotation about Z in yaw gimbal 18. The
celerometers or distance meters. The term distance me
ter as used herein designates au acceleration responsive 65 latter is pivoted to the vehicle for rotation in pitch by
conventional structure (not shown). Departures of the
device which may itself singly or doubly integrate ac
celeration or may be combined with such external inte
platform 10 `from an attitude deñned by the three mu
tually orthogonal gyroscopes is sensed by gyroscope pick
grators as to yield signals proportional to the second
integral of acceleration. With the compu-ter memory be 70 offs to provide signals to roll and yaw servos 17 and
19 and to the pitch servo (not shown) which rotate
ing scanned in accordance with range angle and the mem
the several platform gimbals so as to maintain the plat
ory bearing functions of the desired feedback terms in
3,057,211
4
¿3
form 10 in the predetermined attitude defined by the
gyroscopes collectively. The sensing axes of the accel
erometers are mutually orthogonal with accelerometer 11
being sensitive to changes of motion along the X axis
(range), and accelerometer 12 being sensitive to changes
in motion along the Y axis (lateral deviation from the
vehicle path). The particular details of the stable plat
form, its components, mountings and drives form no
Rz=distance from central axis of the earth
¿1_-:equatorial radius of the earth
a0=range angle of launch point
Ry=1ateral deviation from guidance plane
It is to be understood that the invention is capable of
mechanization with any desired coordinate system which
may be determined, as is well-known to those skilled in
the art, by the desired operation of the vehicle. A mech
part of this invention since the same are well-known to
those skilled in the art. Typical three axis stable plat 10 anization for guidance plane coordinate system is illus~
forms are shown for example, in an application, Serial
trated herein solely for purposes of exposition.
No. 442,255, `of L. C. Dozier, Jr. for “Autonavigator”
In the guidance plane coordinate system, local earth
and in an article entitled “Inertial Navigation” by J. M.
level is obtained by applying to the X, Y and Z gyroscopes
Slater and D. B. Duncan, Aeronautical Engineering Re
the respective torques wx, wy and wz which are defined as
view, Ianuary 1956, page 49.
15 follows:
In the typical intertial navigator described herein for
purposes of exposition, the vehicle is to travel in a pre
determined path over the surface of the earth and the
tux-_1Q sin 'y cos o
platform is to be maintained locally earth level during
travel whereby the mutually orthogonal accelerometer
(1)
(2)
(3)
20
The correction signals or feedback torques to the
axes will each be maintained horizontal and thus in
range distance meter 11 can be written as
sensitive to gravitational forces. For this reason gyro
scope correction torques are required to cause the gyro
scopically defined reference attitude to rotate in inertial
space as a function of rotation of the earth and the dis~ 25
tance made good by the system. The accelerometers
or distance meters, although maintained locally earth
level by being secured to the platform 10, must also be
corrected or torqued for a number of factors. These
include ellipticity of the earth which causes the distance 30
(5)
meters on the properly oriented platform to sense com
dRz
(l Ry
ponents of gravity not directed along a radius to the
do'
da
center of the earth.
There may also be an error due to
the fact that a guidance plane reference system is utilized
and the platform is not rotated to compensate for small 35
programmed lateral departure from the guidance plane.
Further, rotation of the earth itself produces centrifugal
The feedback to the lateral distance meter 12 may
be written as
accelerations which exist whether or not the vehicle is
moving relative to the earth. Still another unwanted ac
celeration sensed by the accelerometers is the corioljs ac 40
celeration due to the combination of earth rotation and
velocity of the vehicle relative to the earth.
It is the function of the computer to provide feedback
terms to the several inertial elements, distance meters
(9)
and gyroscopes, such that the platform will remain locally
earth level and the distance meter outputs will be a func
tion solely of the vehicle motion which is to be meas
ured.
As illlustrated in FIG. 1, most of the desired feedback
terms are obtained -by simple operation functions F1 50
through F7 inclusive of range which are recorded in
binary form in seven channels, 13 through 24, of a tape
31. The tape is driven in accordance with distance made
good by the vehicle by twice integrating the output of
and
da
Since the X gyroscope torque as defined in Equation
1 is a function of range angle a', it can be generated by
storing binary information or punched holes having a
density
range distance meter 11 in integrator 32 to position the 55
(l1)
tape relative to the tape reader (shown in FIG. 3) in
accordance with distance meter sensed range. The in
If the number of holes per unit length of tape (hole den
formation from the several tape channels, after suitable
sity) is as expressed in Equation 11 and the tape be
operations to be described hereinafter, is fed to the sev
driven at a rate equal to the ñrst time derivative of a,
eral distance meters and gyroscopes as the desired feed 60 the number of pulses per unit of time provided by the tape
back terms.
reader will be
The geometry of the problem to be solved by the com
de
puter is illustrated by the quadrant of the sphere depicted
in FIG. 2 where a circular arc 33 represents the equator
and arcs 34 and 3S represent polar great circles. The 65 which when integrated with respect to time yields
(12)
vehicle launched at point 36 travels substantially in a
guidance plane containing arc 37 with programmed rela
tively small lateral departures from the guidance plane
which is the plane containing arc 37 and radii 38 and 39.
The quantities indicated in FIG. 2 and those in the equa 70
tions which follow are defined as follows:
:earth’s angular velocity
'y=angle ybetween guidance plane and equatorial plane
gy=y component of gravity read by the distance meter
gx==x component of gravity read by the distance meter
‘f
.
.
do'
.
f S2 s1n Iy sm «7*dt--S2 sin 'y cos tr
(13)
which is theU0 desired X gyroscope feedback torque.
rI‘he mechanization of the derivation of the X gyro
scope feed back torque is illustrated in FlG. 3. The tape
31 is illustrated in FIG. 3 as having but a single channel
beaning the function F1 as a plurality of holes 41 punched
therebewteen and spaced in the direction of tape travel
in accordance with the positive values of the function F1.
3,057,211
5
of the function F1. The tape is unwound from a supply
roll, not shown, `and drawn past reading head 413 by
tively, will exert a force or torque ywhich tends to linearly
displace the mass relative to its oase to provide the de
sired distance meter bias. The term “torque” does not
rigorously apply to a linearly movable accelenation sensi
a take-up roll 44 which is driven in accordance with the
tive mass but is included herein as being applicable to
The F1 channel will also have a laterially displaced line
of holes 42 punched therein representing negative values
those conventional `distance meters which embody a pivot
signal a. Thus, the tangle of rotation of the take-up roll
ally mounted mass. The distance meter, when in the
is proportional to a whereby the tape speed is proportional
form of a nonintegrating accelerometer as illustrated, may
to à to a degree depending upon the linearity of the driv
include an electrical device for doubly integrating the out
ing arrangement. The tape reader 413, of which there
may be one provided for each of the recorded functions l0 put thereof shown here as a pair of resistance-capacitance
integrators 91, 92 and 93, 9‘4. The output of the double
F1 through F8, comprises a plurality of resilient iingers 45
integrator 32, the range angle a, is fed to servo motor 95
which thus will provide Ian output in the form of a
»and 46 which engage Contact plates 47 and (i3 beneath the
tape when a finger is positioned directly over a punched
hole. The positive Contact plate 48 is coupled to a posi
tive source of potential 49 whereby for each positive hole
rotary shaft displacement proportional in 'angular mag
of the binary function F1, Ia positive pulse is fed through
‘lead 51 coupled with linger 46 and through amplitier 52
term. The shaft `displacement output of the servo motor
to a stepping motor 53. The stepping motor 53` may be
of any suitable type 'and is herein depicted as a ratchet
wheel 54 actuated by a pawl 5S, pivoted at 56. The p‘awl
55 comprises a solenoid arm actuated by coil 57 which
is connected to the output of amplifier S2 and grounded
nitude and direction to the magnitude and direction of
sensed acceleration as corrected by the applied feedback
95 is caused to drive the tape pick-up roll 44 through any
suitable mechanical means schematically indicated by the
dotted line 9o. Thus, the tape 31 is driven to cause
scanning thereof by the tape reader 4-3y at a rate propor
tional to the time rate of change of measured range. In
through normally closed switch 6i). Similarly, the pulses
other words, at any input the tape will have moved
indicative of negative Values of F1 are fed from finger 45
through amplifier 59, coil ’71 and switch 70‘ of a stepping
motor 72 comprising ratchet 73 and actuator pawl 6,1.
The stepping motors thus integrate the tape reader output
and provide an output shaft rotation of magnitude propor
tional to such integral. The positive and negative shaft
rotation outputs of the stepping motors are combined in
differential gear 74 to provide a shaft output which drives
wiper arm 75 of a center tap grounded potentiometer 76
which is energized by a potential source 77. Within the
limits of linearity of the potentiometer, the Voltage on arm
75 will thus be proportional to the integral of F1 with re
spect to range angle fr. This voltage is the desired feed
back torque to torquer 63 of the X gyroscope 13. While
the distance meters may be of the type giving output pro
relative to the tape reader a distance proportional to dis
tance made good by the navigator.
As indicated in Equation 2„ the Y gyroscope feedback
torque is proportional to the sum of a constant and range
rate. An exemplary mechanization of diiierentiation of
the range output of servo motor 9‘5 is illustrated in FIG.
3 as comprising a capacitor tachometer 10ft. The
tachometer comprises a plurality of electrically conduc
tive circular plate segments 161, lil-2 and M13 arranged
to be successively contacted by the end of a wiper arm
104 journalled at 105' and rotated by the shaft output of
servo motor 95. Plates 1011 and 103 are respective-ly con
nected to positive and negative potentials While the Áarm
1M is coupled to a capacitor 1%. In operation of the
tachorneter, assume arm 10e to be initially in contact with
plate 101 whereby the capacitor 106 has a positive charge
tegral of acceleration, there is selected for purposes of 40 applied thereto. Upon clockwise rotation of arm 104» the
positive capacitor charge will be transferred to plate lll-2
illustration ‘a nonintegrating accelerometer. Accelerom
portional to acceleration or to the first or second time in
eter 11, as shown in FIG. 3, may basically comprise a
mass 78 slidably constrained for movement along shaft 79
iixed to accelerometer case 80 and spring restrained by
a spring 81. Potentiometer 82 Íixed to case Siti is center
tapped to ground and excited by a suitable source of elec
tric potential 813. A wiper arm 34 carried by mass 78
cooperates with potentiometer resistance 82 to provide an
output signal between the arm 814 and the potentiometer
center tap which is proportional to the displacement of the 50
mass 78. The case 80 may be filled with a suitable ñuid
for damping purposes. Assuming linearity of the spring
and potentiometer and negligible friction, the electrical
output will be proportional in sense and magnitude to ac
celeration sensed `along the axis of shaft 79‘ of the range
distance meter 11.
Since any acceleration sensed by the accelerometer,
whether wanted or unwanted, `will be manifested as a dis
placement of the mass 78, unwanted accelerations may be
to which the output of the tachometer may be connected
through a suitable filter 1417. Upon further clockwise
rotation of arm 16M the positive charge, if any, which is
left upon the capacitor 10o, is removed upon contact of
the arm 164 with the negative plate 103. The arm 164
then rotates to again contact plate 1611, again positively
charging the capacitor to permit transfer of such positive
charge to the plate 1M. Thus a positive charge is trans
ferred to the output plate 102 each time the Áarm 164
makes one revolution. Since the output is smoothed by
tiiter 167, there is produced at the ’filter output a D.-C.
level rather than a series of pulses, and the value of this
output depends solely on the rate at which the shaft rotates.
It will readily be seen that upon counterclo-ckwise rota
tion of the arm 104 which, of course, will not occur when
the arm is driven »according to distance made good, a
negative charge will be transferred to output plate 1%2
for each shaft revolution. The output à of lilter 167 is
compensated for by simulating the eifects thereof. Thus, 60 fed as one input to a summing `amplifier 108` which has
the feedback term to the distance meter is Iapplied as a
as the other input thereto a signal of magnitude t2 cos fy
force exerted on the mass 78 in the direction of its sensi
tive axis. The feedback is applied as a correction signal
or “torque” of `a magnitude and direction equal and op
supplied by any suitable fixed potentiai source. The out
put of the ‘amplifier 108 is thus the desired feedback to
torquer 64 of the Y gyroscope 14 as expressed in Equa
posite respectively to the magnitude and direction of
the unwanted acceleration components. The correction
force is exerted by the distance meter torquer comprising
a pair of permanent C-shaped magnets S5 and 86 iixed
tion 2.
In FIG. 3 there is illustrated the mechanization of two
of the desired feedback components. The mechanization
of the other feedback components may be «fundamentally
similar. As illustrated in FÍG. l, the tape 31 actually
to the mass 78 and a pair of torquer coils 8-7, 83 carried ì
by the case 80 and positioned between the respective mag
netic gaps of the permanent magnets. The coils 87, 88
are oriented with their taxes normal to the adjacent pole
faces of the magnets whereby the D.-C. feedback compo
nent to the distance meter applied to one or both of the
coils through one or both of leads S9 and 90, respec
will comprise eight channels 18 through 25, each of which
Will have a pair of rows of punched holes and a tape
reader therefor which may be identical 4to the tape reader
`described in connection with FIG. 3. Of course, only
one row of binary indicia will be required for those feed
Iback terms which do not change sign and other well
3,057,211
8
known ways of properly accounting for sign may be used.
The Z gyroscope torque defined in Equation 3 may be
expressed as
the desired or programmed lateral deviation which pulses
may be amplified in amplifier 144i, smoothed in filter 141
and applied as one input to a comparator 142. The out»
put of the lateral distance meter comprising accelerome
12 and double integrator 143 is `applied as the second
Thus, the feedback to the Z gyroscope torquer (not Ul -ter
input
to the comparator 142 which provides as its output
shown) may be obtained in a fashion identical to that
a signal to the autopilot 144 which is proportional to the
of the X gyroscope feedback. The output of the tape
difference between the programmed value of Ry and the
reader of the F2 channel is fed through amplifier 120 to
value thereof as measured by the distance meter.
step motor integrator 121` and thence to the torquer (not
While the record medium for storing the desired func
shown) of gyroscope 15.
tions of the feedback terms has been herein illustrated as
The X distance meter feedback term is supplied by
a punched tape and mechanical reader, it will be readily
the output of summing amplifier 122 which sums func
appreciated that a photoelectric reader could be utilized
tions of -three terms, F3, F4 and F5 caried on the tape.
or
there could be substituted for the punched tape record
The first input to the summing amplifier 122 may 'be de
any one of several other well-known binary recording
rived from the F3 channel tape reader through amplifier
mediums and readers such as, for example, magnetic tape,
123 and integrating step motor 124 in the same manner
F2(a)t=í2 sin fy cos a
as the X and Z gyroscope torques. The second input -to
summing amplifier 122 may be derived directly from the
F4 tape channel which will provide an output propor
tional to the product of the recorded function F4 `and the
time rate of change of a. Thus, the density of the holes
punched in the F4 channel will be proportional to the
ratio of the desired feedback component (the second
term of Equation 4 to the time derivative of a.
The
discs or drums and suitable reading means therefor.
While the digital techniques of `storing the `desired func
tions in binary form `are preferred, -the principles of this
invention may equally well be mechanized through the
use of `analog recording of the desired functions.
From the preceding description, it will be seen that
there has been provided a novel navigator computer hav
ing but a single measured input in the form of distance
made goed by the navigator wherein most of the relatively
complex calculations are eliminated by recording in `the
computer storage the desired feedback -terms as functions
scanning of the tape by the tape reader at the rate of fr
effects multiplication of the hole density F4 by à to pro
vide directly the desired feedback component. If de
of the single measured input.
sired, a filter 125 may be interposed between the tape
Although the invention has been described and illus
reader of channel 21 and the amplifier 122 to provide
trated in detail, it is 4to tbe clearly ‘understood that the same
30
smoothing of the tape reader output. The third input
is by way of illustra-tion and example -only land is not to be
to summing amplifier 122 is derived from the tape chan
taken Iby way of limitation, the spirit and scope of this
nel 22 which has stored therein holes of a density equal
invention being limited only by the terms of the appended
to the ratio of the integral of the desired feedback com
claims.
ponent (the third term of Equation 4) to the time deriva
We claim:
tive of a. Again the output of the tape reader is the
1. A navigator comprising a platform, a distance meter
recorded function F5 multiplied by the range rate which
on said platform, a plurality of Igyroscopes on said plat
in this instance is equal to the integral of the desired
form connected to stabilize said platform and distance
feedback component. The output of the tape reader for
meter, a storage device having stored therein gyroscope
channel 22 is 4therefore differentiated in a differentiator
and distance meter correction information as preselected
126 of which the output is applied as the third input to
functions of distance made good lby said navigator, a
summing amplifier 122.
storage readout connected to read the information stored
As indicated in FIG. 4, differentiation of the output of
in said device, and drive means coupled with said distance
the tape reader of channel 22 may be effected by feeding
meter for causing said readout to scan said storage de
the tap reader output through diode 127 across capacitor
vice in accordance with the distance made good by said
128 through filter 129 t-o resistance-capacitance differ
navigator, said readout being connected to feed correction
entiating network 130, 131. Thus, the output of the dif
information to said ygvroscopes and distance meter.
ferentiator 130, 131 will comprise the desired Ifeedback
2. An inertial navigator comprising a stable platform
component which is the third input to the amplifier 122.
including X, Y and Z gyroscopes for effecting stabiliza
The feedback to the lateral or Y distance meter 12
tion thereof; each gyroscope having a correction torquer;
is derived as the output of the summing amplifier 132
X and Y distance meters on said platform, each having a
which has as one input thereof the output of a smoothing
correction torquer; a record medium having eight chan
filter 133 to which is connected the output of the tape
nels of stored data; a record reader for each of said chan
reader of the F7 function channel 24. A second input to
nels; a motor connected to drive said medium and hav
amplifier 132 is derived from the tape reader of the F6
ing an input connected to said X distance meter; a first
channel 23 in identical fashion to the derivation of the
summing amplifier having an output and first and second
feedback components from the F1 and F2 channels 18 and
inputs, a fixed voltage source connected to said first input,
19. The output of the tape reader of the F6 channel is
a differentiator having an input connected with said X dis
fed through amplifier 134 to step motor integrator 135
tance meter and an output connected with said second
whereby the output of the potentiometer arm of the step
input, said amplifier output being connected with said Y
motor is the desired component of the Y distance meter 60 gyroscope torquer; a first integrator connector between
feedback term. It is to be understood that the integrators
said first channel reader and said X gyroscpoe torquer; a
121, 124 and 135 may be identical with the step motor
second integrator connected between said second channel
integrators of FIG. 3 which comprises step motors 53, 72,
reader and said Z gyroscope torquer; a second summing
differential 74 and the output of the potentiometer 76.
amplifier having an output connected to said X distance
Where the sign of the feedback term may vary, positive 65 meter torquer and having three inputs, an integrator con
and negative rows of binary information are embodied
nected between said third channel reader and a first input
in each tape channel and the outputs of the two tape
of said second amplifier, a second input of said second
reading fingers for the particular channel Iare combined
amplifier being connected to said fourth channel reader,
either electrically or mechanically as indicated in FIG. 3.
a dilferentiator connected between said fifth channel
Where the vehicle is programmed for some departure 70 reader and a third input of said second amplifier; a third
(Ry) from the guidance plane, there is provided the chan
summing amplifier having an output connected with said
nel 25 having punched holes of a density F8 equal to the
Y distance meter torquer and having two inputs, an inte
ratio of the programmed values of Ry t-o the time rate of
grator connector between said sixth channel reader and
change of è. Thus, the output of the F8 tape reader in
said first input of said third amplifier, said second input
channel 25 will comprise pulses yat a frequency equal to 75 of said third amplifier being connected with said seventh
3,057,211
gral with respect to time of a desired component of cor
rection signal to (2) the time derivative of distance.
6. A programmed computer for generating functions
channel reader; an error comparator having a ñrst input
connected to said eighth channel reader, and a second
input connected to said Y distance meter.
of a depedent position coordinate in terms of an inde
3. In combination With an inertial navigator having a
corrector information coded thereon in binary form as a
pendent position coordinate comprising a record medium
having coded thereon a plurality of binary indicia, the
number of indicia per unit length of said medium repre
function of distance made good by said navigator, read~
senting the value of said dependent position coordinate,
plurality of gyroscopes and distance meters, a programmed
computer comprising a record medium having navigator
means for generating a drive signal proportional to said
sponsive to one of said distance meters for traversing said 10 independent position coordinate, reading means for scan
ning said medium to generate an output signal propor
medium relative to said readout means at a rate propor
tional tothe number of indicia scanned thereby, and drive
tional to the rate of change of distance made good, means
means responsive to said drive signal generating means
responsive to said readout means for applying correction
for positioning said reading means in its scan in accord
signals to said navigator, a portion of said correction in
ance with the value of said independent coordinate.
formation being coded on said medium as binary indicia
out means for reading said coded information, means re
having a density which is the iirst derivative with respect
to distance of a desired component of correction signal,
said readout responsive means for said portion including
15
7. »In combination with an inertial navigator having
a plurality of gyroscopes and distance meters, a pro
gramrned computer comprising a record medium having
feedback torques for said gyroscopes and distance meters
means for integrating the output of said readout means
coded thereon as preselected functions of distance made
with respect to time.
20 good by said navigator, readout means for reading said
4. In combination with an inertial navigator having a
coded torques, means responsive to one of said distance
plurality of gyroscopes and distance meters, a programmed
meters for traversing said medium relative to said read
computer comprising a record medium having navigator
out means, and means responsive to said readout means
correction information coded thereon in binary form as a
function of distance made good by said navigator, read 25 for applying correction torques to said gyroscopes and
meters as selected functions of the information read by
out means for reading said coded information, means re
said readout means.
sponsive to one of said distance meters for traversing said
medium relative to said readout means at a rate propor
8. A programmed computer for generating functions
of a dependent variable in terms of an independent posi
tional to the rate of change of distance made good, means
responsive to said readout means for applying correction 30 tion coordinate comprising a record medium having coded
thereon a plurality of binary indicia, the number of
signals to said navigator, a portion of said correction in
indicia per unit length of said medium representing the
formation being coded on said medium as binary indicia
value of said dependent variable, means for generating a
having a density Which is the radio of a desired correction
drive signal proportional to said independent position co
component signal to the derivative of distance with re
spect to time, whereby said readout means for said por 35 ordinate, reading means for scanning said medium to gen
erate an output signal proportional to the number of
tion provides said desired component.
indicia
scanned thereby, and drive means responsive to
5. In combination with an inertial navigator having a
said drive signal generating means for positioning said
plurality of gyroscopes and distance meters, a programmed
reading means in its scan in accordance With the Value of
computer comprising a record medium having navigator
correction information coded thereon in binary form as 40 said independent coordinate.
a function of distance made good by said navigator, read
References Cited in the file of this patent
out means for reading said coded information, means re
UNITED STATES PATENTS
sponsive to one of said distance meters for traversing
said medium relative to said readout means at a rate pro
portional to the rate of change of distance made good, 45
2,762,123
Schultz ______________ __ Sept. 11, 1956
rection signals to said navigator, a portion of said correc
tion information being coded on said medium as binary
2,877,415
2,883,109
Rolle ________________ __ Mar. 10, 1959
Oshima ______________ __ Apr. 21, 1959
2,946,539
Fischel ______________ __ July Z6, `1960
means responsive to said readout means for applying cor
indicia having a density which is the ratio of (1) the inte
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