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Патент USA US3057530

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Oct. 9, 1962
Filed Nov. 25, 1959
. .VN
United States atent
Patented Oct. 9, 1962
by gravity from the liquid source to the meter and re
ceiver tank.
The receiver tank preferably is also equipped with an
air venting device and is of suñ’icient cubic capacity effec
Albert L. Kapp, Amityville, N.Y., assignor to Gulf Oil
Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of Penn
tively to act as a ñuid bañie in preventing pump cavita
Filed Nov. 25, 1959, Ser. No. 355,318
tion with its attendant noise and vibration. Also, the
meter is preferably isolated from the relatively high surge
or shock pressures that develop when the liquid delivery
4 Claims. (Cl. 222-459)
This invention relates to a liquid dispensing apparatus
flow is shut off by means of a reverse flow check valve
and more particularly to a liquid dispensing apparatus 10 positioned at the outlet side of the receiver tank.
that is adapted to deliver an accurately metered liquid at
In an especially advantageous embodiment, the pump,
a relatively high velocity and volume per unit of time.
as well as the meter and receiver tank, is positioned at a
Liquid dispensing systems of the type designed to de
lower elevation than the liquid source, and at the same or
liver liquids such as distillate fuel oils, that is, domestic
furnace heating oils or the like, have heretofore involved
withdrawing liquid from a storage tank by means of a
pump, subsequent passage through an air eliminator,
meter, and then through a delivery hose of relatively large
cross-sectional area, at a relatively low velocity and
volume ñow per unit of time. Such systems have not
lower elevation than the level of the liquid in the receiver
The relative capacities of all components of the dispens
ing system are such that the gravity ilow of accurately
metered liquid to the receiver tank will be at a lower
velocity and substantially higher volume per unit of time
than that withdrawn by the pump from the receiver tank
proved entirely satisfactory because of the relatively large
in an equal unit of time. When the components and
system are so designed, this relationship or potential differ
ence in volume iiowing into and out of the receiver tank
lamount of time consumed in effecting delivery of a given
quantity of liquid, and because of the difficulty of han
dling the delivery hose and the liquid contained therein.
will be of a magnitude that will substantially offset the
The use of lightweight, small-diameter delivery hose 25 effect of pump suction turbulance, thereby maintaining
has been proposed but rejected for the reason that such
the receiver tank full of liquid. Hence, the meter will
use, under the same conditions, would increase the
only measure the volume of liquid withdrawn and deliv
amount of time consumed in effecting a liquid delivery.
ered by the pump.
It also has been proposed to reduce liquid delivery time
By arranging all the components having the design char
by use of either the small or large-diameter delivery hose
by passage of the liquid through the delivery hose at a
indicated, the high pressures that develop in pumping the
acteristics indicated in the sequence and at the elevations
relatively higher velocity and volume per unit of time.
This has been found impractical, among other reasons,
because of the high surge pressures~-suñìcient to damage
the meter-that develop when liquid ñow is started or
stopped. Increasing the liquid velocities and volumes in
conventional delivery systems is also objectionable for
the reason that relatively greater negative pressures are
developed on the suction side of the pump during such
operation. It is necessary to hold the negative pressure 40
in the system to a minimum on the suction side of the
pump as compared With the outside atmospheric pressure,
to prevent more air being induced into the suction side
of the pump and system than can be expelled by conven
tional air eliminators in a given interval of time when
liquid at a relatively high volume rate per unit of time
through a small-diameter delivery hose will be confined
to the downstream side of the receiver tank and pump,
thus permitting a relatively low-velocity, high-volume flow
per unit of time through the system upstream of the meter,
whereby sufficient time is provided for the separation of
any entrained air from the liquid prior to metering of the
Referring now briefly to the drawing, the FIGURE is
a schematic representation of a complete liquid dispensing
system involving the principles of the present invention.
Taking up the drawing in greater detail, numerals
„ Z, 4, 6, and 8 designate Iseparate compartments of
tank 10 that is adapted to be mounted on a bed of a truck,
liquid is pumped through it at a relatively high velocity.
trailer or »the like, not shown. Tank 10, together with
This limitation on the negative pressure in the suction side
of the pump and system also is necessary to prevent the
manifold chamber ‘20, and connecting conduits 12, 14,
possibility of metering entrained air as liquid.
It has now been found that deliveries of a liquid can be
.effected at relatively high velocity and volume per unit of
time with accurate metering of the liquid, even when them
delivery hose is substantially smaller than the smallest
cross-sectional area of any of the preceding portions of
the path of liquid flow, by means of a dispensing system
involving a liquid source, an air eliminator, a meter, a re
ceiver tank, and a pump having an inlet and an outlet
16, and 18, comprise the liquid source referred to herein.
To minimize the possibility of a relatively high volume
of air becoming entrained in the liquid as -the source
tanks or compartments thereof become empty, or approach
empty, an air eliminator and liquid 'level controller y85 is
provided inthe upper portion of manifold 20. When the
liquid reaches a predetermined limit or level in the mani
fold, float controller 85 automatically shuts down the
pump, as hereinafter described, until the ñow of liquid
into the manifold 20 from the source is again re-estab
lished, and the manifold 20 is ñlled with liquid. Any air
relatively high volume and at a relatively high discharge 60 that may have entered the manifold during this transition
is evacuated by the air eliminator 85, through vent 25,
pressure, all of said elements being connected in series in
Iand adapted to `discharge said liquid from said outlet at a
the order mentioned, where the cross-sectional area of the
receiver tank is substantially greater than that of the
pump inlet and the ñuid capacity of said receiver tank
is substantially greater than that of the pump, and where 65
the meter and receiver tank are positioned at an eleva
tion lower than the liquid source, the dimensions of the
path of flow between said liquid source and said receiver
tank being such that the total friction pressure loss at said
thereby minimizing any excess of entrained air which
would be measured as liquid as it passed through the meter
because of the limitation of available devices for expelling
air entrained in the liquid.
Numeral 24 designates an air eliminator or battle cham
ber, provided with a float controlled vent line 2'5 and
connected to the outlet of manifold 20. Air eliminator 24
is adapted to facilitate removal of air or vapor from the
relatively high volume is less than the pressure resulting 70 liquid passed therethrough through float-controlled vent
from the difference in elevation between said liquid source
and said receiver tank, so as to provide low velocity flow
line 25„so that the liquid may be more accurately meas
ured by meter 26, positioned immediately downstream of
air eliminator 24 and connected thereto. Numeral 30
refers to a receiver tank which is connected at its inlet
to the meter 26 and its outlet to pump 36. As indicated,
the cubic liquid capacity or content of receiver tank 30 is
suñ‘iciently great to substantially eliminate turbulence
with attendant possible cavitation at the inlet of pump
36. The receiver tank 30 also is equipped with a ñoat
controlled vent line 31 to expel the air initially therein
-and to prevent the accumulation of air and vapor iu the
trol switch 90v that closes when pressure in the system
reaches a predetermined maximum, as, for example, when
the valve in nozzle 46 is closed. Closure of switch 90
energizes relay 80, causing switch 81 to close, whereby
electropneumatic cylinder 88 is energized, closing valve
68 and shutting down hydraulic motor 70, and de-ener
gizing speed controller 82, thereby reducing the engine
speed to idle. When the delivery nozzle 46 is next opened,
the pressure in line 42 will drop, permitting pressure con
receiver tank, whereby the receiver tank will be kept full 10 trol switch 90 to open, de-energizing relay 80 and en
ergizing throttle controller 82, moving it to a high speed
of liquid. By such means, pump cavitation, with its at
position for again delivering lthe liquid at the desired
tendant noise and hydraulic hammer, is prevented.
rate of flow.
In order to avoid development of relatively high Huid
In a speciñc embodiment, delivery hose 44 has an inner
velocities through the air eliminator 24 and meter 26, with
diameter of one inch, as opposed to conventional fuel
attendant loss of meter accuracy, the potential difference
oil delivery hose, which has an inner diameter of one
in flow of liquid by gravity through the air eliminator 24
and one-fourth to one and one-half inches. The weight
and meter 26 should be substantially lower in velocity and
of the smaller hose, including the liquid therein, is sub
greater in volume per unit of time than that being with
stantially less than that of the conventional hose. Hence
drawn from the receiver tank 30 in an equal interval of
the effort expended in hauling the hose out to make a
time and delivered by pump 36 to etlect satisfactory meter
delivery is, in comparison with a conventional, one and
ing accuracy.
one-quarter inch I.D. hose reduced by more than 50
As illustrated by the drawing, all portions of metering
percent. In this embodiment, liquid is delivered through
and pumping sections of the system, including the air
hose 44 at a rate of 75 gallons-per-minute and at a pres
eliminator 24, meter 26, receiver tank 30, and pump 36
are positioned at an elevation lower than the lowest per 25 sure of 125 pounds per square inch, the rate of delivery
of the pump in this instance, as opposed to 45 gallons
missible level of the liquid supply source.
per-minute, the conventional rate through a one and one
Numeral 42 refers to a conduit connecting the outlet
quarter inch diameter hose. ln this embodiment, a meter
side of pump 36 with hose reel 78 and with a suitable,
having an accurate flow capacity of 125 gallons-per-min
small-diameter delivery hose 44. For greatest conven
ience, the delivery hose 44 should be substantially smaller 30 ute is employed. Since liquid is displaced from the sys
tem through hose 44 only at `the rate of 75 gallons-per
in cross-sectional area than the smallest portion of the
minute, and since the potential flow rate of delivery
path of liquid flow upstream thereof. Numeral 46 indi
through the meter is well above this limit, the velocity
cates a delivery nozzle having7 associated therewith a man
of the liquid flowing through the air eliminator is low
ually controlled valve. Numerals ‘22, 28, 32, and 42 refer
to conduits connecting respectively, the manifold 20 and 35 enough to permit it to expel any entrained air in the
liquid and thereby effect a high degree of metering ac
air eliminator 24, meter 26, and receiver vessel 30 and
pump 36, and hose reel 78. Numeral 34 denotes a check
It will be understood that the invention is not limited
valve to prevent high shock pressures that develop when
to the specific details of the pressure release system, hy
flow of liquid is shut off by nozzle 46 being transmitted
to meter 26 and also prevents back flow of liquid when 40 draulic control system, or electrical system of the em
bodiment shown in the drawing. For example, instead
pump 36 is not in operation.
of the pressure release valve 90, there can be employed a
In operating the system, power take-off handle 50 is
recirculating by-pass around pump 36, said by-pass being
moved to the “on” position, engaging the power take-off
controlled by a spring-controlled pressure release valve.
52 that drives the hydraulic pump 54 from the transmis
sion of a vehicle such as a truck, not shown, on which
“ Also, a pneumatic or electrical control system can be sub
stituted for the hydraulic control system shown in the
tank 10 may be mounted. Power take-off handle 50 also
closes an electrical switch 58 for circuits 60, 62, and
Many additional variations and modifications of the in
64, and opens a cam-operated valve 66 which applies the
vention as described and illustrated herein will occur
brakes to the wheels ofthe aforesaid vehic’le, thereby pre
venting any movement of the vehicle until the power take 50 to those skilled in the `art and such variations and modi
ott' is disengaged.
fications can be resorted to without departing from the
spirit or scope of the invention. Accordingly, the inven
The hydraulic pump 54 supplies hydraulic fluid under
tion is not to be limited by the embodiments described
pressure from a vented reservoir 56 through control valve
herein but only by the scope of the claims appended
68 to hydraulic motor 70, which, in turn, drives the pump
36 by means of a direct coupling, belt or chain drive 40. 55 hereto.
Hydraulic pump 54 also supplies hydraulic power through
needle valve 72 and control valve 74 to hose reel motor
l. A liquid dispensing system comprising a liquid
76, which drives the hose reel 78.
source, a meter, a receiver vessel, and a pump provided
Circuit 62, which is interlocked through relay 8G, ener
with an inlet and an outlet and adapted to discharge said
gizes an electropneumatic cylinder 82 when switch 84 is 60 liquid from said outlet at a relatively high volume and
closed, thereby moving -the vehicle engine throttle, and in
creasing the engine speed to that required to deliver the
at a relatively high discharge pressure, said elements being
connected in the order named and adapted to permit
liquid at the desired rate.
Circuit 60 is interlocked through a float-controlled
liquid flow therethrough, air eliminating means posi
tíoned upstream of said meter to remove gaseous material
switch 86 that energizes electropneumatic cylinder 38. 65 from the liquid prior to passage »thereof into said meter,
Should a compartment of tank 10 run dry, float-controlled
said meter and said receiver vessel being positioned at
switch 86 will close, energizing electropneumatic cylinder
a lower elevation than said liquid source, the dimensions
88, admitting air to the cylinder, moving control valve
of the path of flow between said liquid source and said
68 to the “ott” position, and shutting down the system.
receiver vessel being such that the total friction pressure
No further liquid delivery can be made until another 70 loss at said relatively high volume is less than the pres
tank compartment valve is opened and the ñow of liquid
sure resulting from the difference in elevation between
`from the source expels the air in manifold 20 through
said liquid source and said receiver vessel, so as to permit
vent 2S and the liquid ’level in the system and manifold
low velocity, gravity ñow through said meter, said re
returns to normal.
Circuit 64 is interlocked through a pressure safety con
ceiver vessel being provided with controlled, venting
75 means adapted to vent the receiver vessel to the at
mosphere when the liquid level in said vessel falls below
a predetermined level, said receiver vessel also having
a cross-sectional area and liquid capacity substantially
greater than that of the pump inlet and the pump, re
2. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the pump also
is at a lower elevation than the liquid source.
3. The apparatus of claim 1, where a check-Valve
-adapted to prevent reverse flow of liquid is positioned
intermediately of the pump and the meter.
4. The apparatus of claim 1, where the liquid source
is provided with a manifold chamber, and where said
manifold chamber is provided with a liquid level control
entering said meter when liquid source Vessel approaches
exhaustion, and where said liquid source is provided with
a vent means adapted to permit escape of gaseous ma
terials when the maximum liquid level is being re
established and before said pump again withdraws liquid
from said receiver vessel.
References Cited in the file of this patent
Marden _____________ __ Mar. 30, 1937
Piqurez _____________ __ Aug 24, 1937
Morgan ______________ __ Aug. 4, 1942
Teigler ______________ __ May 9, 1950
means adapted to stop `and starrt said pump when a mini
mum and maximum liquid level is established in said 15
Foote _______________ __ Oct. 5, 1954
Tye _________________ __ May 5, 1959
manifold chamber so as to prevent gaseous materials
Hahn _______________ __ Dec. 15, 1959
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