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Патент USA US3057761

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United States Patent O??ce
1
2
what higher and somewhat lower ignition temperatures
3,057,757
may be used. The ignition may be carried out in the
presence of air or other oxidizing atmosphere. The
No Drawing. Filed Feb. 12, 1960. Ser. No. 8,242
alumina is ground to provide a ?nely divided material,
i.e., a material which is substantially all ?ner than 325
mesh.
The tobacco I employ is conventional leaf tobacco of
the type used in cigars, cigarettes or pipes. It is reason
SMOKENG COMPQS‘ITEONS AND SMOKING UNlT
CGNTAINING SAME
Charles G. Albert, Basking Ridge, N.J., assignor to Min
erals & Chemicals Philipp Corporation, Menlo Park,
Ni, a corporation of Maryland
‘
3,057,757
Patented Oct. 9, 1962
7 Claims.
(Cl. 131-17)
able to expect that reconstituted tobacco or mixtures of
The present invention relates to smoking mixtures con 10 tobacco leaf and reconstituted tobacco may be used. .
In putting my invention into practice, the alumina
taining tobacco mixed with a ?nely divided solid material
and to smoking units, especially cigarettes, containing the
powder obtained by grinding decomposed aluminum
nitrate is uniformly mixed with shreds of tobacco in
amount of about 1 to 20 percent, and more preferably
about 5 to 15 percent, based on the tobacco weight. Any
15
tobacco therein burns with an appreciably reduced tar
method of uniformly dispersing the alumina on the
content and the tobacco smoke is characterized by a
tobacco particles may be used. The additive may be
smooth, pleasant aroma and taste.
applied by dusting the dry material on the tobacco, by
The desirability of reducing the tar content in the
spraying a dispersion of the additive in a liquid or gaseous
mainstream of tobacco smoke, that the smoke passing
through the mouth end of a smoking unit, is well-rec 20 carrier or by other means which will readily suggest them
selves to those skilled in the art. Alumina which is very
ognized. Tar from tobacco smoke is believed to be in
?ne, such as 10 microns or less, will usually adhere well
jurious to health and produces discoloration of the teeth.
to the tobacco without an adhesive. However, if dc‘
Most attempts in the past to reduce the tar content of
sired, an adhesive, inorganic or organic. may be employed
smoke have centered on the use of a porous ?ltering
25
to
secure the alumina particles to the tobacco.
means integral with and forming an end of the smoking
Preferably, the tobacco to which the solid alumina is
unit.
applied is in a form suitable for direct use in the cigarette
I have discovered that when a small amount of a unique
or
other smoking article for which it is intended, namely,
amorphous form of alumina, hereafter described, is mixed
tobacco which has been aged, shredded, humected and
directly with smoking tobacco, the quantity of tar
normally produced by the tobacco and passing into the 30 treated with ?avoring agents and such other tobacco-treat
ing materials as may be desired.
mainstream smoke is signi?cantly reduced.
same. The invention has for its principal object the pro
vision of a smoking mixture of such a character that the
Brie?y stated, tobacco compositions of the present in
vention comprise a uniform mixture of tobacco with a
A ?lter tip integral with the column of the mixture of
alumina and tobacco shreds may, if desired, form the
mouth end of a cigarette of my invention. The ?lter tip
small quantity of ?nely divided relatively dense alumina 35
may contain ?ne ?bers or it may contain other micro
which is produced by thermal decomposition of aluminum
nitrate. When such a tobacco composition is smoked,
the amount of tar is reduced from that produced by the
porous materials as are used in a ?lter tip for a cigarette.
The ?lter tip in a cigarette of the present invention will
serve a plurality of important functions. It will supple
same weight of tobacco but in the absence of the alumina.
The alumina is innoxious and has no harmful effects on 40 ment the tar reduction realized through the use of the
alumina and it will prevent ?nely divided alumina parti
the smoker even if it passes into the smoker’s mouth.
It has been found that aluminas produced by thermal
cles from passing into the smoker’s mouth.
The following examples are given to illustrate more
fully my invention.
class, the ability to reduce the tar content of tobacco
Tests were conducted to demonstrate that the total
smoke. It has also been found that many forms of 45
quantity of tar passing into the mainstream of the smoke
alumina such as, for example, bauxite (alpha-alumina
decomposition of aluminum salts do not possess, as a
trihydrate) and alumina thermally produced by the
thermal activation of bauxite are ineffective for the pur
pose, even when used in quantities in which the alumina
produced from aluminum nitrate is eminently effective.
The ‘reason for this phenomenon is not presently under
stood, especially since the alumina from aluminum nitrate
has a relatively low BET. surface area, typically about 57
from a given weight of cigarette tobacco is signi?cantly
reduced by mixing the tobacco with the amorphous
alumina which is produced by ignition of aluminum
nitrate.
Similar tests were conducted to show the be
50 havior of other aluminas with-the same tobacco.
was placed in a muffle furnace held at 1400° F. for 2
square meters per gram, Whereas some forms of alumina
hours and cooled. The calcined product was then ground
which are ineffectual for the purpose have much higher 55 to 100 percent finer than 325 mesh. The product was a
surface areas and would be expected to be superior
white powder having a B.E.T. surface area of 56.88 square
sorbents for tars. This indicates that factors other than
meters per gram and consisting of an amorphous sub
tar sorption account for the effectiveness of the alumina
stantially pure form of alumina.
from aluminum nitrate in reducing the tar content of
A blend of Turkish and domestic cigarette tobacco
tobacco smoke.
60 supplied under the trade name “Bugler” was used in all
The starting material I employ in the preparation of
of the smoking experiments.
the alumina is aluminum nitrate or any of its hydrates.
Experimental cigarettes were prepared by uniformly
The aluminum nitrate is heated at a temperature and
dry mixing 100 parts by weight of the tobacco shreds with
for a time su?icient to eliminate completely the nitrate,
10 parts by weight of the alumina powder prepared from
leaving a white, rather dense mass, the particles of which 65 aluminum nitrate and packing about 0.99 gram of this
are amorphous when investigated by conventional X-ray
mixture containing about 0.90 gram of tobacco into a
diffraction procedure. Heating the nitrate at tempera
tures of the order of about 1400° F. for about 1 to 2
hours will su?ice to decompose the nitrate, although some
cigarette paper wrapper. The weight of the cigarette
wrapper was approximately 60 milligrams. Control
3,057,757
3
4
cigarettes containing about 090 gram of the Bugler
tobacco per cigarette were prepared.
The smoking tests were repeated using tobacco mixed
with various quantities of other ?nely divided aluminas.
It was found that the tar yield of cigarettes containing
alpha-alumina trihydrate in the amount of 10 percent of
Also made up were
cigarettes containing a mixture of 100 parts of Bugler
tobacco and 10 parts by weight of alumina produced by
calcining aluminum tartrate at 1400“ F. for 2 hours. All 5 the tobacco weight was a 2 percent increase over the tar
cigarettes were conditioned at 24° C. and 58 percent R.H.
yield of control cigarettes. The mixture of alpha
before smoking.
alumina trihydrate with tobacco in the amount of 5 per
All cigarettes were mechanically smoked by the method
cent of the tobacco weight increased the tar yield by 11
described in detail in Industrial and Engineering Chem
percent. Five percent of activated bauxite, based on the
istry, vol. 28, No. 7, in an article entitled “Nature of 10 tobacco weight, decreased the tar yield by only 2 percent.
Cigarette Smoke-Technique of Experimental Smoking,”
I claim:
J. A. Bradford et al., pp. 836-839 (1936).
1. A smoking mixture comprising tobacco having
Cigarettes were smoked individually employing a con
mixed therewith a small amount of alumina which is pro
stant puff of about 2 seconds’ duration once each minute
duced by thermal decomposition of aluminum nitrate.
and with sut?cient puffs to leave abutt of about 22 mm. 15
2. A smoking mixture comprising tobacco shreds hav
The smoke from 5 cigarettes of a given composition was
ing uniformly mixed therewith a small amount of ?nely
collected in a glass-wool trap packed to give 40 cm. water
divided alumina which is produced by thermal decomposi
pressure drop at the ?ow rate of 1050 cc. of air per
tion of aluminum nitrate.
minute. The trap was shown to collect at least 95 per
3. A smoking mixture comprising tobacco shreds hav
cent of the nonvolatile components of the smoke. The 20 ing uniformly mixed therewith from 1 to 20 percent by
trap was evacuated for 20 minutes and weighed. The
weight of alumina which is produced by thermal decom
weight increase divided by 5 was reported as the milli
position of aluminum nitrate.
grams of tar per cigarette.
4. A cigarette comprising shreds of tobacco in columnar
The results reported in the table represent the average
arrangement enclosed in a paper wrapper, said shreds
of three determinations, each determination representing ‘25 being uniformly mixed with a small amount of ?nely
the result of smoking 5 cigarettes of the reported com
divided alumina which is produced by thermal decomposi
position.
tion of aluminum nitrate.
These results show that the alumina produced from
5. The cigarette of claim 4 including a ?lter tip in
aluminum nitrate was highly effective in reducing the tar
tegral with the shreds of tobacco and forming one end
content of the cigarette smoke and that the alumina made 30 thereof.
from aluminum tartrate was only about one-third as effec
6. A cigarette comprising shreds of tobacco in columnar
tive as the alumina from aluminum nitrate. Also shown
arrangement enclosed in a paper wrapper, said shreds
is that the alumina from aluminum nitrate had little ob
being uniformly mixed with from 1 to 20 percent by
servable effect on the burning rate of the tobacco since
weight of ?nely divided alumina which is produced by
about the same number of puffs left about the same 35‘ _ thermal decomposition of aluminum nitrate.
length of butt in the control cigarette and the cigarette
7. The cigarette of claim 6 including a ?lter tip inte
gral with the shreds of tobacco and forming one end
thereof.
prepared with alumina produced by ignition of aluminum
nitrate.
The Effect of Mixing Finely Divided Aluminas Produced
by Ignition of Aluminum Salts With Cigarette Tobacco
on the Total Tar Content of Cigarette SmOke
Average
Composition of Cigarette
Average Pressure Average Average
Average
Wt. of
Drop
No. of
Butt
During
Putts
Length,
Tars
Per
Cig.,
Percent
Cig.,
gm.
Smoking
mm.
mg.
tion
Tar
Reduc'
cm. H2O
Control Cig. (no alumina)-
0.9464
4.5
9.4
21.9
34.9 ........ ._
Aluminum Nitrate 1---.
1.0238
5.7
9.6
21.5
28.9.
17.1
Aluminum Tartrate 2--.
1.0237
5.3
9.6’
20. 9
32. 7
6.3
Cig. Containing 10% 1
Alumina from Ignited
Cig. Containing 10% 1
Alumina from Ignited
1 Based on weight of tobacco.
3 Ignited at 14000 F./2 hr.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,652,119
2,007,407
2,839,065
2,933,420
2,938,818
2,941,906
Halvorsen et a1. _______ __ Dec. 6,
Sadtler _______________ __ July 9,
Milton _______________ __ June 17,
Haden _______________ __ Apr. 19,
Specht _______________ __ May 31,
Hadin _______________ __ June 21,
1927
1935
1958
1960
1960
1960
OTHER REFERENCES
Aluminum and its Production (text) by Edwards, Frary
and Jetfreis, vol. I (1930), published by the McGraw
Hill Book Co. Inc., N.Y., 358 pp. Pages 124-280, inclu
sive, especially cited. Copy in Division 3.
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