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Патент USA US3058128

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3,058,1 1 6
Oct. 16, 1962
Filed Aug. 15, 195s
2 Sheets-Sheet l
Oct. 16, 1962
Filed Aug. 15, 1958
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Fig. 4
,égo-afin ¿Záá
Martin Hilti, Vaduz, Liechtenstein, assigner >to Anstalt
für Montage-Technik, Vaduz, Liechtenstein
Filed Aug. 15, 1958, Ser. No. 755,157
Claims priority, application Germany Aug. 16, 1957
2 Claims. (Ci. 1-445)
ct. 16, 1962
ing portions of the tool, also in longitudinal central sec
FIGURE 3 shows a further modification of the stud
supporting portions of the tool, also in longitudinal cen
tral section;
FIGURE 4 is a longitudinal section of the tool shown
in FIGURE l, but with the tiring mechanism in fully
actuated position prior to iiring of the cartridge;
FIGURE 5 is a cross-section taken along line 5-5
This invention relates to shooting devices, e.g. of the 10 of FIGURE 4, showing details of the bayonet coupling;
powder-actuated type, for driving studs and the like into
solid material such as brick Walls, concrete and iron.
More particularly, this invention relates to such devices
wherein the stud is driven by a guided plunger which in
FIGURE 6 is a cross-section taken along line 6-6
of FIGURE 4 showing details of the friction spring.
Referring now to FIGURE 1, the tool includes a
15 plunger 2 at the upper end of which is a plunger head
A wide variety of devices of this general type have,
3 carrying a friction spring 4 positioned inV an annular
of course, been known in the prior art. These prior de
groove of the head, the plunger being supported in a
turn is driven by the combustion gases of a cartridge.
vices, however, have had a number of important disad
lvantages. For example, it has previously been proposed
barrel 1.
to support the cartridge in a stationary holder with the
cartridge base facing rearward, i.e. away from the driv
ing pin 39a fastened to the plunger head, is the base 6
ing direction.
In such an arrangement, the gases from
tridge holder 7. The cartridge holder 7 is slidably
the cartridge act on the plunger in the manner of an en
mounted in the base part S and is movable through the
Opposite the rear end of the plunger head 3,
and at a short distance therefrom to accommodate a tir
ot a cartridge 5 which is supported in a movable car
gine piston. However, in devices of this construction,
slide region 9 formed by an annular shoulder >10 and a
the guiding surfaces within the tool quickly become dirty 25 stop 1‘1. The cartridge holder 7 also is provided with
since the combustion gases travel around the head of the
openings 12 through which the combustion gases may
plunger and contaminate the plunger and the stud guides
escape. The upper end of the cartridge holder 7 rests
With unburned powder particles, thus making them sticky.
against a locking sleeve 13 which is held in the base part
These unburned particles of the propellant charge ad
8 by means of a spring ring 14.
here -ñrmly to the guide surfaces and even after a short 30
ÁExtending out from the rear of the tool is a regulator
time prevent use of the tool.
screw 15 which is turnably supported by threads 16 in
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention
the locking sleeve 13. Against the front end 17 of this
to provide a stud-driving device that is superior to those
screw, there is pressed the shoulder 18 of a regulator
provided heretofore. It is a particular object of this
pin 19, the diameter of which behind the cartridge is
invention to provide a powder-actuated stud-driving de
greater than the caliber of the cartridge. This pin is
vice which is arranged to operate with reduced contam
provided with sealing grooves 20. The base part 8 is
ination of the guides or the plunger by the combustion
tirmly connected with the handle 21, Between the base
residues :of the propellant charge.
part and the handle there is a ring-shaped hammer 22
In an embodiment of the present invention to be de
with a firing spring 23. The hammer 22 is formed with
scribed hereinbelow in more detail, the cartridge is held 40 a groove 24 which engages a cocking pawl 25. The
in a movable support with the cartridge base facing to
cocking pawl is supported in such a manner that it can
wards the front, i.e. in the driving direction. With this
arrangement, the pressure exerted by the combustion of
the propellant charge exerts a force on the cartridge base
be rotated clockwise about the pivot 26 carried by lever
27, but is prevented from rotating counterclockwise about
45 this pivot by the engagement of stop 28 with an abut
so as to drive the plunger and the stud in a forwardly
ment on lever 27. A spring 29 normally holds the stop
direction. The combustion gases Yof the propellant
28 of the cooking pawl 25 against the lever abutment.
charge do not enter the barrel of the tool or come in
The lever 27 is supported by a pivot pin 30 in the han
contact with the various guiding surfaces. Instead, these
dle 21, while the pivot pin 26 in lever 27 extends int-o a
gases enter an expansion chamber provided in the car 50 slot in a «cocking lever 31 to provide driving engage
tridge holder, to the rear of the cartridge, and pass from
ment therebetween. The cocking lever 31 is swingable
there into the atmosphere through the handle, which acts
about a pin 32 which is seated in the handle 21. Be
as a sound absorber.
Moreover, in this arrangement
tween the handle and the cooking lever 31 there is pro
the movable cartridge holder applies force to the plunger
vided a return spring 33 for the cocking lever. The han
until complete combustion of the propellant charge has 55 dle also is formed with a gas expansion chamber 34
been etfected.
which communicates with the bore hole 35 of the base
Other objects, advantages and aspects of the present
part 8.
invention will be in part apparent from, and in part
The base part 3` and the barrel 1 can be disconnected
pointed yout in, the following description of a preferred
from each other for loading and unloading by means of
embodiment of the invention, considered together with 60 a bayonet closure 36. The barrel 1 is turnable in a
the accompanying drawings in which:
bearing 37 by an amount which is limited by a projection
FIGURE 1 is a longitudinal central section through
38, and is articulated to the handle 21. In the barrel 1,
there is a stop 39 which, when the tool is pressed against
the tool;
- FIGURE 2 shows a modification of the stud-support
the material into which the stud is to` be driven, provides
a limit to the movement of the firing pin 39a towards
the cartridge base 6.
Removably secured to the front end of the barrel 1
is a stud-supporting device generally of the construction
used for hand tools, i.e. of the type wherein a precisely
centered and axially guided -stud is driven by hammer
blows on a slidably mounted plunger. The outer tube
41 of this device is axially displaceable on the barrel 1
by means of the projection 42 riding within a slot 43.
The inner tube 44 of this device forms a guiding surface
for an insert 45 `the curved rear surface 46 of which is
in contact with the plunger Z. In order to receive and
guide certain types of studs, the insert 45 has centering
surfaces 47 on the side and at «the end. A friction ring
48 normally prevents the insert from moving to assure
that the stud 49 rests in the insert. To guide the point
of the stud, a centrally perforated disc Sil is provided. A
friction spring 49a extends circumferentially around the
outer tube 41 and at one point is formed downwardly
power made possible thereby permits the use of a stand
-ard charge for small and large driving energies, which
constitutes a considerable simplification since only one
type of cartridge is required for an infinitely variable
driving action.
The operation of that part of the apparatus which
guides and centers the stud is as follows:
Referring first to FIGURE 1, after a stud-driving oper
ation the insert 45 is in the front opening in a base ñange
5'8 which extends out to a wide diameter and is flattened
on one side 57. The stud 49 is placed in the insert 45,
the base ñange 58 is pressed against the wall, and at
the same time the rear part of the apparatus is pushed
forward with the right hand until the stud 49 and the
plunger 2 form a unit. The tool then is fired.
The same applies t0 the embodiments shown in FIG
URES 2 and 3. All the figures also show that one im
portant advantage of the apparatus in accordance with
the present invention is that hand-operated stud-driving
through an opening in the outer tube so as to frictionally 20 devices can be used in conjunction with the new powder
Referring now to FIGURE 2 which shows a mo-diñed
actuated tool in order lto securely hold, center and axially
guide studs of different type and length. This results in
considerable simplifications in manufacture. Further
form of stud-supporting device affixed to the barrel end,
more, there is obtained an accuracy of centering and
engage the barrel 1. Thus, this spring holds the outer
tube 41 in position on the end of the barrel 1.
it can be seen that a nail 52 can be driven in by the
plunger 2a without the use of an insert. The nail head
axially guiding of the stud during the driving that has
not previously been known in powder-actuated stud-driv
ing tools. These advantages particularly are obtained
when the device has a base ñange 5‘8 to prevent tilting,
51 together with a correspondingly shaped recess on the
front end of the plunger 2a forms a rear guide to center
and two guides which are positioned as far as possible
the nail 52 While the front guide is a perforated disc 53.
In FIGURE 3 there is shown a relatively long stud 30 away from each other in the axial direction at the com
mencement of the driving operation so that the shank of
supporting device fastened to the end of the barrel, in
the stud (49, 52, 54) freely extends between the guides
order to ‘accommodate a very long stud 54 which is
during the driving operation, the front guide being pro
centered by the insert 55 and the perforated disc 56 with
vided in or adjacent the base flange while the rear guide
out having to replace the plunger 2b.
Reverting to FIGURE l, the tool is operated by forc 35 is formed in such `a manner that the head of the stud
(47‘, 51) is guided by centering surfaces either of the
ing the cooking lever 31 back. The hammer 22 is ac
cordingly moved backward and cocks the firing spring
23 until the tip of the cooking pawl 25 disengages so
tool itself or of the plunger (2, 2a) which is guided in
the tool. The front guiding is effected in the example
shown in FIGURES 1 through 3 by a perforated disc
that the hammer rapidly moves forward. When the
hammer strikes, the necessary detonation energy is trans 40 while the `rear end of the stud is centered in a form
locked manner in FIGURES 1 and 3 by a blunt or conical
ferred to the base part 8 which is free to move towards
shoulder, or in FIGURE 2. by a spherical extension on
the barrel. The yforce o-f impact is transferred to the
the front end of the plunger.
cartridge 5 by the cartridge holder '7, so that the base
When using perforated discs as front guides for the
6 of the cartridge 5 is jammed against the firing pin 39a
studs, the new apparatus provides the advantage that
which extends slightly beyond the rear end surface of
the plunger head 3. As soon as the detonation has been 45 these perforated discs actually act as guides and are not
destroyed by the combustion `gases as in prior powder
`actuated stud-driving tools.
gas pressure against the plunger head 3. At the same
I claim:
time, the combustion gases expand behind the cartridge
1. Apparatus for driving studs and the like into solid
to the large diameter of the end surface of the regulating
50 materials, comprising tubular guide means, plunger means
pin 19. The gas pressure, active on the cross-section of
slidably mounted within said guide means `for axial move
the regulating pin, also presses the cartridge holder against
ment therein, means `at the Iforward end of said plunger
the plunger head 3 so that the drive of the plunger is
effected, the cartridge base 6 is pressed by the combus-tion
effected from the impact base of the cartridge and by
means to apply -a driving force to a stud, a cartridge holder
plunger head 3 through the slide region 9, and the gas
pressure has dropped considerably, the cartridge alone
its primer base facing said plunger means, firing means
«the `differential pressure between the cross-section of the 55 slidably mounted for axial movement adjacent the rear
ward end of said plunger means, said cartridge holder
regulating pin 19 and the cross-section of the cartridge
being formed at its `front end to receive a cartridge with
caliber. After the cartridge holder 7 has followed the
on the rear end of said plunger means adapted to be
struck by the cartridge base to cause detonation of the
traction of the cartridge is effected by the residual gas 60 cartridge, said guide means having a cross-sectional di
mension greater than that of said cartridge holder and
pressure. While the extraction of the cartridge is initiated
forming a clear passage for forward movement of said
by the striking of the cartridge holder against the shoulder
cartridge holder along with said plunger means after
10, the openings 12 of the cartridge holder are at the
`detonation of the cartridge has been effected.
same time exposed `so that the residual gases can blow
2. Apparatus for driving studs and the like into solid
ont via the bore 35 into the gas chamber 34 of the handle. 65
materials, comprising tubular guide means, first plunger
The impact impar-ted to the cartridge by the residual
means slidably mounted for axial movement within said
gases pushes the cartridge case completely out. After
guide means, means at the forward end of said first
the loosening of the bayonet connection between the
plunger means to apply a driving force to a stud, second
barrel 1 and the base part 8, the handle may be swung
downward to permit the empty cartridge case to drop out. 70 plunger means slidably mounted for axial movement ad
follows behind the plunger head. As a result, the ex
By `adjustment of the regulating pin 19, the volume
of the combustion space, i.e. the charge density, may
be varied. The smaller the charge density, the smaller
the maximum gas pressure and therefore also the smaller
the energy supplied to the stud. The regulation of the 75
jacent the rearward end of said first plunger means, one
of said plunger means being formed to receive a cartridge
with its base facing the adjacent end of said other plunger
means, firing means at said adjacent end of said other
plunger means, said firing means and said cartridge base
being adapted to be impacted together to cause detona
ttion of the cartridge, said tubular guide means providing
a slideway for free and unimpeded movement of said
References Cited in the file of this patent
ñrst plunger means in a forward direction from its
having a cross-sectional dimension sufficient to form a
clear and unobstructed passage for free forward move
ment of said second plunger means Vfrom its position at 10 2,945,236
impact between said firing means and said cartridge base.
position lat impact between said firing means and said 5
cartridge «base rto its extreme position at the end of the
stud~driving operation, said tubular guide means further
Temple ______________ __ Feb. 11, 1936
Tietig ______________ __ Mar, 31, 1953
Trautmann __________ __ Nov.
Termet ______________ __ Nov.
Williams ____________ __ Sept.
Maier ______________ __ Mar,
Kopf et a1. __________ __ July 19, 1960
Norway ____________ __ Aug. 23,
Sweden ______________ __ Apr. 26,
Belgium ____________ __ Sept. 30,
Germany ____________ __ Jan. 10,
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