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Патент USA US3058237

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Oct. 16, 1962
3,058,229
R. DOWNING
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DRYING COAL
Filed March 22, 1960
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
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INVENTOR
DOwmNG
BY
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HTTORNEXS
Oct. 16, 1962
R. DOWNING
3,058,229
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DRYING COAL
Filed March 22, 1960
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENIOR
Dowmue
BY
Tam: a To}?
HTTORN
5
Oct- 16, 1962
R. DOWNING
3,058,229
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DRYING COAL
Filed March 22, 1960
4 Sheets-Sheet 5
_
INVENTQR
‘Rucmuw IDowuma
BY
Eis- E -
W355;
Oct. 16, 1962
3,058,229
R. DOWNING
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DRYING COAL
Filed March 22, 1960
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
1
_
INVENTORV
Rmumtu DowmNG
72% ¢ F24,“
HTTORNEYS
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United States Patent 0 ” lC€
3,058,229
Patented Oct. 16, 1962
1
2
$358,229
from the coal, and using some of said coal dust as a fuel
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DRYING CGAL
Richard Downing, 10 Lyman Circle,
Shaker Heights, Ohio
Filed Mar. 22, 1960, Ser. No. 16,806
10 Claims. (Cl. 34—23)
for heating the drying medium.
,
'
Other features and advantages of the invention will be
apparent from the following description taken in conjunc
tion with the accompanying drawings.
Referring to the drawings,
FIG. 1 is a side elevation partly broken away of a pre
The present invention relates to a method and apparatus
for drying coal and more particularly to a method and
apparatus for drying coal at the mine, or at a stock pile.
Mine run coal varies in size and contains a considerable
amount of surface moisture. Usually it is desirable to
remove a substantial portion of the surface moisture by
ferred apparatus for carrying out the invention;
FIG. 2 is a top plan view of the apparatus;
FIG. 3 is a partial cross-sectional end view of the‘ stor
age bin and combustion chamber taken along lines 3—3
in FIG. 1;
'
FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional top plan view of the combus
drying the coal before shipping it to market. If the coal
tion chamber taken along lines 4-4 in FIG. 1;
'
is to be subjected to an air cleaning operation for removal 15
FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional side elevation of the gas and
of impurities, the need for drying the coal is particularly
an air inlet feed for the combustion chamber;
imperative since conventional air cleaners are not adapted
FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional end elevation of the rotary
to handle coal with a high surface moisture content.
kiln taken along lines 6-6 in FIG. 1;
p '
Before the present invention, known driers were capable
FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional view of the roller ?anges
of drying either the ?nes, or the larger particles of coal, 20 taken along lines 7-7 in FIG. 6;
but not both. Thus it was necessary either to utilize two
FIG. 8 is a schematic diagram of the electric circuit
kinds of driers, or to leave the larger particles undried.
for the temperature actuated feed control.
In addition, it was necesary to subject the coal to sizing
Referring again to the drawings, moisture laden coal
screens while the coal was still moisture laden, thus re
is suitably fed into a kiln from a hopper 22 which is fed
sulting in screen clogging and consequent improper separa 25 by a conveyor'23. The kiln may take the form‘ of an
tion of the ?nes.
inclined rotary drum 30 as shown in FIG. 1. A pair of
Moreover, the drying operation itself was costly and
rollers 41 which are journaled in bearing block 43 mount
slow. The old machines were able to turn out only
ed on a frame 40 may rotatably support one end of the
approximately 70 tons per hour, and since most of the
kiln by engaging external ring 44, and another pair of
machines utilized coal stoked furnaces as the source of 30 rollers 4'5‘ and 46 journaled in bearing block 47 may sup
heat for the drying medium the cost in installation, labor
and fuel was great.
Further, the handling of the coal dust resulting from the
drying operation has always been a problem, due to the
noxious nature of the fumes and of the highly in?ammable
and explosive character of the dust.
A further problem with previously known driers has
been that frequently a great deal of time and effort had
to be expended to put them in operation after idle periods,
and that once they were in operation it has been di?icult
to control the actual moisture content of the coal upon
completion of the drying operation.
I
An object of the present invention is to provide a
port the other end of the kiln by engaging an external ring
43. A pinion 4:9 driven by a motor '50‘ may rotate the kiln
by engaging an external gear ‘511 on the drum. A pair
of rollers 52. and 53 journaled in frames ‘54 and ‘55 may
ride against the external ring 48 so as to prevent the kiln
from sliding axially.
'
'
'
I
The inner periphery of the kiln may contain a series of
radially projecting blades 33 which are arranged in annu
lar rows, said blades being substantially parallel to the
axis of the kiln. The blades'may be provided‘with ?anges
34, as shown in FIG. 6, which are slightly out of line
*with those in an adjacent row as shown in FIGfl.
As a result of the aforesaid arrangement of blades, the
method and apparatus for drying coal which vw'll effec 45 coal is continually cascaded during its journey from the
tively dry coal in sizes up to 4" x O and which will thus
inlet opening 31 to the discharge opening 32 of the rotat
permit the drying of substantially all the coal prior to the
ing kiln, thereby resulting in the exposure of‘a large per
screening operation. Thus, two kinds of driers will not
centage of the surface area of the'coal to the drying
be needed and screen clogging will be virtually eliminated.
medium.
'
A further object of the present invention is to provide 50
The angle of incline of the drum may be'adjusted prior’
a method and apparatus for drying coal wherein some
of the dust which separates from the coal during the
drying operation is used as a fuel for the drying medium,
thus substantially cutting drying costs and increasing the
to operation by raising and lowering the drum by way‘
of suitable hydraulic jacks (not shown). ‘It has been
found that an incline of 1%" in one foot is a preferred‘
adjustment.
-
quantity of coal which can be dried in a given period. A 55
During its journey, the cascaded coal is subjected to‘
rotary kiln embodying the present invention 43 feet long
the drying action of a current 'of warm drying medium
and 6 feet in diameter has dried 125 tons per hour and is
capable of turning out up to 150 tons per hour of 11/2” X 0
coal.
A further object is to provide a safe and self-contained 60
The combustion chamber is ‘in open communication with
the kiln, through an inlet opening '31 and a tempering
chamber 115. The current of heated drying medium not‘
drying, dust capturing, dust disposal, and fuel production
coal dust which emanates from the coal'during its" trav
method and apparatus for drying coal, wherein the coal
are all combined in the sarne apparatus.
which may enter the kiln from a combustion chamber 110.
only dries the coal but also serves as a carrier for the
erse of the kiln.
‘
‘
‘
_
A further object is to provide a method of drying coal
Y The mixture of drying medium and coal dust ?ows‘ from
wherein the moisture content of the dried coal is auto 65 the‘kiln through a discharge opening 32 into a chimney or‘
matically controlled, and wherein the operation may be
stack 60. The dried coal may leave the kiln through a"
commenced within minutes even though the apparatus has
j discharge opening 32 and may ?ow into a hopper 63_ from
been idle for an extended period of time.
whence it is discharged to a transportation vehicle or‘
The foregoing objects are accomplished by cascading
stock pile as by a screw conveyor '64 driven by a motor
the coal in a kiln while moving it from one end of the 70
kiln to the other in the presence of a current of heated
From the stack 60 the mixture of coal dust and drying
drying medium, capturing the coal dust which separates
medium may be conveyed directly to the combustion
65.
4
‘
'
3,058,229
chamber, and utilized for drying the coal within the kiln.
However, a preferred means of carrying out the in
vention is to separate the coal dust from its drying medi
um carrier, as by a cyclone separator 70, storing some
of the dust, as in a storage bin 85, and regulating the feed
of the dust from the storage bin to the combustion cham
her in accordance with the temperature of the drying
medium in the stack 60. One way of regulating the feed
and 101 shown in FIGS. 3 and 4 extend into the com
bustion chamber on opposite sides of a gas pilot ?ame
which is fed by gas pipe 117, said pilot ?ame is like
wise supplied with air through a branch conduit 118 from
the manifold 99 in order to support combustion. As
shown in FIG. 4 two nozzles 103i and 104 convey dust
into the combustion chamber and are disposed at an angle
of about 15 degrees with respect to the axis of the gas
nozzle 105. In this way the two jets of coal dust are
is to utilize a thermostat 66 which is connected in circuit
with a motor 91 that is used for rotating angers 89‘ and IO brought together within the combustion chamber in the
90 as shown in FIG. 3.
region of the outer end of the ?ame from the gas ?ame.
Referring again to FIG. 1, as a preferred embodiment
The gas ?ame thus serves to ignite the coal dust and, so
long as it is in operation, to maintain it in ignited condi
of the invention, the drying medium and dust mixture
?owing through the stack may enter the separator through
tion so long as it is moving into the combustion chamber.
a conduit 67. The drying medium is drawn through the 15 A motor 107 shown in FIG. 1 drives compressor 98.
separator by a fan 71 from whence it is discharged to the
Secondary air for supporting combustion may be in
atmosphere, while the dust is collected at the bottom of
troduced into a burner 109 through openings 112 in a
the separator.
wall 111 thereof as shown in FIG. 5. As shown in
FIG. 1 tertiary air may be supplied from the atmosphere
The dust may be drawn from the separator in any suit
able way, as by a rotating butter?y valve 75, which is 20 by way of openings 108 in the wall of the combustion
driven by a motor 76 and may then be conducted into the
chamber 110. From the‘combustion chamber 110, the
combustion chamber.
heated gases flow into a mixing or tempering chamber
115 positioned between the combustion chamber and the
If desired, some of the dust may be discharged from
the system by a screw conveyor 77 driven by a motor 76
kiln. Additional openings 116 within the Wall of the
and returned to the dried coal, or may be used as fuel for 25 chamber 115 admit additional air for supporting com
some other operation. That which is intended for use in
bustion and for tempering the gases as desired, so as to
the combustion chamber is conducted to it either through
assist in maintaining the desired degree of temperature
within the kiln. In practice a temperature of 2400 de
a conduit which connects directly to the chamber, or
through a conduit which connects to a storage bin 85 from
grees at the entrance to the kiln has been found to be
which it is fed into the chamber. Where a storage bin is 30 satisfactory where the surface moisture of the coal to be
dried is approximately 10 percent. By maintaining the
used, the dust to be burned is withdrawn from the con
veyor through an opening 79 in a wall of the conveyor
temperature of the exhaust gases in the stack at 125 de
casing 78 and the rate of removal may be controlled by
grees, the moisture in the coal at the discharge end of
a slide valve 80. The dust may then be conveyed through
the kiln can be reduced to approximately 1% to 2 per
a conduit 81 to the storage bin 85‘. A preferred method 35 cent.
The movement of a current of heated drying medium
of conveying the dust to the storage bin is to utilize a
?owing through the kiln and around the tumbling parti
fan 82 which is driven by a motor 83 and which blows
cles of coal operates effectively to dry coal in a range
the dust through the conduit 84 to the storage bin.
In the structure of FIG. 3, the dust ?owing through
conduit 84 may enter the storage bin through an opening
86 in the upper portion of the bin. The dust drops to
the bottom of the bin and the air is removed from the
bin through conduit 87 and conveyed to the stack. It is
to be understood that the bin is closed except for the inlet
opening 86 and discharge opening 88, wherefore any
excess dust in the bin will be conveyed with the air to
the stack for recirculation through the separator. As
shown, the discharge opening 88 in the bin is larger than
the inlet opening 86 as a result of which su?icient dust
will remain in the bin to provide an adequate supply for
maintaining the desired temperature in the kiln.
To regulate the ?ow of fuel from the bin to the com
bustion chamber so as to maintain a substantially constant
stack temperature there is shown in FIG. 1 a thermostat
66 in the stack which is connected in circuit with the mo
tor 91, shown in FIG. 3. The thermostat is set to main
tain a substantially constant predetermined temperature
in the stack such, for example, as 125° F. ‘ In the mech
anism illustrated, the thermostat controls the operation of
a motor 91, shown in FIG. 3, which in turn controls the
movement of feeding angers 89 and 90 which are located
beneath the storage bin 85 and are arranged to draw dust
of sizes greater than that which could be dried in ‘any
known apparatus. Additionally, the method provides for
economy of operation and assures a continuous process
of drying.
'
A further advantage of the present invention is the
fact that the apparatus may be shut down for extended
periods of time ‘and then restarted immediately without
a great loss of time in building up the temperature to
the desired degree. The invention therefore is well suited
for use in locations where it is desired to operate it
during the daytime ‘and to shut it ‘down at night.
A further advantage of the apparatus is that it lends
itself to adaptability to the location where it is used and
that it may readily be dismantled and transported from
place to place and reassembled quickly for subsequent
use at a different location.
I claim:
1. An apparatus for drying coal, comprising in com
bination, a rotary kiln having an inlet opening adjacent
one end adapted for receiving a heated drying medium
‘and for receiving lumps of coal which are to be dried
by the ‘heated drying medium, outlet means adjacent the
other end of the kiln, motor means for rotating the kiln,
blade means mounted inside the kiln for tumbling the
coal lumps, said blade means operating to move the
therefrom and to discharge it into the combustion cham
coal lumps toward the outlet end of the kiln, and to cas
ber. Preferably there are two angers, one a right and ‘the
other a left hand spiral, which are mounted upon a com 65 cade them in the. path of the drying medium, whereby
mon shaft 16 and are rotated by the motor 91. Inlet
the drying medium becomes laden with coal dust, chute
openings 92 and '93 provide communication between the
means adjacent ‘to and in communication with the lower
bottom of the bin and the respective angers while dis
portion of the outlet means of the kiln for discharging
the dried lumps of coal from the system, stack means in
tween the augers and conduits 96 and 97 which lead di 70 communication with the upper portion of the outlet means
rectly into the combustion chamber.
of the kiln so as to provide an escape for the coal dust
1 To propel the dust into the combustion chamber and
laden drying medium, separating means in communica
to provide sufficient oxygen to support combustion we
tion with the stack for separating the coal dust pro
provide a compressor 98 shown in FIG. 1 which forces
duced by the drying operation from its drying medium
air into a manifold 99 from whence branch conduits 100 ' cam'er, coal dust storage means having an inlet port in
charge openings 94 and 95 provide communication be
5
3,058,229
communication with the separating means and having
at least one outlet port, a combustion member having
an inlet in communication with said outlet port for re
6
at least some o? the coal dust from the drying medium,
transporting at least a portion of the coal dust thus sep
arated to the combustion process and burning it as a fuel
ceiving at least some of the coal dust therefrom, an
in the said combustion process, and removing the dried
inlet for receiving air and an outlet in communication
coal from the container as an end product, said dried
with the inlet opening of the kiln, ignition means for
coal lumps being uncrushed and of su?icierrtly large
burning the coal dust in the presence of
in the com
sizes, relative to their size prior to the drying operation,
bustion member, and feeding means for feeding the coal
that the said dried coal lumps are suitable for ship
dust from the outlet port of the storage means to the
ment from the mine as lump coal.
combustion member.
7. A method of drying coal at a mine comprising
10
2. An apparatus according to claim 1 including heat
taking a gaseous drying medium and heating it by a
responsive means located at a predetermined point in the
combustion process, taking moisture laden lumps of coal
apparatus adjacent the heated drying medium and driv
and tumbling them in a container While causing the coal
ing means operably connected to said feeding means and
lumps to move through the container in a generally uni
controlled by the heat responsive means and operating 15 form direction, passing the heated gaseous drying medi
to regulate the coal dust feed in accordance with the
um in a current across the coal ‘lumps as they move
temperature sensed by the heat responsive means.
through the container, the tumbling of the coal lumps
3. An apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the
combined with the passing of the heated gaseous drying
storage means has at least one other outlet port in com
medium across the coal lumps serving to dry the coal
munication with the apparatus intermediate the com
lumps and to cause coal dust to emit from the coal
bustion chamber and the inlet port of the storage means
lumps thereby causing the gaseous drying medium to
and operating to provide recirculation of a portion of
become coal dust-laden, removing the coal dust-laden gase
the dust which accumulates in the storage means.
ous ‘drying medium from the container, separating at
4. An apparatus according to claim 1 including blade
least some of the coal dust from the drying medium,
means mounted on the kiln for tumbling the coal.
25 storing at least a portion of the coal dust thus separated,
5. A method of drying coal at a mine comprising
feeding in a regulated manner at least some of the stored
taking a gaseous drying medium and heating it by a
coal dust to the combustion process, burning the dust
combustion process, taking moisture laden lumps of coal
as a fuel in the combustion process, and removing dried
and tumbling them in a container while causing the coal
coal from the container as an end product, said dried
lumps to move through the container in a generally
coal lumps being uncrushed and of sufficiently large
uniform direction, passing the heated gaseous drying
sizes, relative to their sizes prior to the drying opera
medium in a current ‘across the coal lumps as they move
tion, that the said dried coal lumps are suitable for
through the container, the tumbling of the coal lumps
shipment from the mine as lump coal.
combined with the passing of the heated gaseous drying
8. A method according to claim 7, wherein some of
medium across the coal lumps serving to dry the coal
the coal dust which is not needed for combustion is dis
lumps and to cause coal dust to emit ‘from the coal lumps,
charged from the system between the separation and
thereby causing the gaseous drying medium to become
coal-dust laden, removing the coal-dust-laden gaseous
drying medium from the container, transporting the coal
dust-laden gaseous drying medium thus obtained to the
said combustion process and burning it as a fuel in the
said combustion process, and removing dried lumps
of coal from the container as an end product, said dried
storage steps.
9. A method according to claim 7, wherein said regu
lated feeding includes sensing the temperature of the
system between the commencement of the combustion
stage and the termination of the separating stage and con
trolling the feeding in accordance with said temperature
in order to maintain the temperature of the drying medi
lumps ‘being uncrushed and of suf?citently large sizes,
um Within predetermined limits.
relative to their sizes prior to the drying operation, that 45
10. A method according to claim 7 wherein temporary
the said dried coal lumps are suitable for shipment from
excess coal dust is delivered to the storage station and
the mine as lump coal.
wherein said excess coal dust is removed from the storage
6. A method of drying coal at a mine comprising
station and returned to a point in the system remote
taking a gaseous drying medium and heating it by a
from the storage station in order to prevent the develop
combustion process, taking moisture laden lumps of coal
ment of explosive conditions at the storage station.
and tumbling them in a container While causing the coal
lumps to move through the container in a generally uni
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
form direction, passing the heated gaseous drying medi
UNITED STATES PATENTS
um in a current across the coal lumps as they move
through the container, the tumbling of the coal lumps 55
combined with the passing of the heated gaseous drying
medium across the coal lumps serving to dry the coal
lumps and to cause coal dust to emit from the coal
lumps thereby causing the gaseous drying medium to
become coal dust-laden, removing the coal dust-laden
gaseous drying medium from the container, separating
1,173,510
1,910,735
1,943,949
2,259,967
2,728,311
2,877,562
Hermansen __________ __ Feb.
Zikesch _____________ __ May
Coghlan et a1. ________ __ Jan.
Vogel-Jorgensen ______ __ Oct.
Campbell ____________ __ Dec.
Krantz ______________ __ Mar.
29,
23,
16,
21,
27,
17,
1916
1933
1934
1941
1955
1959
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