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Патент USA US3058484

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Oct. 16, 1962
3,058,474
T. A. BANNING, JR
CIGARETTE MAKING MACHINES AND THE LIKE
Filed Feb. 11, 1959
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Inventor:
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Thomas Mian g‘l?".
3,058,474
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‘ Patented Oct. 16, 1962
2
duction of the spirally wrapped cigarettes at high speed,
3,058,474
as a continuous length of product of uniform quality, on
Thomas A. Banning, J12, 5520 South Shore Drive,
Chicago, 111.
Filed Feb. 11, 1959, Ser. No. 792,529
16 Claims. (Cl. 131-59)
length product is cut off in successive equal lengths of the
CEGARETTE MAKING lViACES AND TIE_ LIKE
This invention relates to cigarette making machines,
and the like. Speci?cally, the machines hereinafter dis
a “commercia ” basis.
When so used the continuous
cigarette to meet such speci?cations as may be stipulated.
Under such use the operation of producing the continu
ous length of wrapper, uniformly ?lled with the in-fed
tobacco, such wrapper being then spiralled to fully en
close the tobacco ?ller and to bring the two edges of the
closed are of the type which produces spirally wrapped
strip into proximity for sealing together, and the sealing
cigarettes, wherein the paper enclosing the tobacco is
tormed into a wrapper in which the paper strip extends
smoothly proceeding operation without any intermittently
of such edges together, will comprise a continuous
moving parts, and with continuous rotation of such oper
spirally around the body of tobacco, and in which the
ative parts as may be needed. Provision is then made for
seam at the joined edges of such paper strip extends in
spiral fashion along the cigarette. Still more speci?cally, 15 regularly cutting off such strip to produce the desired
lengths of cigarette as a ?nal step» in the continuously
the machines embodying the present inventive features
proceeding operation. The cutting o? may also be pro
may, and are herein disclosed and illustrated as being of
duced by a rotating element, without any intermittently
that type in which a “twister” or spiraler of proper form
moving parts.
causes a continuous strip of paper of the proper width
In such a continuous “commercial” operation the to
to be regularly curled into tubular form as it proceeds 20
bacco must be continuously fed to the wrapper strip and
through such twister, so that as such strip emerges ‘from
delivered to the surface of such strip ‘at uniform rate and
the twister it has been brought into a continuous tube
just prior to entry of the curving or spiralling strip into
the ?nal stage of the twister. Also, the ?lled (and
the location of such seam and secured together, generally 25 packed) continuous length of product must be continu
ously withdrawn vfrom the twister at uniform rate prop
by suitable adhesive. The tobacco ?ller is fed to such
erly co-ordinated to the rate of tobacco feed to the wrap
spiralling strip at a location where the strip has not been
per’s surface so that the proper amount of tobacco will
spiralled sufficiently to complete the tubular enclosure,
be
present at each increment of length to ensure ‘good
and such tobacco then travels along with the strip into
and through the twister. Thus the tube is ?lled with the 30 packing of uniform degree, thus to ensure uniform qual
ity of the cigarettes cut off from all parts of a great length
tobacco by an operation in which the very act of curling
of such product.
_
the strip into its cylindrical form produces a compacting
In certain of such earlier cases I have shown means act
operation on such tobacco as it is ?nally fully enclosed.
ing in the direction of in-feed of the tobacco into the
Machines embodying twisters of the aforementioned char
having a spiral seam extending along its length, the
proximate edges of the strip being brought together at
acteristics are shown in Letters Patent of the United 35 horn of the twister, so :as to aid in packing the tobacco
into such ?nally proceeding operation of the process. It
is here noted, however, that the manual operations car
ried through in such pocket size units as are speci?cally
shown in such earlier applications and patents, are rela
my application, Serial No. 516,633. Other machines
tively slow, and thus the operating conditions which must
40
embodying such spiralers for cigarette production are also
be met in using such :a unit are very different from those
shown in my copending application, Serial No. 760,149,
encountered in the operation of a continuously practised
?led by me September 10, 1958, now US. Patent No.
operation, at high rate, and when the speci?cations of
3,006,348.
quality, degree of packing, ‘and others, must be continu
In one or more of such earlier patents ‘and applica
tions I have broadly claimed such twisters as embodied 45 ously complied with. Thus it may be stated that while
States, No. 2,788,004, issued to me April 9, 1957, and
will also be shown in Letters Patent of the United States
No. 2,873,745, to be issued to me February 17, 1959, on
in combinations capable of producing the completed
cigarettes, such completed articles being of such length
each of such earlier cases discloses the form of twister or
intended for pocket carriage in the pocket of the user,
necessarily desired in commercial type machines, operat
ing under very closely controlled conditions of packing,
uniformity of product, and other conditions special to
spiraler Which is shown in the present application, each
such earlier embodiment has been devised to meet the
as may be desired by the user of the unit, within the ca
slow, manually operated conditions incident to the type
pacity of such unit ‘as limited by the amount of tobacco
and paper strip which can be accommodated and carried 50 of use of the cigarette machines shown in such cases,
as distinguished from the very high speed operation-s
in such unit. Such earlier embodiments are especially
so that at his desire he may produce a [fresh cigarette
of such length as shall meet his needs. Such earlier em
bodiments of units also include cut-o? means by which 55 such a commercial type unit. The manual type units here
tofore disclosed may also be termed “bulk” type units,
being served with only that amount of tobacco contained
be produced and which has emerged from the unit. Such
the user can cut off the length which he has caused to
cut-off operation then completes the operation, ready for
in a bulk which is placed or fed into the hopper or con
another similar operation to be performed, producing an
tainer of the unit; whereas, the commercial type machines
duc-ing operation is manual, and includes the delivery of
ment for producing the wrapping operation in spiral form,
spiralled and cylindrically enclosed tubular form. The
smooth curving of such web about the angle of spiral,
other cigarette of the same length or some other length 60 may be called continuously operating machines or units.
A principal object of the invention is to provide a con
as desired.
tinuously operating machine embodying the twister ele
In each of the aforesaid embodiments the cigarette pro
and without any distortion of the paper web during its
tobacco from a hopper or other container constituting a
part of the unit, to the paper strip surface at a location 65 change from its original form, as, for example, in a roll
of such web, other than such changes as conform to the
where such strip has not yet been brought into its ‘fully
feed of the tobacco to such twisting or spiralling strip is
comparatively slow, ‘and in quantity only needed ‘for pro
duction of the one cigarette length at a time.
Twisters such as disclosed in such earlier patents and
applications may also be advantageously used for the pro
and into the ?nally formed spirally seamed wrapper. In
this connection, to combine with such twister orv spiraler,
70 means to Withdraw the packed and completed length of
cigarette emerging from such twister, such withdrawal
being effected by a continuous uniform pull of controlled
3,058,474
3
amount, exerted on such emerging length.
4
In connec
ing means comprises a moistening element acting against
the over-lapped edge portions of the ‘wrapper tube, I also
tion with the foregoing, to provide means to continuously
exert a packing action on the tobacco moving towards
the horn of the twister, such packing action being ad
justed as to rate and packing force to ensure delivery of
the completed length of cigarette under speci?ed condi
tions of packing, and according to the speci?cations to
which the operation is being conducted. Also, to provide
means to continuously deliver a stream of the tobacco
against the surface of the web moving along the twister,
and at a location in advance of the complete closure of
the wrapper tulbe, such continuous tobacco delivering
means being operated at rate proper to ensure at all times
a rate of tobacco feed just proper to ensure the speci?ed
packing as the completed length of the cigarette emerges
from the delivery end of the twister horn. Also, to pro
vide means to cut~off the completed continuous length
of cigarette in regular, equal length, segments, to con
form to the speci?cations to which the operation is being
conducted.
In connection with the foregoing objectives, it is a fur
ther object of the invention to provide a unit vfor con
tinuously producing such uniform continuous length of
the ?lled, packed, and wrapped and cut-off product, by
use of rotary elements, without the need of using recipro
cating elements, and thus Without the production of
inertia effects which are produced when reciprocating ele
ments are present in the chain of operations. In this
connection it is a further and important objective to pro
vide a cigarette producing machine which can be oper
rated at very high rates of cigarette production. Thus,
cigarette rates as high as several thousand complete
cigarettes per minute may be readily attained and
sustained, for cigarettes of conventional lengths of 2%
or 3 inches. For cigarettes of 3 inch length, a production
provide, if necessary, means to slightly heat the mois
tened seam immediately after such moistening operation
0
has occurred, and for a very ‘short instant, to ensure good
adherence of the two edge portions together.
Additionally, I have provided adjustable means to bring
the rates of operation of such several components into
properly synchronized values, so that the desired uni
formity of quality of the completed product shall be en
sured and maintained.
7
Other objects and uses of the invention will appear
from a detailed description of the same, which consists
in the features of construction and combinations of parts
hereinafter described and claimed.
*
In the drawing:
FIGURE 1 shows, schematically, an installation includ
ing the twister element which is disclosed in my said
earlier applications and patents, the tobacco delivery
means for continuously delivering a uniform body stream
of the tobacco towards the concave face of the web which
is being in-fed from a suitable source of supply, such as
a reel of such web, the packing or compacting ‘means to
ensure good compacting of the tobacco as it enters the
?nal stages of the wrapping operation, the sealing ele
ment, shown in the form of a m-oistening wick, acting
against the over-lapped edge portions of the spiralled web,
the withdrawing wheels or rolls acting against the sur
face of the emerging ?lled and packed wrapper tube, such
action being in the direction of spiral travel of the seam
of the web, being also the direction of travel which in
cludes the rotary component of cigarette travel, the
means to heat one of such wheels or rolls, being the one
which contacts the sealed seam directly after such seam
the moistening wick, the cut-off cutter wheel,
of‘ 4,000 cigarettes per minute is equivalent to 12,000 35 passes
which is adjustable as to the plane in which its cutters
inches or 1,000 vfeet per minute web travel, of the wrap
rotate, and the means to drive all such elements in proper
per.
and adjustable correlation to ensure proper synchronized
In connection with ability to operate the machine at
operation of all of the elements; and
very high production rates it is noted that the cut-off
FIGURE 2 shows a detailed fragmentary portion of a
clement must also operate at correspondingly high rate.
modi?ed form of the cutter blade, being one of the blades
In the example above stated, of 4,000 cigarettes per min
of the cutter wheel shown in FIGURE 1.
ute, conventional length, the cutoff element must also
Referring ?rst to FIGURE 1, I have therein shown ‘the
produce a corresponding number of cut-off operations per
twister or spiraler 10, which is of the general ‘form and
minute. I have provided a rotary cutter by which such
type of operation disclosed in the several earlier patents
cut-off operations are produced, such cutter operating
and applications already referred to. This element in
continuously at uniform rotational speed, and being prop
cludes the web entry portion 11 which is preferably flat
er-ly synchronized with the rate of emergence of the length
to conform to the non-curled condition of the entering
of completed cigarette.
web ‘12 coming from‘ the reel 13 journalled on the hub
In connection with the foregoing cutter arrangement,
14. Arrangements of this kind are shown in the various
it is also noted that although the length of completed
earlier
embodiments already mentioned. This twister has
cigarette is emerging from the twister horn at very high
its lower and other end portion curled into a short cylin
rate, so that such completed length must travel an appre
drical form to provide the delivery horn 15 of internal
ciatble distance during the interval needed for the cutter
diameter substantially the same as the external diameter
element to cut across the cigarette diameter, still I have
the ?lled and compacted and wrapped cigarette length
made provision such that during the cut-off operation 55 of
16 which emerges from such horn. Preferably the strip
such blade also executed an amount of travel in the di
of sheet metal or other suitable material from which the
rection of cigarette length movement corresponding to
twister is made is provided with opposite edge guide
the travel of such cigarette length, so that a smooth and
portions 17 and 18 slightly separated ‘from the concave
uniform cut is produced Without ru?iing or other dis
surface of the twister, to receive and guide the edges of
tortion of the cigarette length.
60
Thus, included in my present ‘disclosures of a commer
cial type cigarette machine are the following elements;
the wrapper web twister or spiraler, the means to deliver
a continuous uniform body of tobacco towards and
against such web at the proper point, the means to pack
or compact the so-delivered tobacco uniformly towards
and into the ?nal stage of the wrapping and enclosing
operation, the means to continuously withdraw the com
the web strip moving through the twister. These guides
are of course separated from each other the same dis
tance as the width of the web, or slightly more, to per
mit ‘free travel under guidance along the concave surface
of the twister.
In the embodiment shown in FIGURE 1 I have shown
proportions such that the overlapped edge portions of the
web emerge from the horn 15 when they are substantially
at the bottom portion of their rotary component of move
pleted, ?lled and packed with tobacco spirally wrapped
tube of the wrapper, and the means to cut-off the speci 70 ment. Such rotary component is due to the fact that the
?ed lengths of completed cigarette, as well as the means
direction of in-feed of the web shown by the arrow 19 is
to produce sealing of the wrapper as it emerges from
diiferent from the direction of travel of the completed
the twister, such sealing means generally comprising a
cigarette length, shown by the arrow 20, by an angle which
I call the angle of spiral. In the embodiment shown in
' tionsof the emerging tube of wrapper. When such seal‘ 75 FIGURE 1 such angle is substantially 25 degrees. The
moistener acting in contact with the over-lapped edge por
3,058,474
5
means to withdraw the completed cigarette length from
the horn of the twister will be described presently.
The tobacco is fed against the concave surface of the
curling web at the general location just before the curling
6
may be in either direction (by reverse of the screw’s con
volutions), but in the embodiment shown the direction
of screw conveyor rotation is the same as the rotary com
ponent of travel of the web moving through the twister.
It is here mentioned that in the embodiment shown in
FIGURE 1, and the operation of which will be more fully
explained hereinafter with an example of the relative
speeds of the operational elements, the shaft 27 of such
screw ‘conveyor will sometimes be much greater than the
is completed, and where there is a sufficient opening onto
such concave surface to allow for good delivery of the
tobacco to the Web and in proper quantities. This condi
tion will be better understood when it is stated that the
surface of the twister (and of the web travelling there
through) is substantially ?at to the general location 21 10 rotational speed of the emerging (and producing) ciga
rette length, so that a strong compacting force will be
where the lower portion of the twister begins to curl to
developed by the rotations of such screw conveyor, not
wards the observer in FIGURE 1, and upwardly, so that
withstanding that the web itself is also rotating in the
the near edge of the twister is shown by the line 22. As
same direction as such screw conveyor, but at lower rota
movement proceeds along the twister towards the right
(towards the horn 15) such curling continues so that such 15 tional speed.
Thus it appears that I have provided means to deliver
edge rises and then proceeds backwardly from the ob
server, and then curls down to meet the inner surface of
the non-curled portion of the twister, at which location
further curling of the entire element occurs to complete
the cylindrical form of the horn. Such formation of the
twisters is well shown and disclosed in each of such earlier
embodiments.
Thus it appears that during the travel of the web to
wards the horn the in-fed tobacco should also be caused
to travel with the wrapper web, being packed as needed
during such travel, so that by the time the enclosing oper
ation of the web is being completed the tobacco will be
gripped by such enclosing web and thus subjected to a
to the surface of the twister tobacco at a rate determined
by the rate of travel of the belt conveyor 23 and the
amount of tobacco supplied to and carried by such con
veyor per unit length thereof, means, in the form of the
air jet, to further drive the so supplied tobacco towards
the desired location, it being noted that such nozzle may
be directed to ensure such operation, and the valve ele
ment 30 of such nozzle enables control of the strength
of such air jet, and means in the form of the screw con
veyor, to ensure good drive movement of the tobacco
towards and into the encircled portion of the web enter
ing the horn, to thus aid the movement of the tobacco,
radial packing operation. Also, the tobacco is advancing , and to thus ensure the desired degree of compacting of
30 the wrapped tobacco. Each of these operations may be
towards the horn during this operation.
I provide means to continuously deliver the tobacco
to the desired location just above de?ned. Such means
controlled as to speed so that their relative effects may
ently explained. By properly proportioning the parts so
preferably in opposite pairs, such wheels being in periph
be properly synchronized and harmonized at any and all
times, and for any selected speed of cigarette delivery
includes a carrier or conveyor, such as the light belt 23
operation. Such speed of cigarette delivery may be con
travelling over the pulley 24 journalled at 25 at such
location that as the belt moves around such pulley the 35 trolled as desired, by the instrurnentalities presently to be
described.
tobacco carried by its upper surface is discharged towards
A short distance beyond the delivery end of the horn
the desired section of the twister and towards the surface
15 I have provided several cigarette draw wheels or rolls,
of the web where it may then be further acted on as pres
that a rather high belt speed is used, the tobacco will be
discharged forwardly far enough to accomplish the in
tended result. Also, such discharge will be in a rather
spread out condition so that the tobacco will be distributed
over some area of the web surface.
To aid in such de
eral contact with the surface of the completed cigarette
length and exerting a drawing or pulling force to continu
ously draw the completed product from the horn. In the
embodiment shown in FIGURE 1 there are four of these
wheels, 31, 32, 33 and 34, in the opposite pairs, 31—32,
livery of the tobacco stream I have also shown the air 45 and 33-34, the wheels of each pair being diametrically
opposite to each other and engaging the diametrically op
jet nozzle 26 supported at such position that an air jet
delivered by such nozzle will blow or throw the tobacco
rather strongly towards the surface of the web, and also
towards the entering or left-hand end of the horn. Thus
a compacting operation will be produced by such jet.
posite portions of the emerging cigarette length. Each of
these wheels is suitably journalled so that its periphery
engages the surface of the cigarette length with some pres
sure to thereby ensure good frictional engagement with
50 the cigarette length. Preferably, also the peripheral sur
faces of these Wheels are coated with soft rubber or other
will be brought to the speci?ed degree of compactness in
To further effect compacting of the tobacco so that it
the horn, I have provided the spiral conveyor element 27
comprising the small rod shaft having the spiral thin screw
element extending forwardly from a location near the en
trance end of the web into the twister, to a location near
or even in the entrance end of the horn. This screw is
preferably of tapered diameter, but constant pitch, so
that as the tobacco enters and surrounds the screw con
volutions such tobacco will be driven forward and to
wards the horn, and ?nally into the horn. It is noted that
the convolutions of such screw conveyor are of diminish~
frictionally engaging material of slightly yieldable nature,
so that good pulling engagement is made by each wheel’s
periphery with the cigarette wrapper surface. Such ma
terial is shown by the stippling on the edge portions of the
wheels 31, 32 and 33 (only the corners of 34 being visible
since such wheel is almost completely hidden by the length
of cigarette).
These wheels may be supported by journals which per
mit of slight movement towards and away from the axis
of the emerging cigarette, with spring pressure urging the
Wheels slightly towards the surface of the cigarette to
ing radius proceeding towards the horn, as the compact
thus ensure good traction between each wheel and such
ing operation proceeds. It is also noted that the travel
of the web against which the tobacco contacts, will aid in 65 cigarette surface, even when the cigarette is slightly com
pressible due to non-packing of the tobacco during the
advancing such tobacco into the horn. By properly pro
?rst stages of starting a “run” of the machine, as will be
portioning the convolutions of the screw conveyor, and
hereinafter explained.
properly controlling its driven speed, presently to be ex
It is seen from FIGURE 1 that these wheels are not
plained, the desired compacting of the tobacco entering
supported
in planes parallel to the axis of the emerging
the horn will be ensured.
70
cigarette. Thus, the top wheel, 31, slants away from the
The conveyor shaft 27 extends through a journal block
23 seated on the lower portion of the twister near the
observer as one moves towards the right in the ?gure
(that is, in the direction of cigarette travel), the front
entrance end thereof (or otherwise supported), and the
wheel, 33, slants up when moving towards the right, the
end of such shaft is provided with the sprocket wheel 29
by which such screw conveyor is driven. Such drive 75 rear wheel, 34 slants down when moving towards‘ the
3,058,474
right, and the bottom wheel, 32 slants towards the ob
wheel also includes the light rim element 48 to which the
server when moving towards the right. The angles at
outer ends of the wires are connected. Such rim element
which such slants occur correspond to the angle of spiral,
is, however, of su?icient mass to provide a considerable
substantially 25 degrees in the embodiment shown in FIG
rotational inertia, due to its relatively large diameter, so
URE 1. Thus, each Wheel rotates, at its point of contact in that when the wheel is brought up to speed such rim Will
with the cigarette, in a plane parallel to the direction of
serve to prevent a cut-ting Wire from being de?ected back
cigarette travel at the point of contact between the wheel
wardly (with respect to its direction of rotation), and thus
and the surface of the cigarette, and thus rotates without
such wire will be supported and driven forward during
side slip. The journals of the several wheels should be
the cutting operation substantially without de?ection due
adjusted, when installed, to exactly that angle of spiral 10 to its lack of stiffness. The diameter of such wire may
which will be used in the assembly. Or, if desired, pro
be of the order of a few thousandths of an inch so that at
vision may be made in the supports of the journals, for
the high rotative speed presently to be explained, such
slight angular adjustment, either at the time of assembly
wire will have an ample cutting ability through the diam
or at some later time, without dismounting the assembly.
eter of the cigarette length. This cutter wheel is driven
All four of these drive wheels are driven in harmony
in harmony or synchronism with the other elements of
and at like speeds so that they all combine to develop
draw on the cigarette, and so that all of such draws are at
the same rate, thus avoiding any tendency for the ciga
rette to twist to one side or the other, or up or down. The
drive means and controls therefor will be described here
inafter. It is, however noted that the wheel 33 engages
the surface of the emerging cigarette at the location at
tained by the spiral seam when passing the location of
such wheel, so that such wheel exerts a direct pressure
against such spiral seam at such location.
Directly beyond the delivery end of ‘the horn 15 is the
moistener wick element 35. This vWick is supplied with
water from a suitable source, through the wick holder 36,
and at rate su?icient to meet the continuing needs of the
fast travelling cigarette length. In the embodiment shown
in FIGURE 1 the seam has come around to the bottom
of the emerging cigarette, so such wick is located below
the cigarette as shown, to properly engage such seam.
However, by the time any element of the seam has trav
elled far enough to the right to meet the wheel 33‘ such
seam element has risen substantially one-fourth turn, and
now faces the observer in FIGURE 1. Thus, by locating
the Wheels at the location shown, it is possible to ensure
that such wheel 33 will ride on the seam as thus exert
pressure thereon.
If desired the peripheral portion of such wheel 33 may
the ‘device, so that as each wire spoke comes to the near
surface of the cigarette and proceeds through such ciga
rette, cutting off the right-hand section thereof, a proper
length of the cigarette shall have passed through between
two of the wheel wires or spokes, according to the speci
?ed length of such cigarettes. Since I have, in FIGURE
1 shown four such wires it is seen that each cutting ac
tion, representing a cigarette of speci?ed length, will
occur for a one-fourth rotation of the Wheel, and accord
ingly, four cigarettes will be cut off during each wheel ro
tation, in the embodiment shown in FIGURE 1.
At this point I mention that the cutter wheel shown in
FIGURE 1 is on much reduced scale as compared to the
other portions of that ?gure, for purposes of convenience
in illustration. An example of such Wheel’s diameter will
be stated hereinafter.
In FIGURE 1 I have also shown, by block diagram
and schematically, for convenience, one means for driv
ing and controlling the various operative elements thus
described. In said ?gure the motive power may be sup
plied by the drive motor, 48a, preferably a synchronous
constant speed motor.
Such motor drives a double out
put gear element, 49, having the two output shafts 50
and 51. Included in such gear element or unit 49 is pro
vision for continuous adjustment of the output speed of
each such shaft through an “in?nite” range of speeds, so
be continuously adjustably heated, as by suitable electri
cal heating elements, by current continuously supplied to
that the exact speed of each output shaft, 50 or 51, may
such heating elements through the wires 37 and 38, and
The output shaft 51 constitutes the input shaft of an
other gear ratio changer element 52, also, preferably ca
suitable slip-rings or other conventional means. It is
noted that the rate of linear travel of the cigarette is high,
so the interval of contact between the seam element and
the periphery of such wheel 33 is very small. Accord
ingly, it is possible to heat such wheel periphery to a con
. siderable temperature without danger of burning or char- ‘
ring the cigarette paper, or producing such e?ects as
“carmelization” which would affect the quality of the
product. Thus, if desired a rapid drying elfect may be
produced, suf?cient to ensure good adherance between
the overlapping edge portions of the wrapper.
Located beyond the drive or draw wheels is a cut-off
unit, shown as the wheel 39 in FIGURE 1. This wheel
comprises a hub portion 40, journalled in the arms of a
yoke 41, which yoke in turn has the stem 42 which is
connected to a stationary stand 43 by the ball and socket
connection 44. A set screw element 45 is provided for
be adjusted as needed.
pable of an “in?nite” range of output speeds to the out
put shaft, 53; and such output shaft 53 constitutes the
input shaft of a clutch element 54 by which the drive of
the screw-conveyor may be disconnected, or such con~
veyor may be brought into operation after other elements
have been started. To this end the output shaft 55 of such
clutch element drives the screw convey-or through the
sprockets 56 and 57 and the connecting chain 58.
The output shaft 50 from the double output gear ele
ment 49 serves as the input shaft to a multiple gear output
gear box 59.
Since all of the wheels 31, 32, 33 and
34 are of the same size they should all be driven at the
same speed. Accordingly, the gear box 59 is provided
with gearing to drive the four output shafts 60, 61, 62
and 63 at the same speed. These four shafts connect,
by
?exible shafting if desired, with the four drive wheels
locking the ball and socket joint in any adjusted position.
31, 32, 33 and 34, respectively. The gear box 59 also
By this arrangement the plane of the wheel may be set
includes a gear change element, preferably of the “in
normal to the direction of cigarette travel, or may be
?nite” range type, from which extends the output shaft
tilted in either direction compared to such normality, or 65 64. This constitutes the input shaft to the clutch ele
may be rocked about an up and down axis, or may be ad
ment 65. From such clutch element its output shaft 66
justed in various combinations of such adjustments.
serves as the input shaft to another change gear box, 67,
Thus, such ball and socket joint makes it possible to bring
also preferably of the “in?nite” range type; and the out
the plane of rotation of the wheel to any desired angle
put
shaft 68 from such gear box 67 connects, preferably
with respect to the direction of cigarette travel.
by a ?exible shaft 69, to the shaft of the cutter wheel.
This wheel also includes one or more radially extend
The belt conveyor wheel 24 is conveniently driven by
ing cutter elements, shown in FIGURE 1 as comprising
a separate drive motor 70, preferably of the synchronous
the high tensile small diameter wires 46. The hub ele
type. Such separate drive for such belt conveyor is
ment includes corresponding short radial stubs 47 to
convenient since the rate of tobacco delivery to the
which the inner ends of such wires are connected; and the 75 twister and web will in fact depend on the rate of supply
3,058,474
9
to such conveyor, and not alone on the linear velocity
of such belt conveyor; the rate of tobacco delivery in
pounds/hr. being dependent on the weight of tobacco
carried by each linear foot of the conveyor, and that
can be controlled at the feed station from which such
conveyor is supplied.
The air jet may be controlled from time to time by
10
eter of the cigarette as is the advance of the cigarette in
its direction of travel during that same time interval.
Under such balanced conditions the cutter wire will fol
low the cigarette travel in the direction of such travel, so
that a straight cross cut may be produced without pro
ducing a ragged cut such as would be produced if such
harmony of movement did not occur.
It is further to be noted that in any case the elements
an attendant according to the manner in which the
of the machine must be so proportioned that the cross
tobacco is being spread over the screw-conveyor, etc.
With such fundamental elements related as stated above 10 cut of each cutter shall be completed in ample time to
avoid con?ict with the cutting action of the next cutter
various operations may be conducted, some of which
of the wheel. With a cutter wheel of twelve inches
are as follows:
diameter, it is possible to so proportion all of the parts
First; for any speci?ed length of the cut-01f cigarettes
that a desired balance of conditions will be readily pro
there is a corresponding ratio between the speeds of the
drive Wheels 31, 32, 33 and 34, on the one hand, and 15 duced. I shall herein include a tabulation of sizes and
rates of movement of various elements of the present de
the cut-0E wheel, 39, on the other hand. This is true
vice, for both rates of operation of 1000 cigarettes per
since such speci?ed length of cigarette must arrive at
minute and 4000 cigarettes per minute. This tabulation
the position of the cut-oil wheel in time to be acted
will strikingly reveal the relationship between the opera
on by one of the spokes of that wheel. With the four
tions of various elements of the equipment. Both of
spoke arrangement shown, such cut-o? wheel must make
the foregoing rates of cigarette production will be on
one rotation for four cigarette lengths, etc. According
the basis of three inches per cigarette. At this point I
1y, having speci?ed the cigarette length, the gear change
call attention to the following operations to place the
vbox 67 will be set to ensure exactly one rotation of the
present equipment into service:
cut-off wheel for whatever number of rotations of the
It is evident that the ability of the drive wheels 31, 32,
.drive wheels are necessary to advance the cigarette four 25
33 and 34 to produce traction on the emerging cigarette
cigarette lengths—in the case of three inch cigarettes,
length depends on the presence of a ?lled body of the
twelve inches. Having made such setting it need not be
spirally wound wrapper, since the absence of a properly
changed until some other cigarette length is speci?ed.
packed body of tobacco within such wrapper would leave
It should here be noted that in the showing of FIGURE
1 such cut-o? wheel is shown in greatly reduced diameter 30 the tubular wrapper without internal support. Accord
ingly, the ?rst operation of the device should be to bring
as compared to the size of other elements, and a con
the wrapper into longitudinal movement, and commence
venient diameter of such cut-o? wheel would be twelve
the introduction of the tobacco into the curling wrapper
inches, the diameter of the cigarette being substantially
moving through the horn. During this interval a slow
0.330 inch.
manual movement of the wrapper, with coordinated in
Having established the foregoing relationship, the
troduction of the tobacco into the curling wrapper, can
driven speed of the drive wheels 31, 32, 33 and 34 should
be effected so that presently there will appear the spiralled
be such as to absorb the tobacco being fed to the twister
wrapper with some enclosed tobacco, emerging from the
and wrapper at such rate as will produce the desired com
delivery end of the horn. As this preliminary operation
pactness of the tobacco in the delivered product. In
proceeds a better and better packing of the tobacco can
other words, since the rate of delivery of tobacco by the
be produced until ?nally the emerging length of cigarette
belt conveyor depends on how fast such tobacco is fed
will be packed with suf?cient compactness to enable the
onto such conveyor at the input end, such tobacco must
drive wheels to gain traction on the surface of the
be absorbed by properly compacted cigarettes as it ar
emerging product. Thereafter the drive wheels may be
rives at the present unit. The ratio between the speeds
slowly accelerated to increase speed, use being made of
of the drive wheels and of the cut-off wheel having been
the various controls already explained. Finally such
pre-set, the speed of this combination may then be regu
drive wheels may be brought to the full intended rota
lated by proper adjustment at the gear box 49, to bring
tional speed for the desired rate of cigarette production.
its output shaft 50 to that speed which will drive the
Next, the operation of the cut-off wheel must be con
drive wheels and the cut-off wheel at the proper rate to
absorb the arriving tobacco. This is of course on the 50 sidered, in respect to its proper functioning or non-func
tioning during this starting stage of the operation. It is
assumption that such arriving tobacco is being used as
evident that proper cut-off cannot be produced until the
fast as it arrives so that there is neither a depletion nor
rate of the cutter wires (or blades) across the path of the
an increase of tobacco unused at the location of the
present unit.
emerging cigarette length has become high enough to
Next, the rate of drive of the screw-conveyor element 55 effect such cutting without merely tearing the cigarette
length or causing it to become tangled up or festooned.
should be adjusted to a point such that the tobacco is
To meet this condition various operational procedures
compacted to the desired degree. In so doing the rate
may be followed, including the following sequences:
of consumption of tobacco per hundred cigarettes or
First, the cutter wheel may be brought up to speed
other arbitrary number, will change, being reduced as
compaction is increased, and vice versa. Accordingly, 60 at least sut?cient to produce good sharp cut-o? when the
cigarette length starts to emerge from the horn far enough
in case of such a change in degree of compaction it may
to engage the cutter wheel. Then, as the cigarette length
also be necessary to go back and readjust the rate of
comes
into engagement with the cutter wheel blades
drive of the shaft 50 from the gear box 49, so that no
sharp cut-offs will occur. At the beginning of such op
change in volume of tobacco present in the twister unit
eration the elements of cigarette thus cut o? will be short,
will occur, either as a depletion or as an increase.
65 but as the speed of the drive wheels 31, 32, 33 and 34
The adjustment of the air jet by use of the valve ele
is raised, with corresponding rise of the rate of cigarette
ment thereof, will be made according to the desired dis—
delivery, the lengths so cut 01f will increase until ?nally
tribution of the tobacco delivered into the screw-con
veyor.
[the operation will be brought into properly related speeds
The degree of rock of the cutter wheel away from the 70 of cigarette emergence and cut-o?.
\It is noted that when the cutter wheel is provided with
condition of normality to the direction of travel of the
an encircling rim element '48 it is not possible to shift
arriving cigarette, will be adjusted to that value at which
the position of such cutter wheel laterally of its axis to
the tilt is just correct to produce the same advance of
bring it into operative position with respect to the path
the cutter wire in the direction of cigarette movement,
during the time needed for such wire to traverse the diam 75 of travel of the emerging cigarette since such an opera
3,058,474
ll
.
r
tion would entail shifting such rim across the body of
the emerging cigarette length. For this reason when such
12
Tabulation of Suggested Sizes of Certain Operative Ele
ments and their Rates of Operation for Two Rates of
Production of Three Inch Cigarettes
rim is used as a part of the cutter wheel’s construction
some starting operation such as above outlined must be
followed. On the contrary, by using a cutter wheel
Cigarette Production
construction which does not include such outer rim extend
per Minute
ing between the radial blades, it is possible to effect lat
eral shift of the cutter wheel while it is rotating at high
1, 000
speed, and while the emerging cigarette is moving along
its normal delivery path. By such an ‘arrangement, in 10
volving lateral shift of the cutter wheel to bring its
rapidly rotating blades into cutting relation to the emerg
ing cigarette length, it is possible to bring both the rate
of cigarette production (length) and the rate of cutter
wheel rotation, to high values while the cutter wheel is
laterally displaced from the path of emergence of the
cigarette length from the horn; and then bring such cut
ter wheel into operative position for cutting off the de
sired cigarette lengths after such high rates of move
ment have been attained. Thereafter, normal operation
can be continued.
In FIGURE 2 I have shown a modi?ed detailed frag
mentary view of a cutter blade 70a, connected to one of
the hub studs 47, such cutter blade being of such angular
dimension (measured in the rotative direction of cut)
as will give such blade desired stiffness, and the outer end
portion of such blade need not be supported by any
encircling rim element. By use of this type of blade in
place of the thin high-tension strength wires shown in
the embodiment of FIGURE 1, it is possible to shift a
cutter wheel equipped with such blades laterally into
Rate of cigarette travel, injmin ........... _-
4, 000
3, 000
12, 000
Angle of Spiral __________________________ ..
25 d.
25 d.
Rate of paper strip inleed, in./min _______ ._
3, 310
13,250
Length of cigarette convolution, in _ _ _ _
2. 666
2.666
Diameter of cigarette, in___
Rpm. of formed cigarette
0. 330
1, 125
0.330
4, 500
Pitch of feed screw, in___
1. 583
1. 583
_ . ._
Rpm. of feed screw _____ __
1, 900
Diameter of cigarette drive wheels, in-
7, 590
_-
2. 00
2.00
Rpm. of Cigarette drive wheels __________ __
527
2, 105
Diam. of cutter wheel, overall, in__ _ _.
_.__
12
Radius oi blade at point of cut-oh‘, in . .
_ _ __
5. 25
5. 25
250
4
1, 000
4
Rpm. of cutter-wheeL _ __
Number of cutter blades_ _
12
Time to travel one eigare
m _________________ __
. 00100
sec __________________________________ __
Are travel of cutb? wheel to cut-oft _______ __
. 06000
. 00025
.01500
3 d.10 m
3 (1.10 m.
86 d.50 m.
86 d.50 m.
Arc travel of out-01f wheel between succes
sive cut-o?s _____________________________ __
Linear speed of cutter blade at radius of cut
o?, in./min _____________________ _-
_
Time to out off cigarette, min..
Cigarette travel during cut-oft time“
Cutter blade travel during cut-o?___
Tangent of angle of tilt of cutter _____ __
.-
8,250
33, 000
.00004
0. 12 in.
.00001
1. 12 in.
0.33 in.
O. 33 in.
__-
0. 363
0. 363
Angle of tilt of cutter-wheel, approx _______ __
19 deg.
19 dog.
The above tabulation shows, for the assumed conditions,
that the tilt of the cut-o?c wheel need not be changed as
cutting position after all operative parts have attained
the rate of cigarette production is changed, when the rota
a su?iciently high speed to ensure proper operations of
tive rate of such cut-oil wheel is changed at the same pro
portionate amount as the change in rate of cigarette pro
the several elements, and also properly related operations
of such elements.
It is noted that the cutting operation necessarily pro
duces a lateral force against the cigarette length at the
0.1 Cr duction.
Likewise, that the relative speeds of the drive
wheels and the cut-off wheel remain constant so that the
operational layout shown schematically in FIGURE 1 is
a convenient arrangement for controlling the various op
location of cut-off. Such force is in direction away from
erations under different speci?ed rates of cigarette produc
the observer examining FIGURE 1. Accordingly, I
'
have provided, in the showing of FIGURE 1 a curved 110 tion.
Referring again to the form of cutter blade shown in
guard plate 71 supported behind the cigarette length just
FIGURE 2, the outer end portion 72 of such blade is
to the left of the plane of intersection of the rotating
curved backwardly with reference to the direction of blade
cutter blade with the cigarette body, so that such guard
sweep, as indicated by the arrow 73‘ in such ?gure. The
will not interfere with the free and proper cutting move
cigarette length being cut through by such blade is shown
ment of the blade. Nevertheless, such guard will afford
by the circle 74, and on the basis of an eitective blade
such lateral support to the cigarette as needed to prevent
radius of approximately 5.25 inches (as shown in the pre
lateral displacementof the cigarette length during the
cut-01f operation. As will presently be shown the change
of angle of tilt of the plane of the cutter wheel to main
tain proper coordination between that wheel’s rotational
movement and the lengthwise travel of the cigarette
length during cut-off is very small. Accordingly, it will
vious tabulation), such cigarette diameter is substantially
as indicated by such circle 74. It is now evident that the
cutting operation produced by such a blade cutting shape
(curved backwardly as shown in FIGURE 2), the cut
across the diameter of the cigarette is in the nature of a
shearing action, and not directly across the diameter of
generally be possible to set such guard plate slightly left
the cigarette in the direction normal to the radius of
ward of the generally used rotational path of the cutter
the cutter. Accordingly, the cutting elfect thus produced
blades, so that any later slight shift of cutter wheel tilt
is that of a spiral shaped cutter which e?ective radius in
may be accommodated without bringing the path of the
creases as the cutting action proceeds, being smallest to
cutter blades into position Where interference with such
begin with and increasing to ?nality. Such a shearing
guard plate would occur. Even so, if desired such guard
action is desirable for various reasons which will be ap
plate may be mounted and supported in such manner
that it can be shifted slightly back and forth parallel to 60 parent to persons skilled in the art.
For reasons of simplicity of illustration I have not
the direction of cigarette travel, to take care of such
shown any housing or enclosure around the left-hand open
changes of wheel tilt as above mentioned.
portion of the twister and tobacco supply elements. It is
To illustrate the relative proportions and rates of op
evident that any such enclosure may be provided to ensure
eration of various elements of such a cigarette producing
against loss of the loose tobacco being in-fed from the belt
machine as disclosed above,,and to show the high rates
conveyor and being directed by the momentum of the ar
of cigarette production ,(individual cigarette- leng‘kths)
riving tobacco leaving such conveyor, and also directed
which may be attained with such a device vI have now
by the air jet towards the screw conveyor, towards the
presented below a tabulation of various ofthe opera
horn. Any suitable enclosure which will retain the to
tional elements, their sizes in essential functions, their
bacco against such loss may be applied over and around
operational rates for two rates of cigarette production (on
the exposed open upper portions of the parts.
the assumption of three inch cigarette lengths), and various
-I claim:
other factors of interest. It will be understood that the
1. Means to produce a continuous length of cigarette
illustrations thus given are intendedto be of general na
stock in which the tobacco is packed in a continuous web
ture only, and are given merely by way of illustration
of wrapper in spiral fashion with the wrapper spiralled
or example. The tabulation is as follows:
along the cigarette stock at a pre-determined angle of spiral
3,058,474
13
and with the proximate edges of the wrapper in continu
ous engagement with each other along a spiral seam and
with said edges secured together, said means comprising
a hollow horn of internal size substantially the same as
the
wrapper
diameter
entrance
of the
portion
cigarette
and stock,
a cylindrical
said horn
delivery
having
por
tion having a delivery end, means to continuously supply
14
spirally formed wrapper strip and contained tobacco from
the delivery end of the horn.
7. Means as de?ned in claim 2, together with means to
deliver a current of gas towards the location of progres
sive curl of the wrapper strip and at the location of sup
ply of the tobacco to the face of the Wrapper strip.
8. Means as de?ned in claim 7, wherein said gas cur
rent
delivering means comprises a gas delivery nozzle.
to the interior surface of the wrapper entrance portion
9. Means as de?ned in claim 7, together with means to
of said horn the strip of wrapper in spiral fashion during
support said gas current delivering means, including gas
advance of the wrapper through the horn from the
current delivery direction adjustable means.
wrapper entrance portion of the horn to the delivery end
10. Means as de?ned in claim 7, together with means
thereof, said means to supply the wrapper strip to the
to adjust the rate of the delivery of the gas current.
wrapper entrance portion of the horn being constituted
11. Means as de?ned in claim 10, together with means
to supply the wrapper strip in a direction non-parallel to
the axis of the horn by an angular amount corresponding 15 to support said gas current delivering means, including gas
current delivery direction adjustable means.
to the spiral angle of the wrapper strip within the horn,
12. Means to produce a continuous length of cigarette
means to feed the wrapper strip into the entrance portion
stock in which the tobacco is packed in a continuous web
of the horn in said spiral fashion, means to progressively
of wrapper strip having the proximate edges of said
curl the wrapper strip from a non-curved cross-section
of said strip into a cylindrical spiral of curved cross-sec 20 wrapper strip in engagement with each other, said means
including a wrapper strip continuous tube forming unit
tion of the strip at a location in advance of the entrance
including
means to continuously draw the edges of the
portion of the horn and during travel of the wrapper strip
wrapper strip towards each other and into overlapping
to the entrance portion of the horn and to bring the edges
engagement with each other, means to continuously ad
of the wrapper strip into proximity with each other at a
location adjacent to the entrance portion of the horn, 25 vance the wrapper strip through said tube forming unit,
and means to continuously feed tobacco against the con
together with means to continuously supply tobacco
cave surface of the wrapper strip at a location in advance
against the face of the wrapper strip at the location of
of the engagement of the edges of the strip with each
progressive curl of the Wrapper strip and between the loca
other,
said tobacco feeding means including a belt con
tion of commencement of said curl and the location of
veyor, means to support said conveyor for linear travel
the entrance portion of the horn and continuously acting
towards the location of supply of the tobacco to the face
means to draw the spirally formed wrapper strip and con
of the wrapper strip, said conveyor supporting means being
tained tobacco from the delivery end of the horn in the
constituted for change of direction of the conveyor at a
direction of the spiral travel of the cigarette stock from
point in advance of the location of tobacco supply to the
such delivery end of the horn, the means to continuously
supply the tobacco against the face of the wrapper strip at 35 face of the wrapper strip, including means to advance the
conveyor towards said point of change of direction, and
said location including a belt conveyor means to support
said conveyor for linear travel towards the location of
supply of the tobacco to the face of the Wrapper strip, said
means to produce the linear travel of the conveyor to
wards said point of change of direction.
13. Means as de?ned in claim 12, together with means
of direction of the conveyor at a point in advance of said 40 to adjust the rate of advance of the conveyor towards the
conveyor supporting means being constituted for change
location of tobacco supply to the face of the wrapper strip,
including means to advance the conveyor towards said
point of change of direction of said conveyor.
14. Means as de?ned in claim 12, together with means
to deliver a current of gas towards the location of feed
point of change of direction, and means to produce the
of the tobacco against the concave surface of the wrapper
linear travel of the conveyor towards said point of change
.
45 strip.
of direction.
15. Means as de?ned in claim 14, together with means
2. Means as de?ned in claim 1, wherein said supporting
to adjust the rate of delivery of the gas current.
and direction changing means comprises a pulley, and
16. Means as de?ned in claim 15, together with means
to adjust the rate of advance of the conveyor towards the
of the pulley in proximity to the location of commence
50 point of change of direction of said conveyor.
ment of curl of the wrapper strip.
3. Means as de?ned in claim 2, wherein the belt con
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
veyor travels downwardly over said pulley at the location
UNITED STATES PATENTS
means to journal said pulley at a location with the face
of the pulley.
4. Means as de?ned in claim 2, together with means
to adjust the rate of operation of the means which draws 55
the spirally formed wrapper strip and contained tobacco
from the delivery end of the horn.
5. Means as de?ned in claim 2, together with means to
adjust the rate of advance of the conveyor towards the
point of change of direction of said conveyor.
6. Means as de?ned in claim 5, together with means to
adjust the rate of operation of the means which draws the
832,289
2,149,924
2,335,514
Boucher _______________ __ Oct. 2, 1906
Molins _______________ __ Mar. 7, 1939
Hiebert ______________ __ Nov. 30', 1943
2,788,004
Banning ______________ __ Apr. 9, 1957
548,860
Germany _____________ __ Apr. 20, 1932
19,667
Great Britain ______________ __ of 1893
445,044
Great Britain __________ __ Apr. 2, 1936
FOREIGN PATENTS
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