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Патент USA US3059177

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Oct. 16, 1962
3,059,167
T. A. BYLES
REGULATOR CIRCUIT FOR GENERATORS
Original Filed Dec. 25, 1957
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INVENTOR.
Theodore A By/es
BY
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Alb/s.
Unite States
- atéint
1.
3,059,167
REGULATGR CIRCUIT FQR GENERATORS
Theodore A. Byles, Villa Paris, 111., assign‘or to Motorola,
, Inc, Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Illinois
Continuation of application Ser. No. 704,421, Dec. 23,
1957. This application Apr. 28, 1961, Ser. No. 115,590
'
20 Claims.
(Cl. 322—25)
3,059,167,
Patented Oct. 16, 1962
2
coeiiicient resistor to minimize adverse effects of the tem
perature change on the regulated value of the current.
A further feature of the invention is the provision of a
biasing network for a voltage responsive transistor in a
regulator wherein a negative temperature coeiiicient re~
sistor establishes a higher regulated output voltage at low
temperatures than is established at higher temperatures
in order to optimize the charging voltage for a storage
This invention relates to voltage and current regulators
battery.
and more particularly to an electronic regulator of the 10
A still further feature of the invention is the provision
type adapted to control the current and voltage of a
of a regulator for an automobile battery charging gen
generator in a vehicular electrical system. The present
erator wherein reverse current ?ow, or battery discharge,
application is a continuation of my application Serial No.
into the regulator is controlled by a power diode. The
704,421, ?led December 23, 1957, now abandoned.
diode may also be used in a simple and inexpensive charg_
The present day regulator used in vehicles, such as 15 ing system for the battery.
automobiles, commonly employs electromechanical means
Further objects, features and the attending advantages
to limit the current to a value which the generator can
of the invention will be apparent upon consideration of
safely supply and to limit the voltage output of the gen
the following description when taken in conjunction with
erator to a value which will not damage the various de~
the accompanying drawings, in which:
vices connected to the system in the automobile. In
FIG. 1 is a perspective top view of a regulator with the
this way, the storage battery usually included in electrical
cover removed and constructed in accordance with the
systems of this type can be charged and, for the most part,
present invention;
supplanted when the generator output is sufficient to en
FIG. 2 is a perspective bottom view of the regulator of
ergize various electrical items in the vehicle. Such prior
FIG. 1; and art regulators have been troublesome in that calibration 25
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of the regulator con
thereof may be unstable and the mechanically operated
structed in accordance with the invention.
electrical contacts can fail to operate reliably under the
varying conditions which are encountered during use of
In a particular form of the invention, a control tran_
sistor is adapted to be coupled to a control winding of a
the vehicle. The electronic regulators known in the past
generator system for regulating the generator system out
put. The conduction of the control transistor is regulated
bya transistor responsive to a certain voltage change and
have not been altogether suitable for the use in a vehicle
electrical system where stability requirements are severe
and the temperature operating ranges are great.
Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to provide
an electronic voltage regulator for an automobile electri
a transistor responsive to a certain current change. Con
trol elements of the voltage responsive transistor are
coupled to a voltage divider network connected to the out_
cal system which has improved stability and reliability 35 put of the generator system and including a zener diode
over previously known regulators.
Another object is to provide an improved transistorized
regulator for an automobile generator for charging the
battery in the electrical system, which regulator requires
and a negative temperature coefficient resistor so that the
voltage responsive transistor conducts when a given gen
erator voltage is reached, corresponding to a breakdown
potential of the zener diode, to decrease the conduction
no moving parts for limiting the current drawn from the 40 of the control transistor and limit the output voltage of
generator to prevent overload thereof and for limiting the
the generator system. The negative temperature coeffi
voltage output of the generator to prevent application of
cient resistor causes the effective control voltage limit to
excess potentials to the automobile electrical accessories.
increase at low temperatures thus providing a higher
Another object of the invention is to provide a tem
charging voltage for a lead acid storage battery at low
perature responsive electronic regulator for an automobile 45 temperatures. The voltage divider may include a ballast
electrical system in which the regulated voltage level is
tube so that the control voltage limit is less sensitive to
increased at lower temperatures in order to meet the
the voltage of the generator system. Control elements of
charging requirements of a lead acid storage battery.
the current responsive transistor are coupled to a voltage
Still another object of the invention is to provide a
divider network having a further negative temperature
transistorized voltage and current regulator which is tem 50 coe?icient resistor and a constant reference potential es
perature compensated in order to overcome temperature
tablished by a ballast tube. The current responsive tran
sensitivity of present day transistors, the effects of which
sistor is also controlled by a potential varying with load
may adversely in?uence regulator operation as it is used in
current so that suf?cient increase of the current causes
an automobile under variable ambient temperature condi~
conduction of the current responsive transistor and de
55 creased conduction of the control transistor, and thus the
tions.
A feature of the invention is the provision of transis
control winding current, to reduce generator system out~
tor circuits which are responsive to current and voltage
put. The negative temperature coe?‘icient resistor is
changes and which are adapted to variably energize a
placed in the voltage divider network to compensate for
control winding of a generator system with a novel bias
a change in the conduction characteristics of the current
ing arrangement for the transistors to reduce the output 60 responsive transistor during a change in ambient temper
of the generator system when particular output current or
ature. A power diode may be used at the output of the
voltage is developed.
regulator circuit to prevent reverse current flow from the
Another feature is the provision of a voltage divider
battery load into the generator system and a switch and
network for biasing a current controlled transistor in a
transformer circuit may be included with the diode cir
regulator which includes a ballast tube and load current 65 cuit to provide a simple means of charging the storage
carrying resistor means for rendering the transistor re
battery from the household power lines through the power
sponsive to load current change but unresponsive to load
diode.
voltage change.
The voltage and current regualtor shown in FIGS. 1
Another feature is the provision of such a voltage di
and 2 includes a housing frame 10 supporting a printed
vider network for biasing a current sensitive control tran 70 circuit panel 12 which carries some of the circuit compo
sistor in a regulator wherein the temperature sensitivity of
nents identi?ed in connection with the explanation of the
the transistor is compensated by a negative temperature,
circuit of FIG. 3. A suitable enclosing cover (not shown)
3,059,167
3»
may be secured to the frame It)‘ to enclose the components
shown in FIG. 1. The components exposed from the
bottom of frame 10 as shown in FIG. 2 are protected
when the unit is mounted against a surface in the engine
compartment of an automobile or other vehicle in which
at
és
network with its emitter connected to lead 33, its base
connected to the junction of diode 55 and resistor 57 and
its collector connected to the base of transistor 31. Vari
able resistor 43 is adjusted to provide a bias on diode 55
such that this diode will reach its critical back bias volt
age, or reverse breakdown voltage, when the voltage be
the device is used. Electrical connection to the device is
tween lead 33 and ground has reached a predetermined
made through the frame 10 which is a reference point or
maximum at which it is desired to limit the output of the
ground for the device and terminals 14, 16 and 18 which
system. At potentials of lead 33 below the desired maxi
are respectively connected to the generator system output,
or armature; the generator system control winding, or 10 mum allowable voltage transistor 35 is biased to cutoff
and when the maximum voltage is exceeded the diode 55
?eld; and the load to which the generator supplies power,
commences conduction in a reverse direction and the cur
or the battery which is charged by the generator system.
rent ?owing through resistor 57 establishes a bias on tran
In the schematic diagram of FIG. 3 there is shown a
sistor 35 such that it conducts through resistor ‘35 thereby
direct current automobile generator 20, the armature 20a
of which has a positive terminal connected to the terminal 15 reducing the conduction of transistor 31 and reducing the
energizing current in ?eld winding 20b so that the gen
14 and a negative terminal connected to ground, or the
erator output is reduced. The system then maintains a
frame of the regulator. A ?eld winding Nb of the gen
balance with a small control voltage existing across re
erator is connected between ground and terminal 16 of
the regulator. The output terminal 18 of the regulator is
sistor 5'7.
it may be noted that if the collector current of tran~
connected to the positive terminal of an automobile stor 20
sistor 35 tends to rise due to junction heating, this would
age battery 22 and also through ignition switch 23 of the
cause a reduction in the generator output voltage thereby
automobile electrical system. A negative terminal of bat
reducing the emitter bias on transistor 35 until equili
tery 22 is grounded. Current is supplied from the gen
brium was reached. Accordingly, the voltage limiter
erator 20 to charge the battery 22 or to energize the auto
electrical system by conduction from terminal 14 through 25 circuit is self-compensating for temperature effects on the
transistor 35.
resistor 25, switch 27, which is normally closed, and diode
In a particular application of the regulator it may be
29 and terminal 18. Diode 29 is poled to prevent reverse
desirable to raise the maximum limit voltage of the sys
conduction or discharge of the battery 22 into the regu
tem at lower temperatures. For example, in a nominal
lator and generator system. The return current path is,
of course, provided through ground.
30 14 volt automobile electrical system, it may be desired
that the maximum allowable voltage output be 14 volts
In the regulator circuit, a power transistor ‘31 has its
at temperatures in the neighborhood of 150° F. and a
emitter connected to lead ‘33 which extends between re
voltage of 15.8 in the region nearer 0° F. This is in
sistor 25 and a terminal of switch 27. The base electrode
accordance with the optimum charging voltages for some
of transistor 31 is connected to ground through resistor
lead acid storage batteries used in automobiles. Therm
35. The output electrode, or collector, of transistor 31
istor 53 in parallel with resistor 41 is used to provide
is connected to terminal 16 and the ?eld 2% of the gen
this effect. Thermistor 53 has a negative temperature
erator is series connected in the emitter-collector circuit
coef?cient so that at higher temperatures the voltage
of the transistor so that a change in the transistor output
applied from the arm of variable resistor 43 to the zener
current will vary the energization of the ?eld winding and
4-0 diode is somewhat lower than it is at low temperatures.
thus control the output of the generator.
This temperature control voltage is effectively a bias
Transistor 35 is connected so that it will be conduc
which adds to the breakdown voltage of diode 55. Ac
tive when a predetermined voltage limit is reached and
cordingly, the limiting voltage at which transistor 35
when the generator system output voltage exceeds such
commences conduction is higher as temperature decreases
limit, transistor 35 conducts to control transistor 31 in a
way to reduce the ?eld current to limit the generator out 45 and the regulator circuit therefor compensates for the
internal resistance of the storage battery as it varies with
put voltage. Transistor 39 is sensitive to the generator
temperature. It may also be noted that it is desirable
system output current conducted through lead 33 and
'to connect the ground side of thermistor 53 by means of
between terminals 14 and 18, so that an increase beyond
an eiiective heat conductor contact with the frame of the
a given current level will cause a reduction in the output
current of transistor 31 and thereby a reduction of the 50 regulator unit to prevent a runaway condition because
as thermistor S3 is heated through self-generated heat,
output of generator 20'. The circuit construction and
this would otherwise have the tendency to increase the
operation to accomplish these results will now be ex
current through this thermistor and continue the heating
plained.
process.
To provide the necessary biasing voltages for transis
The current limiter transistor 39 has a base electrode
tors 35 and 39, a voltage divider network is connected
connected to lead 33, and a collector electrode connected
between terminal 14 and ground, with a further portion
to the base of transistor 31 and an emitter electrode con
of the network being connected to lead 33. The network
nected to the junction of thermistor S1 and resistor 49.
includes a resistor 41 connected between ground and one
Accordingly, transistor 39' is biased by the voltage across
?xed terminal of a variable resistor 43, the other ?xed
terminal of resistor 43 being connected to a ballast tube 60 the combination of resistors 25 and 49. As previously
explained, ballast tube 45 maintains an essentially con
45. The ballast tube 45 is series connected with resistor
stant current through the voltage divider network so that
47 which is connected to terminal 14. A series combina
the potential drop across resistor 49‘ does not vary with
tion of resistor 49‘ and thermistor 51 is connected across
variation in the output voltage of generator 20. The
resistor 47 and a further thermistor S3 is connected across
components in the biasing voltage divider network, in
resistor 41. The movable arm of variable resistor 43 is
cluding resistor 47, resistor 49 and thermistor S1, to
connected to a zener or avalanche type diode 55 which is
gether with resistor 25, provide a reverse emitter bias
series connected with resistor 57 to lead 33.
for transistor 39 so that it is biased below cutoff. How
The ballast tube 45 is used to maintain a constant cur
ever, the value of resistor 25 is selected so that as a pre
rent in its series circuit throughout a variation of the gen
determined current level is reached a potential drop is
erator system output voltage over which the regulator
produced which causes conduction of transistor 39
operates. Accordingly, reference potentials are available
through resistor 35 thereby controlling the power tran
in the voltage divider system which are independent of
sistor 31 to cause the reduction in the current through
variations in the supply voltage existing between terminal
14 and ground.
.
?eld 20b and thus a reduction in the output of gener
Transistor 35 is connected in a voltage limit responsive 75 ator 20.
3,059,16'?
5
ther resistor, said transistor further having an output
Transistor 39 may also be temperate sensitive and for
any given desired conduction condition of this transistor
electrode coupled to said control means, the constants
the necessary bias may be a function of the temperature
of the transistor. Accordingly, thermistor 51, having a
of said voltage reference circuit being selected to provide
changed conduction of said transistor with the output
negative temperature coefficient, in combination with
voltage of the power source above a predetermined value
resistor 49, which has a very small value compared to
that of thermistor 51, provides a bias voltage for the
emitter of transistor 39 which is a function of temperature
to compensate for the change in conduction characteristics
for application of the control potential to said control
means, and said temperature sensitive resistor having a
temperature coe?icient for biasing said zener diode and
causing the changed conduction of said transistor at
higher output voltages as the ambient temperature de
of the transistor.
7
In particular applications of the electronic current and
voltage limiter of the present invention it may be desired
that the regulated voltage be higher when the limiter
creases.
commences operation than it is after 15 to 30 minutes
to a reference point by an electrical source to be regu
2. A voltage regulator circuit including in combina
tion a power circuit adapted to be energized with respect
of operation. It has been found that warm-up heating 15 lated, an output control circuit including control means
of the device in combination with the temperature com
pensating circuit elements described above are su?‘icient
to cause a small decrease in the voltage at which limiter
trol potential for regulating the output voltage of the
action takes place thus providing this desirable charac
teristic of the regulator system.
temperature sensitive resistor coupled between the ref
coupled to said power circuit and responsive to a con
electrical power source, a voltage divider including a
erence point and said power circuit, a zener diode and
In a particular successful embodiment of the invention
a resistorpseries coupled in the order named between
said voltage divider and said power circuit, a transistor
the circuit constants were as follows:
Transistor 31"; _____ __
2N176.
Transistors 35, 39 _____ _.
Resistor 25 __________ __
Resistor 35 __________ __
Resistor 41 __________ __
Resistor 43 __________ __
Ballast tube 45 _______ __
Resistor 47 __________ __
Resistor 45 __________ __
XN13.
.008 ohm.
220 ohms.
12 ohms.
25 ohms.
DT-S 83.
3.3 ohms.
1 'ohm.
having input electrodes coupled across said resistor, said
transistor further having an output electrode coupled
25 to said control means, said zener diode and said resistor
being selected to provide changed conduction of said
transistor with the output voltage of the power source
above a predetermined value for application of the con
trol potential to said control means, and said temperature
30 sensitive resistor having a temperature coe?icient for
biasing said zener diode to cause the changed conduc
tion of said transistor at higher output voltages as the
Thermistors 51, 53 ____ _. 40 ohms at 25° C.
ambient temperature decreases.
Diode 55 ____________ __ ZA12 (Hoffman Electronics).
3. A voltage regulator for a vehicular electrical sys
Battery 22 ___________ __ Nominally 12 volts.
With the particular circuit constructed according to
these speci?cations, current limiting could be successfully
35 tem having an electromechanical source of direct current
with a ?eld winding therein and a load circuit includ
maintained at 30 arnperes and voltage limiting could be
maintained at 15.8 volts at 0° F. and at 14.5 volts at
150° F.
As a further re?nement of the circuit, switch 27 in
cludes a contact 60 so that operation of the switch to
establish contact 60 will connect the secondary of trans
former 65 between the diode 29 and ground. The pri
mary of transformer 65 may include a standard line cord
plug 67 so that transformer 65 can supply the proper
voltage from the power lines for recti?cation by diode
29 and charging of battery 22. Obviously other methods .
of connecting transformer 65 to the system may be em
ployed. In this way, it is possible to use the cutout diode 50
29 as part of a simple battery charging circuit when a
power outlet is available.
Accordingly, this invention provides a regulator suit—
able for use in a vehicle electrical system wherein a
generator supplies charging power for a storage battery
used in the system. The current and voltage limiter
action of the system described provides change in output
characteristics with temperature as may be required by
a storage battery and successfully maintains desired limit
voltage and current values during variation in the ambient 60
ing a chargeable battery, said regulator including in com
bination, a ?rst conductor to be energized by the source
of direct current, a ?rst terminal for connection to the
battery, switch means for selectively connecting said ?rst
conductor to said ?rst terminal, a second terminal for
connection to the ?eld winding, frame means providing
an electrical reference conductor and forming a heat sink
for said regulator, an insulated panel supported by said
frame means for carrying the interconnected components
of said regulator, a ?rst PNP transistor mounted on said
frame means and having a base electrode and further
having an emitter electrode connected to said ?rst con
ductor and a collector electrode connected to said second
terminal, a second PNP transistor having an emitter elec
trode connected to said ?rst conductor and a collector
electrode connected to said base of said ?rst transistor
and further having a base electrode, ?rst through fourth
resistor means supported on said panel, means connect
ing said ?rst resistor means between said base electrode
of said ?rst transistor and said reference conductor,
means connecting said second and third resistor means
in series in the order named between said reference con
ductor and said ?rst conductor, a zener diode supported
by said panel, means connecting said zener diode be
temperature of the regulator unit thereby compensating
tween the interconnection of said second and third re
for changes in the characteristics of the components used
sistor means and said base electrode of said second tran
in the system.
sistor, means connecting said fourth resistor means be
I claim:
said base electrode of said second transistor and
1. A voltage regulator circuit including in combina 65 tween
said ?rst conductor, and a thermistor connected across
tion a power circuit adapted to be energized with respect
at least a portion of said second resistor means.
to a reference point by an electrical source to be regu
4. A voltage regulator circuit including in combina
lated, an output control circuit including control means
tion an input circuit adapted to be energized with respect
coupled to said power circuit and responsive to a con
to a reference point by an electrical power source to be
trol potential for regulating the output voltage of the 70 regulated, an output power circuit adapted to be cou
electrical power source, a voltage reference circuit in
pled to a battery, an output control circuit including
cluding a temperature sensitive resistor, a zener diode
control means responsive to a control potential for regu
and a further resistor series connected in the order named
lating the output voltage of the electrical power source,
between the reference point and said power circuit, a
voltage divider means coupled between said input cir
_ transistor having input electrodes coupled across said fur 75 cuit and the reference point, a transistor having input
3,059,167
electrodes coupled to said voltage divider means and
further having an output electrode coupled to said con
trol means for applying a regulating signal thereto, said
voltage divider means including means to provide
changed conduction of said transistor with the output
voltage above a predetermined value for control of said
transistor and said control means, diode means series
connected between said output power circuit and said
input circuit and poled to prevent current flow from the
battery to said regulator circuit, a circuit for supplying
an alternating current potential and means for applying
such alternating current potential to said diode means for
recti?cation therein and charging of the battery.
5. A voltage regulator for a vehicular electromechani
ture response characteristic related to the charging re
quirements of the battery at different temperatures so that
conduction of said transistor is reduced with the produc
tion of a higher voltage by the source at low temperatures
than at high temperatures thereby charging the battery
at a higher voltage at low temperatures than at high
temperatures.
8. A voltage regulator system for an automotive elec
tromechanical source of direct current having a ?eld
winding and adapted to charge an automotive storage bat
tery, said regulator system including in combination, a
power circuit comprising a ?rst conductor and a refer
ence conductor to be energized with direct current from
the source, a diode series connected with said ?rst con
cal source of direct current having a ?eld winding and 15 ductor for connecting the same to the battery, said diode
having output terminal means for supplying power to an
being poled to prevent conduction from the battery to
electrical load of a vehicle including a storage battery,
said ?rst conductor, a ?rst transistor having emitter, col
said regulator including in combination, ?rst and second
lector and base electrodes, means for connecting said
conductors for connection to the source of direct cur
emitter and collector electrodes in series with the ?eld
rent, a ?eld terminal for connection to the ?eld winding, 20 and across said conductors so that said ?rst transistor
a transistor having an input electrode and further having
supplies the ?eld current, a second transistor having input
output electrodes connected between one of said con
and output electrodes, a bias circuit for said base elec
ductors and said ?eld terminal to control current in the
trode including a circuit connected to said output elec
?eld winding, voltage sensitive switch means connected
trode so that said second transistor controls the conduc
to said input electrode to control the conduction of said
tion of said ?rst transistor for reducing the conduction
transistor, said voltage sensitive switch means including
of said ?rst transistor to lower the current in the ?eld
a voltage divider circuit connected across said ?rst and
winding, a voltage divider connected across said con
second conductors and including a temperature respon
ductors and having a point therein connected to said
sive resistor, said resistor having a temperature response
input electrode, said voltage divider including a tempera
characteristic related to the charging requirement of the 30 ture responsive resistor having a temperature response
battery at different temperatures.
characteristic related to the charging requirements of the
6. A voltage regulator for a vehicular electromechani
cal source of direct current having a ?eld winding and
having output terminal means for supplying power to an
electrical load of a vehicle including a storage battery, 35
battery at different temperatures so that conduction of
said ?rst transistor is reduced with the production of a
conductors for connection to the source of direct cur
higher voltage by the source at low temperatures than at
high temperatures thereby charging the battery at a higher
voltage at low temperatures than at high temperatures.
.9. An automotive electric system including in com
rent, a ?eld terminal for connection to the ?eld winding,
a ?rst transistor having a base and further having an
having a ?eld winding, a storage battery adapted to be
said regulator including in combination, ?rst and second
emitter connected to said ?rst conductor and a collector
connected to said ?eld terminal to control the current
in the ?eld winding, a second transistor having a base
and further having an emitter connected to said ?rst
conductor and a collector connected to said base of said
?rst transistor, a ?rst resistor connected between said
collector of said second transistor and said second con
ductor, a second resistor connected between said base and
emitter of said second transistor, a voltage divider con
nected between said ?rst and second conductors, a zener
diode connected between said base of said second tran 50
bination, an electromechanical source of direct current
charged by said source of direct current, an auto electrical
circuit including an ignition switch connected to said
storage battery for energization thereby, a power circuit
comprising a reference conductor connected from said
source of direct current ‘to said battery ‘and a further
conductor including an isolation diode connected between
said source of direct current and said battery, and a volt
age regulator circuit connected between the reference
conductor and the interconnection of said source of direct
current with said diode, said regulator including a tram
sistor connected to said ?eld winding to be conductive
sistor and an intermediate point of said voltage divider,
therethrough and a voltage sensitive switch means con
and a temperature sensitive resistor connected across a
nected to said transistor to control the conduction thereof,
said voltage sensitive switch means including a voltage
portion of said voltage divider, said temperature sensi
tive resistor having a temperature response characteristic
divider connected across said conductors and including a
related to the charging requirement of the battery at dif 55 temperature responsive resistor having a response char
ferent temperatures.
7. A voltage regulator for an automotive electro
mechanical source of current having a ?eld winding and
adapted to charge an automotive storage battery, said
acteristic related to the charging requirements of said
battery at different temperatures.
10. A current regulator circuit including in combina
tion an input circuit adapted to be energized with respect
regulator including in combination, a power circuit com
prising a pair of conductors to be energized with direct
to a reference point by an electrical power source to be
regulated, an output power circuit adapted to be con
current from the source and to be connected to the bat
nected to utilization means to be supplied load current,
tery, a transistor having emitter, collector and base elec
an output control circuit including control means respon
trodes, means connecting said emitter electrode to a con
sive to -a control potential for regulating the output of the
ductor of the power circuit, means for connecting said 65 electrical power source, conductor means including re
collector electrode to the ?eld winding, a voltage respon
sistor means for carrying load current connected between
sive device with input and output terminals, a bias circuit
said input circuit and .said output power circuit, voltage
for said base electrode including resistor means connected
divider means coupled between said conductor means and
to said output terminal, means connecting said bias circuit
the reference point and including temperature compen
to said power circuit and to said base electrode for reduc
sated means for maintaining substantially constant cur
ing the conduction of said transistor to reduce the cur~
rent therethrough upon variation of the voltage of the
rent in the ?eld winding, a voltage divider connected
power source, a transistor having input electrodes con
across said conductors and having a point therein con
nected to said voltage divider means and said resistor
nected to said input terminal, said voltage divider includ
means and further having an output electrode connected
ing a temperature responsive resistor having a tempera 75 to said control means, said temperature compensated
. 3,059,167
.
it?
t
,
as the ambient temperature decreases.
13. A voltage and current regulator circuit including
in combination an input circuit adapted to be energized
with respect to a reference point by an electrical power
source to be regulated, an output power circuit adapted
to be connected to utilization means to be supplied load
current at a given output potential, an output control
circuit adapted to be connected to means responsive to a
control potential for regulating the output of the elec
trical power source, conductor means including resistor
means for carrying load current connected between said
input circuit and said output power circuit, a ?rst tran
source to be regulated, an output power circuit adapted
to be connected to utilization means to be supplied load
current at ‘a given output potential, an output control
circuit adapted to be connected to means responsive to
a control potential for regulating the output of the elec
,
output potential higher than the given output potential
means being selected to compensate for changes in tran
sistor characteristics with change in overall temperature
of said current regulator circuit, said resistor means pro
viding a voltage for changing the conduction of said
transistor at a given load current for regulation of said
control means and application of the control potential
to said output control circuit.
11. A voltage and current regulator circuit including
in combination an input circuit ‘adapted to be energized
with respect to a reference point by an electrical power
sistor having output electrodes connected between said
15 output control circuit and said output power circuit and
further having an input electrode, voltage divider means
coupled between said conductor means and the reference
trical power source, conductor means including resistor
means for carrying load current connected between said
input circuit and said output power circuit, a ?rst transis
tor having output electrodes connected between said out
put control circuit ‘and said output power circuit and
further having an input electrode, voltage divider means
coupled between said conductor means and the reference
point and including means for maintaining substantially
constant current therethrough as the voltage at said
input circuit varies, a second transistor having input elec
trodes connected to said voltage divider means and said
resistor means and further having an output electrode
point and including means for maintaining substantially
connected to the input electrode of said ?rst transistor,
constant current therethrough as the voltage at said in~
said resistor means providing a voltage to cause changed
25 conduction of said second transistor above a given load
put circuit varies, ‘a second transistor having input elec
current for control of said ?rst transistor and change of
trodes connected to said voltage divider means and said
resistor means ‘and further having an output electrode
connected to the input electrode of said ?rst transistor,
the potential at said output control circuit, said voltage
said resistor means providing a voltage for changed con
means for establishing a bias on said second transistor
divider means also having temperature responsive resistor
duction of said second transistor ‘above a given load 30 which changes with temperature to compensate for con
duction characteristic changes in said second transistor,
current for control of said ?rst transistor and change of
a third transistor having input electrodes coupled to said
the potential at said output control circuit, a third tran
voltage divider means and further having an output elec
sistor having input electrodes coupled to said voltage
trode coupled to said input electrode of said ?rst tran
divider means and further‘ having ‘an output electrode
coupled to said input electrode of said ?rst transistor, said 35 sistor, said voltage divider means including means to
cause changed conduction of said third transistor with
voltage divider means including means to cause changed
the output voltage above the given output potential for
conduction of said third transistor with the output voltage
control of said ?rst transistor and change of the potential
above the given output potential for control of said ?rst
at said output control circuit.
transistor and change of the potential at said output con
trol circuit.
_
12. A voltage and current regulator circuit including
14. A regulator circuit for limiting the voltage and
current of a vehicular generator system including con
trol means responsive to a regulating potential for con
in combination an input circuit adapted to be energized
trolling the output of the generator system and output
with respect to ‘a reference point by an electrical power
means for supplying charging current to a storage bat
source to be regulated, an output power circuit adapted
to be connected to utilization means to be supplied load 45 tery, said regulator circuit including in combination, con
ductor means ‘for interconnecting the output means of
current at a given output potential, an output control
the generator system and the battery to supply output
circuit adapted to be connected to means responsive to
current at a potential with respect to a reference point,
a control potential for regulating the output of the elec
a ?rst transistor having output electrodes coupled to the
trical power source, conductor means including resistor
means for carrying load current connected between said 50 conductor means and adapted to be connected to the
control means and having an input electrode, said con
input circuit and said output power circuit, a ?rst transis
ductor means including resistor means for carrying load
tor having output electrodes connected between said out
current and means to prevent conduction from the battery
put control circuit ‘and said output power circuit and fur
into said regulator circuit, voltage divider means coupled
ther having 'an input electrode, voltage divider means
coupled between said conductor means and the reference 55 between said conductor means and the reference point
and including means for maintaining substantially con
point and including means for maintaining substantially
stant current therethrough as the voltage at the output
constant current therethrough as the voltage at said in
means of the generator system varies, a second transistor
put circuit varies, :a second transistor having input elec
having input electrodes connected to said voltage divider
trodes connected to said voltage divider means and said
resistor means and further having ‘an output electrode 60 means and said resistor means and further having an out
connected to the input electrode of said ?rst transistor,
said resistor means providing a voltage to cause changed
conduction of said second transistor above a given load
current for control of said ?rst transistor and change of
the potential at said output control circuit, a third tran 65
sistor having input electrodes coupled to said voltage
divider means and further having an output electrode
coupled to said input electrode of said ?rst transistor,
said voltage divider means including means to cause
changed conduction of said third transistor with the
output voltage ‘above the given output potential for con
trol of said ?rst transistor and change of the potential at
said output control circuit, and said voltage divider means
put electrode connected to the input electrode of said
?rst transistor, said resistor means providing a voltage to
cause changed conduction of said second transistor above
a given charging current for control of said ?rst transistor
and change of the potential at said output electrode of
said ?rst transistor, a third transistor having input elec
trodes coupled to said voltage divider means and further
having an output electrode coupled to said input electrode
of said ?rst transistor, said voltage divider means includ
ing means to cause changed conduction of said ?rst tran
sistor with the voltage output at the output means of
the generator system above a given value for control of
said ?rst transistor and change of the potential at said
output electrode thereof.
further including temperature responsive means to cause
15. A regulator circuit for limiting the voltage and cur
such increased conduction of said third transistor at an 75
3,059,167
1
12
erator system and the battery to supply output current
a regulation of said ?rst transistor and reduction of the
regulating current in the control winding.
17. A regulator circuit for limiting the voltage and cur
rent of a vehicular generator system including a control
winding responsive to a regulating current there-through
for controlling the output of the generator system and
output means for supp-lying charging current to a storage
at a potential with respect to a reference point, a ?rst
battery, said regulator circuit including in combination,
rent of a vehicular generator system including control
means responsive to a regulating potential for controlling
the output of the generator system and output means for
supplying charging current to a storage battery, said
regulator circuit including in combination, conductor
means for interconnecting the output means of the gen
conductor means for interconnecting the output means of
ductor means and adapted to be connected to the control 10 the generator system and the battery to supply output
current at a potential with respect to a reference point,
means and having an input electrode, said conductor
said conductor means including a ?rst resistor for carry
means including resistor means for carrying load cur~
ing output current and switch means and a diode poled to
rent and diode means to prevent conduction from the
transistor having output electrodes coupled to said con
battery into said regulator circuit, voltage divider means
prevent conduction from the battery into said regulator
coupled between said conductor means and the reference 15 circuit, a ?rst transistor having output electrodes adapted
to be connected in series with the control winding and
point and including means for maintaining substantially
said conductor means to supply regulating current there
constant current therethrough as the voltage at the output
to and further having an input electrode, voltage divider
means of the generator system varies, a second transistor
means coupled between said conductor means and the
having input electrodes connected to said voltage divider
means and said resistor means and further having an out
reference point, said voltage divider means including
put electrode connected to the input electrode of said
?rst transistor, said resistor means providing a voltage to
means for maintaining substantially constant current
therethrough as the voltage output at the output means of
the generator system varies, a second transistor having
input electrodes connected to said voltage divider means
and further having an output electrode connected to the
cause changed conduction of said second transistor at a
given charging current for control of said ?rst transistor
and change of the potential at said output electrode of
said ?rst transistor, a third transistor having input elec~
trodes coupled to said voltage divider means and further
having an output electrode coupled to said input elec
trode of said ?rst transistor, said voltage divider means
including means to cause changed conduction of said
?rst transistor with the voltage output at the output means
of the generator system above a given value for control
of said ?rst transistor and change of the potential at said
output electrode thereof, and circuit means for supplying
alternating current to said diode means for recti?cation
thereof and charging of the storage battery.
16. A regulator circuit for limiting the voltage and
current of a vehicular generator system including a con
trol winding responsive to a regulating current there
input electrode of said ?rst transistor, said voltage divider
means including means for causing increased conduction
of said second transistor above a given output current for
regulation of said ?rst transistor and reduction of the
regulating current in the control winding, a third transis
tor having input electrodes coupled to said voltage divider
means and further having an output electrode coupled
to an input electrode of said ?rst transistor, said voltage
divider means including means to cause increased con
duction of said third transistor with the voltage of the
generator system above a predetermined value for a regu
lation of said ?rst transistor and reduction of the regulat
ing current in the control winding, and transformer means
adapted to be energized by an alternating current source,
through for controlling the output of the generator sys 4-0 said switch means having contacts to couple said trans~
former means through said diode to the battery for charg
tem and output means for supplying charging current
in the same.
to a storage battery, said regulator circuit including in
18. A voltage and current regulator circuit including
combination, conductor means for interconnecting the
in combination an input circuit adapted to be energized
output means of the generator system and the battery
to supply output current at a potential with respect to a
reference point, a ?rst transistor having input electrodes
with respect to a reference point by an electrical power
source to be regulated, an output circuit adapted to be
connected to utilization means to be supplied load cur
coupled between said conductor means and the reference
rent at a given output potential, an output control circuit
point and an output electrode adapted to be connected in
adapted to be connected to means responsive to a control
series with the con-trol winding to supply regulating cur
rent thereto, said conductor means including a ?rst resis~ 50 potential for regulating the output of the electrical power
source, conductor means including a ?rst resistor for
tor for carrying output current and a diode poled to
carrying load current connected between said input cir
prevent conduction from the battery into said regulator
cuit and said output power circuit, a ?rst transistor having
circuit, voltage divider means coupled between said con
output electrodes connected to said power circuit and to
ductor means and the reference point, said voltage divider
said output control circuit and further having an input
means including a ?rst portion having a second resistor
electrode, voltage divider means coupled between said
coupled to said first resistor and a ballast tube for main
conductor means and the reference point, said voltage
taining substantially constant current through said second
divider means including a ?rst portion having a second
resistor as the voltage output at the output means of the
resistor coupled to said ?rst resistor and a ballast tube for
generator system varies, a second transistor having input
electrodes connected to said ?rst and second resistors and 60 maintaining substantially constant current through said
second resistor as the voltage at said input circuit varies,
further having an output electrode connected to an input
a second transistor having input electrodes connected to
electrode of said ?rst transistor, the values of said ?rst
said ?rst and second resistors and further having an out
and second resistors being selected to permit increased
put electrode connected to the input electrode of said
conduction of said second transistor above a given output
?rst transistor, the values of said ?rst and second resistors
current for regulation of said ?rst transistor and reduc
being selected to permit increased conduction of said
tion of the regulating current in the control winding,
second transistor above a given load current for control
said voltage divider means further having a second por
of said ?rst transistor and reduction of the potential at
tion including a series connected Zener diode and a third
said output control circuit, said voltage divider means
resistor, a third transistor having input electrodes coupled
further having a second portion including a series con
across said third resistor and further having an output
nected Zener diode and a third resistor, 21 third transistor
electrode coupled to an input electrode of said ?rst transis
' having input electrodes coupled across said third resistor
tor, the constants of said voltage divider means including
and further having an output electrode coupled to said
the second portion thereof being selected to cause in
creased conduction of said third transistor with the voltage
input electrode of said ?rst transistor, the constants of
of the generator system above a predetermined value for 75 said voltage divider means including the second portion
3,059,167
13
thereof being selected to permit increased conduction of
14
put electrodes coupled to said conductor means and the
reference point and an output electrode adapted to be con
nected in series with the control winding to supply regulat
ing current thereto, said ‘conductor means including a
said third transistor with the output voltage above a pre
determined value for control of said ?rst transistor and
reduction of the potential at said output control circuit.
19'. A voltage regulator circuit including in combi
nation an input circuit adapted to be energized with re
spect to a reference point by an electrical power source
to be regulated, an output control circuit adapted to be
reference point, said voltage divider means including a
?rst portion having a second resistor coupled to said
connected to means responsive to a control potential for
?rst resistor and a ballast tube for maintaining substan
?rst resistor for carrying load current, voltage divider
means coupled between said conductor means and the
regulating the output voltage of the electrical power 10 tially constant current through said second resistor as
source, a ?rst transistor having output electrodes con
nected to said input circuit and to said output control
circuit and further having an input electrode, voltage
divider means coupled between said input circuit and
the reference point, said voltage divider means having a 15
series connected zener diode and a resistor, and a second
the voltage output at the output means of the generator
system varies, a current regulating transistor having in
put electrodes connected to said ?rst and second re
sistors and further having an output electrode connected
to an input electrode of said control transistor, the val
ues of said ?rst and second resistors being selected to bias
said current regulating transistor to a cutoff condition
below a given load current and to permit conduction of
said current regulating transistor above the given load
current for regulation of said control transistor and re
duction of the regulating current in the control winding,
said voltage divider means further having a second por
transistor having input electrodes coupled to said zener
diode and said voltage divider means and further having
an output electrode coupled to said input electrode of said
?rst transistor, the constants of said voltage divider means
being selected to permit increased conduction of said sec
ond transistor with the output voltage above a prede
termined value for control of said ?rst transistor and
tion including a series connected zener diode and a third
reduction of the potential at said output control circuit,
resistor, a voltage regulating transistor having input elec
said voltage divider means also including a temperature 25 trodes coupled across said third resistor and further hav
responsive resistor for causing such increased conduction
ing an output electrode coupled to an input electrode of
of said second transistor to occur at output voltages
said control transistor, the constants of said voltage di
changing with temperature.
vider means including the second portion thereof being
20. A voltage and current regulator circuit for a gen
selected to bias said voltage regulating transistor to a
erator system including a control winding responsive to 30 cutoff condition with a voltage of the generator system
a regulating current therethrough for controlling the out
below a predetermined value and to permit conduction of
put of the generator system and output means for sup
said voltage regulating transistor with such voltage above
plying direct current to a load, said regulator circuit
the predetermined value for regulation of said control tran
including in combination, conductor means for inter
sistor and reduction of the regulating current in the con
connecting the output means of the generator system and 35 trol winding.
the load to supply load current at a potential with re
No references cited.
spect to a reference point, a control transistor having in
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