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Патент USA US3059265

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Oct. 23, 1962
R. E. FRANKLIN
3,059,255
OARS
Filed Nov. 9, 1959
MMM/Mm
lUnitedî States Í’atent Office
3,059,255
Patented Oct. 23, 1962
1
2
3,059,255
0 ARS
Ralph E. Franklin, 1818 Queen Ave. N.,
tion made in connection with the accompanying drawings
l
wherein like reference characters refer to the same or
v
similar views, and in which:
19 Claims.
(Cl. 9-24)
'
;
C1 vention in mounted relationship with a boat shown in
Filed Nov. 9, 1959, Ser. No. 851,627
-
'
FIG. l is an elevational View of one form of my in
Minneapolis Minn.
`
partial section;
.
»
FIG. 2 is a detailed view on an enlarged scale of the
This invention relates to boat oars of a radically novel
water engaging portion of the oar of my invention shown
principle which facilitates travel and guiding of a boat
particularly when manually powered by an unskilled
oarsman.
'
partially in section and partially in elevation;
FIG. 3 is a cross sectional View taken on the line
3-3 of FIG. 2;
"
~
For centuries oars for rowing a boat have comprised
FIG. 4 is a detail view of still another form of water
elongated sweep arms having substantially hat, widened
engaging element of the oar of my invention shown on
blades at the outer portions thereof for engagement with
an enlarged scale and shown partially in section and
the upper stratum of the water and having intermediate, 15 partially in elevation; and
v
'
shouldered fulcrumed portions .accommodated in car
FIG. 5 is a cross sectional view taken on the line 5-5
locks, tholepins, and the like.v The inward portions of
of FlG.k 4.
,
the 'sweep arms constitute handles or gripsby which row
ing power from the torso and arms is applied. Most oars
Reference is now made to the accompanying drawings
for a more detailed description of my invention. FIG.
may be turned or feathered in their mountings to provide 20 1 shows one form of my invention in which the oar or
for angular adjustment of the blades relative to the water . sweep indicated generally by O is provided with a water
surface both in the “dipping” of the blades preceding a
engaging portion, element or head A, which oar is pivot
rowing stroke ,and also for turning of the blades in the
ally mounted on a boat B by means of a conventional
“recovery” or Vforward swinging or skying of the oars
oar lock L, the oar being provided withv a suitable con
preparatory to the next rowing stroke. Accurate “feath 25 ventional leather shoulder or abutment 10, for maintain
ering” of oars by hand manipulation and turning to con
ing the oar in desired position with respect to the- boat,
sistently maintain Veffective angulation of blade to water
the inner end 11 of the oar orsweep constituting a
and for returning or skying the oars requires substantial
handle or grip by which rowing power is supplied from
experienceland skill- particularly when a boat is rowed
the rower to the water engaging portion or head A.;
in waves- and currents. To reduce such difficulties in 30
The water engaging element or head-A comprises an
elongate preferably symmetrical annular shell 12 having
calm water some oars are now pinned to the oar locks
so that blade angulation is preset and so that the oars
.a main body portion `corresponding to a truncated conc`
may not be feathered. However in wind’and waves the
with the cross section thereof progressively decreasing in
return stroke of the oars'is often very diílicult and in the
size from the inner to the outer end thereof and narrow-4
propulsion or rowing stroke the oars often undercut the 35 ing from the inner to the outer end of said shell,.the
water making the return stroke difficult and also inter
outer end of the shell sharply tapering to and lterminating
fering with proper guidance of the boat lby application
in a pointed conical section 13. The head A is tapered
of more rowing power to one oar than the other.
as shown in one preferred form ‘of my inventionto ‘bringIt is an object of my present invention to provide boat
the working edge or sideV of the head into closer align
oars which will substantially facilitate rowing particularly 40 ment with the water surface for more efficient rowing.
by an unskilled oarsman and which in use overcomes
the diíiiculties hereinbefore enumerated.-
The shell 12 of head A is preferably of foraminous
material such as expanded metal or screening offering
'
- More specifically it is an object to provide rowing oars
suñicient resistance to the'water for propelling 'the' boat
being rowed while permitting the penetration and passageï
of the water therethrough. The shell 12 is corrugated
which have `novel water-engagement elements in lieu of
blades, so constructed .as to always provide an effective
water-en a ement `or-rowin
surface without exertion of` . .j
substantial
g gdownward pressure
g ‘ at the outer end of the
oars and not requiring'feathering or turning of the oars
‘
„
(as best seen _in FIG.
3) _ or providedwith al series of
generally longitudinally disposed radially extending cir
cumferentially spaced alternate ridges or vanes 1’4 and
depressions 15 around the entire circumference thereof,
for application of proper and effective strokes. `
Another object is the lprovision of economical’ and 50 the corrugated surface providing a greater surface area
highly` eñicient oars of the class described wherein a
exposed to the water and offering a greater resistance
symmetrical and foraminous water-engaging member is
thereto when moved thereagainst during the rowing stroke.
provided at the end of each oar offering suñ’icient resist
The shell 12 has a hollow sealed tubular member or cylin
ance to the water while permitting penetration of water
der 16 disposed concentrically therewithin and providing
therethrough and maintained at an eíiicient level- for 55 a buoyant float element which is preferably sufficiently
beginning of the rowing stroke through -buoyant or float
buoyant to permit approximately
means provided in the member to cause adequate water
bridge and surface to be presented below the level of the
water regardless of `turning of the oar shank in any
of the water engaging portion or head A to be disposed
beneath the surface of the water W under normal condi
direction.
,
A further and more specific- object is the provision of
an oar having a terminal water-engaging or rowing mem
ber which comprises a longitudinal and symmetrical
foraminous shell combined `with an interior and prefer--
ably concentric float member, the specific gravity of the
assembly being such as to dispose approximately half
of the periphery of the shell below the water level when
the oar is at rest and in outstretched position' and> beforeY
any downward or rowing pressure is applied thereto.
'I'hese and other objects and advantages of my inven
tion will more fully`appear from the following descrip
60
half of the periphery .
tions with the oar at »rest prior to any downward or row
ing pressure being applied thereto with approximately
the other half> of said water engaging portion being dis
posed above the water level. The head A is provided
with a series of radial transversely disposed axially spaced
reinforcing members or spiders 17 which in the form
65
shown are disposed adjacent the ends and at the mid-_
portion thereof. The head A is provided with a connect
ing sleeve 18 providing a socket for receiving the outer
end 19 of the oar O «which is retained therein by any
70 suitable means such as the bolt 19a. The head and
handle of .the oar are Ithus iixedly maintained in co-axial
alignment with one another, as distinguished from a
3,059,255
4
3
hinged form of my invention hereinafter to be de
scribed.
The unhinged form of my invention employing the
above described water engaging portion or element A is
particularly useful when employed on an oar which is
gage the water with a predetermined amount of desir
able head surface during the course of his rowing stroke
without having to contend with feathering and under
cutting of the terminal portion or water engaging end of
the oar even though .the oar should turn or twist in his
hand while rowing. The float provided in the head pre
vents the head from sinking and also automatically ad
justs the depth of the head so that a proper portion of
retaining means such as the conventional pins frequently
the water is engaged by the operator during any power
employed to pin the oars to the oar locks to preset the
blade angulation and prevent -feathering although it is to 10 stroke thereof. These features are particularly advan
free to rotate in its oar lock as shown in FIG. l and
whose rotational movements are not confined by any
be understood that the unhinged form shown in FIGS.
1 and 2 is equally effective when pinned to the oar locks
for pivotal movement about a horizontal axis. The sym
metrical nature of the head A enables the water engag
tageous to the novice -rower who is not sufficiently expe
rienced in handling the conventional oar to consistently
position the blade to obtain a maximum of rowing ef
iiciency.
thereby avoiding feathering and under-cutting which oc
It will, of course, be understood that various changes
may be made in the form, details, arrangement and pro
portions of the various parts without departing from the
curs with conventional type oars.
scope of my invention.
ing portion to always be in proper position and present 15
sufficient water engaging or rowing surface at all times
The ñoat 16 causes
`the oar to automatically adjust itself to the desired depth
in the water at the start of each stroke and maintains 20
What I claim is:
1. An oar comprising an elongate handle and water
engaging means connected to one end of said handle,
the proper amount of rowing surface of the oar in the
said means includ-ing a elongate generally cylindrical
water during the entire stroke, even though the oar should
foraminous annular body member to be disposed gen
turn or twist in the rower’s hand during rthe stroke. The
erally transversely to the line of rowing movement said
tapered outer surface of the head A enables the head to as
sume a stroke relationship with the water engaged there 25 body member having openings in the wall thereof com
municat-ing with the hollow interior thereof.
with more closely approximataely a parallel uniform
2. The structure set forth in claim l, including float
straight line relationship.
The head C shown in FIG. 4 is similar in principle and
function to head A shown in FIGS. land 2 but is de
means coneentrically disposed within said member for
maintaining said body member at a predetermined depth
signed somewhat differently and is pivotally or hingedly 30 when dipped in the water.
connected to the sweep arm, and is designed for use pri
marily but not necessarily with oars which are pinned to
the oar locks in conventional manner to prevent twisting
3. An oar comprising an elongate handle and water
engaging propulsion means connected to one end of said
handle, said means including an elongate perforated an
thereof during use and for presetting the head angulation
nular body member disposed generally transversely to the
line of rowing movement and offering rowing resistance
with respect to the surface of the water. in the form
shown in FIG. 4, which is another form of my inven
tion, the head C comprises three concentric generally
cylindrical elongate members 20, 21 and 22 respectively
to the water engaged thereby while permitting the water
to pass therethrough the perforations communicating
with the interior and exterior of said body member.
4. The structure set forth in claim 3 including float
reading from the inside member to the outside member,
the inner cylinder 20 being sealed at its ends to provide 40 means for rendering said body member buoyant and
maintaining said body member at a predetermined angle
a buoyant float member capable of providing sui'licient
and depth with respect to the water line when afloat in
buoyancy for the head C to maintain approximately half
of its periphery out of the water when at rest. The
the water.
5. An oar comprising an elongate handle and water
intermediate sleeve 21 and outer sleeve 22 are of forami
nous material such as expanded metal, screening or the 45 engaging means connected to one end of said handle,
like and are adapted to provide sufficient rowing resist
said means including an elongate body member having
ance to the water engaged thereby while permitting the
a pair of substantially concentric foraminous tubular ele
same to pass therethrough, the outer sleeve 22 acting as
ments disposed one within the other providing substan
the initial water-engager, the intermediate sleeve 21 acting
tial resistance to the water when moved thereagainst while
as a secondary water engager. Vl“he outer end of the head 50 permitting the passage of the water therethrough.
C is provided with a conical portion or cap 23 similar
6. The structure set forth in claim 5, including a sealed
to conical cap 13 of head A. This form of my invention
tubular float member enclosed within the inner forami
is also provided with a series of axially spaced radially dis
nous tubular element and rendering the body member
posed stiffening or reinforcing members 24 which may
sufliciently buoyant to maintain said member at a pre
take the form of spiders or a solid plate structure. The 55 determined angle with respect to the surface of the water.
head C is provided with a sleeve 25 adapted to receive
7. An oar comprising an elongate handle and water
the outer end 19 of the oar in the socket provided therein
engaging means connected to one end of said handle, said
and fastened therein as by means of the rivet 26. The
means including an elongate foraminous annular body
sleeve 25 is provided with a suitable mounting bracket
member corrugated in cross section, and a water tight
27 which is pivotally connected to a suitable mounting 60 float element .disposed within said body member adapted
bracket or ear 28 as by means of the pin 29, the sleeve
to maintain said body member at a predetermined level
25 and the oar handle carried thereby being capable of
with respect to the surface of the water the perforations
being selectively angularly adjustable with respect to the
in said body member communicating with the hollow
head C and maintained in any given relative angulation
interior thereof.
by any suitable locking means (not shown). This en 65
8. Oar structure comprising an elongate handle por
ables the head C to be angularly preset with respect to
tion having water engaging propulsion means mounted
the surface of the Water according to the individual char
on the outer end thereof, said means including a down
acteristics of the rower to maintain the head substantially
wardly facing generally convexly curved foraminous
parallel to the surface of the water. The perforations or
water engaging shell portion whose aXis of curvature
openings of the intermediate sleeve 21 are preferably 70 extends generally transversely of the direction of rowing
smaller than those of outer sleeve 22.
movement and which presents a curved foraminous work
From the foregoing description, the advantages of my
ing face to the action of the water during rowing the
invention are readily apparent. The symmetrical annular
foraminous shell having openings communicating with
the hollow interior thereof.
arrangement and design of the water engaging portion or
head enables the rower to repeatedly and uniformly en 75
9. Oar structure comprising an elongate handle por
3,059,255
5
tion having water engaging propulsion means mounted
primary propulsion medium vfor said oar, the openings
in said wall portions communicating with the hollow in~
terior of the shell.,
on the outer end thereof, said means including an annular
generally cylindrical foraminous shell, and a series of
generally radially extending circumferentially spaced
15. An oar comprising an elongate handle and water
engaging mea-ns connected to one end of said handle,
said means including an elongate foraminous annular
apart rib means symmetrically disposed about the axis
of said shell providing a uniformly corrugated exterior,
said foraminous shell extending between and intercon
shell substantially symmetrically arranged about its longi
tudinal axis and presenting substantially similar water
engaging surface portions about the entire periphery
necting the outer end portions of said ribs the foraminous
shell having openings communicating with the hollow
interior thereof.
10 thereof, the foraminous portions of said shell constituting
10. An oar comprising an elongate handle and water
engaging means connected to` one end of said handle,
said means including an elongate foraminous annular
shell substantially symmetrically arranged about its longi
the primary propulsion portion for said oar, the openings
in said portions communicating with the interior of said
shell.
16. The structure set forth in claim 15, including float
tudinal axis and presenting substantially similar water 15 means for ñoating said shell at a predetermined depth
surface portions about the entire periphery thereof, and
in the water.
a second foraminous annular shell mounted substantially
concentrically within said ñrst named shell, the openings
17. The structure set forth in claim 15, wherein said
shell is generally conical in form with- the cross section
in said second shell being smaller than those in said tirst
of said shell progressively decreasing in size from the
named shell.
20 inner to the outer end thereof.
11. In oar structure, propulsion means :for mounting
l 18. The structure set forth in claim 15, wherein said
on the handle of the oar, said propulsion means com
shell includes a series of generally longitudinally disposed
prising a downwardly `facing hollow water engaging shell
generally radially extending circumferentially spaced
having generally opposed spaced apart foraminous wall
raised portions providing resistance to the movement of
portions-normally disposed generally transversely of the 25 said shell through the water.
direction of movement, said foraminous wall portions
19. In oar structure, propulsion means for mounting
constituting the primary propulsion medium for said oar.
on the handle of the oar, said propulsion means compris
12. In oar structure, propulsion means for mounting
ing a hollow shell constituting the primary propulsion
on the handle of the oar comprising a hollow water
medium for said oar, said shell having a multiplicity of
engaging foraminous shell disposed transversely of the 30 small openings formed therein over substantially the en
direction of movement whereby the water enters the
tire periphery thereof which communicate with the i11
hollow interior of said shell through one foraminous
terior of said shell.
portion thereof and is `discharged from said interior
through another foraminous portion thereof.
13. In oar structure, propulsion means for mounting 35
on the handle of the oar comprising a hollow water en
References Cited in the file of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
gaging foraminous walled shell disposed transversely of
1,786,451
Ribard ______________ __ Dec. 30, 1930
the direction of movement, the openings in the Wall of
the shell communicating with the interior thereof.
14. Oar structure comprising an elongate handle hav 40
2,367,222
2,530,754
2,589,698
2,711,547
Kurtz ________________ __ J an.
Bienert ______________ __ Nov.
Jackson _____________ __ Mar.
Bliven _______________ __ June
ing propulsion means mounted on one end thereof, said
propulsion means comprising a hollow foraminous walled
shell disposed transversely of the direction of movement,
the foraminous wall portions of said shell constituting the
16,
21,
18,
28,
1945
1950
1952
1955
FOREIGN PATENTS
7,786
Great Britain _________________ __ 1888
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
.CERTIFICATE OF CÜRRECTION
Patent No. 3,059,255
Y
'
Ralph E.
October 23,
1962
Franklin
l
lt is hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered pat#
-ent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as
corrected below.
Column 5,
`
line l5, after "water" insert --- engaging ---..
Signed and sealed this 26th day of March_l9ó3._
(SEAL)
Attest:
ESTON G., JOHNSON
Attesting Officer
DAVID L. LADD
Commissioner of Patents
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