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Патент USA US3060042

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Oct. 23, 1962v
A. BERTOZZI
3,060,034
PROCESS FOR PRESERVING CRUSTLESS PIECES OF PARMESAN CHEESE
Filed Aug. 17. 1959
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
(Y)
N
62
582225
13a
13/
Oct. 23, 1962
A. BERTOZZI
3,060,034
PROCESS ‘FOR PRESERVING CRUSTLESS PIECES OF PARMESAN CHEESE
Filed Aug. 17. 1959
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
Get. 23, 1962
A. BERTOZZI
3,060,034
PROCESS FOR PRESERVING CRUSTLESS PIECES OF PARMESAN CHEESE
Filed Aug. 17. 1959
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
VIII/ll.
Get. 23, 1962
A. BERTOZZI
3,060,034
PROCESS FOR PRESERVING CRUSTLESS PIECES OF PARMESAN CHEESE
Filed Aug. 17, 1959
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
\
z
/0 00/ away
/
I
nit-ed ttes atent
“ice
3,050,034
Patented Get. 23, 1962.
1
3,060,034
PROCESS FOR PRESERVING CRUSTLESS PECES
0F PARME§AN CHEESE
Aldo Bertozzi, Parma, Italy, assignor to Societa per
Azioni Abele Bertozzi, Parrnn, Italy
Filed Aug. 17, 1959, Ser. No. 834,194
Claims priority, application Italy June 20, 1952
3 Claims. (til. 99-162)
2
tending to arrest any decay or alteration phenomenon
therein, cheese should ‘be ranged among the small num
ber of living food‘substances together, for instance, with
fresh fruit. It certainly is the only living food possess
ing a high energetic and plastic charge.
On account of its structure and considerable size of
the cakes placed on the market, which reach a Weight up
to 70 kgs. and more, the hard or semi-hard cheese is
This invention is a contmuation-in-part of my applica
considered an auxiliary seasoning rather than a ‘food.
tion Ser. No. 352,652, ?led May 4, 1953, and now aban~ 10
As a food, it should be consumed within a very short
doned.
time after the cake has been cut, for once the crust has
Hard or semi-hard cheese, such as Parmesan cheese,
been removed and the paste is no longer protected there
produced from milk at a suitable temperature by the
by, it undergoes by the bacteric charge in air or atmos
coagulating action of rennet and enzymatic activity of
pheric agents (temperature and moisture) an actual ag
selected bacteria inoculated on coagulation resisting the
relatively high temperature at which cheese is manufac
15 gression which radically affects its composition and
microbic species, comprise (a) the crust or bark, (b) the
properties. The spores and micelia of Aspergillus niger,
Penicillium glaucum, Bacillus butirricus etc. that had
been eliminated by high temperature in the preparation
undergoes therein enzymatic and biochemical transfor~
transformations, such as drying, oxidation, imbibition,
three or more years, a thickness of several millimeters up
such a valuable‘ living food in fragments meeting the
requirements of individuals or communities. Melted
tured, that is, 50° to 55° C. which is fatal to any other
edible paste.
of cheese, are no longer hindered in settling on the ex
(A) The crust or bark, which is not present on cheese 20
posed paste and effecting the transformations known as
as the cheese cake is produced, originates following in
mildew and staling, which lead to disagreeable taste and
ternal biochemical reactions and spontaneous evapora
smell and inhibit use of the cheese.
tion, when the cheese cake after treatment in a sole bath,
Moreover, the temperature and moisture bring about
is stored for conditioning in storage rooms kept at a
suitable temperature and moisture content. The cheese 25 on the exposed portion, no longer protected by the crust,
which alter at ?rst at the surface and gradually through
mations known as ageing or ripening, speci?cal of each
the cheese depth the peculiar agreeable organoleptic char
cheese kind, the extent and type of which are essential
acters of the cheese just cut.
for the ?nal success of cheese manufacture.
This explains the various attempts made to avoid the
The crust or bark gradually and considerably increases 30
above mentioned drawbacks and preserve during use
in thickness till it reaches, after an ageing period of two,
to nearly tWo centimeters. The crust which coats the
cheese resulted as a step of this trend but, while it has
cheese paste without any discontinuity, becomes harder
as it increases in thickness and, although its nutritive 35 been successful in making available to the public a portion
of cheese possessing a high energetic plastic charge in ade
properties are fairly good, it is not generally considered
quate quantity for use by individuals or groups of indi
edible, above all because it radically differs in flavor and
viduals, still possessing agreeable organoleptic properties,
taste from the cheese paste proper.
without crust therefore fully edible, it has not solved, on
Similarly to fruit peel, the cheese crust of bark
chie?y protects the underlying paste, for it prevents con 40 account of the fact that it is pateurised, the other aspect
tamination of the paste by foreign microbic forms which
would cause it to get mouldy or become stale.
of the problem, that is, preserving unaltered, in small frag
ments of a large cheese cake, the high enzymatic charge
which is the other valuable property of cheese, as men
In order to further the e?iciency of this protective
tioned above.
function, a coating composed of linseed oil admixed with
earth and carbon black is applied to the bark, the black 45 Among hard and semi-hard cheese Parmesan cheese
is outstanding. This cheese, which is better known in
coloring preventing objectionable rise and fall in tem
perature which would injun'ously affect the ordinary age
Italy and abroad by the name of “grana parmigiano,”
ing process. The crust reaches in aged cheese about 20
which is nutritious and palatable. It is rich in anti
to 25% by weight of the cheese cake, according to the
crust thickness.
(B) The edible paste, representing about 75 to 80%
by weight of the cheese cake, is a food known from an
cient times which, on account of its high content of
proteins, aminoacids and fats is superior to meat in nu—
rachytic, antixerophtalmic and antineuritic vitamins.
50 93% approximately of its dry substance is assimilable.
One kilogram of Parmesan cheese is equivalent to 3,930
calories (one kilogram of boneless beef meat is equiva
lent to 1,510 calories, one kilogram of eggs or 20 eggs is
equivalent to 1,500 calories).
tritious power. Moreover, its peculiar property which 55 Parmesan cheese is a food appealing to all classes of
individuals on any occasion. It can be served in a grated
distinguishes it from any other food, resides in supplying
to the organism a selected enzymatic charge essential to
condition as a seasoning for soups and other dishes, or as
the normal human digesting functions.
a table or dessert cheese without requiring any prepara
tion in the kitchen. Its proteinic substances are almost
A number of enzymatic and biochemical transforma
tions due above all to selected bacteria contained in the 60 wholly digestible without leaving any products noxious
to metabolism in the organism.
seed or “graft” introduced on coagulation and surviving
the high cheese manufacturing temperature, take place in
Parmesan cheese reaches full ripening and develops its
the cheese paste.
inherent peculiar properties which make it ?t for use
The Bacillus acidi lactici, Bacillus acidophilus, Bacillus
only after two years’ conditioning, its properties even
bulgaricum and further bacilli have been identi?ed 65 further improving during the third year. Heretofore the
among the abovementioned bacteria, which ?nd in cheese
purchaser distinguishes its standard to date as follows:
paste their natural nutritious substrate furthering their
(1) Striking blows by a suitable hammer having a
symbiotic activity which results in the typical ?avor and
slightly curved head, held by the thumb and ?rst ?nger
savor of aged cheese. In the distinction between living
on all the cheese wheel faces. The sound should be full
and dead food, depending upon whether they are sup 70 and uniform throughout and such as to detect compactness
plied to the human organism in their natural state or
of the paste.
after having undergone more or less radical treatment
Prolonged training and a sensitive ear are necessary in
3,060,034
3
order to distinguish di?ere-nces in sound and derive a
cut cheese as results from conventional splitting of ‘cheese
judgment therefrom.
wheels having a crust.
Faults are more easily ascertained with larger wheels of
an average weight exceeding 35 kgs., more especially at
theirmiddle region, but are much more difficult to ascer
tain in middle-sized cheese wheels.
A further object of this invention is to provide a method
of forming crustless fragments from a wheel of hard or
semi-hard cheese, especially Parmesan cheese and subse
7
quently protecting said fragments for preservation for an
On the other hand middle-size cheese (average weight
30 kgs.) is more acceptacle to the great majority of res
taurants or similar establishments and retail traders, big
wheels lasting too long, for the cheese once cut and ex
posed to air on the counter dries, cracks, takes a “cal
4
which maintain the characteristic properties of the just
inde?nite period, which can be carried out on an industrial
10
cined” appearance and is altered in color, which dis
pleases the consuming public;
(2) Piercing.—-In order to ascertain the fragrance,
taste, buttery condition of the paste, flavor and state of
ripening, needle tests are carried out. A typical needle
is employed, which is made of steel, about 15 cm. long,
about 1.5 mm. in diameter, with a helically-shaped sur
face. Such needle once introduced into the paste and re
moved therefrom carries along in its small recesses a small
portion of the cheese paste.
This test also requires a long training and highly sensi
tive smelling in order to distinguish odours and derive
a correct judgment.
(3) Splitting-In addition to striking blows and pierc
ing described above experts split a number of cheese
wheels out of a lot for further evaluation of the state
and standard of cheese. In this case also the overall test
ing of a cheese lot cannot embrace all the wheels in the
lot. Splitting has been referred to because Parmesan
cheese can merely be split by conventional cutting means
in use.
In order to split the wheels by means of a suitable
olive-shaped knife having a convex body ending by a
scale.
By the improved method the cheese wheels having a
crust, of an irregular cylindrical form are taken after an
adequate conditioning period of not less than one year,
cleaned, deprived of their crust, subdivided to polyhedral
fragments of a regular form having smooth surfaces of
the desired size, the fragments are con?ned within ad
herent protective wrappers, subsequently sterilized to
gether with their wrappers by submitting them from the
outside to the action of a source of heat for the purpose
of sealing the surfaces of the cheese fragment, causing
the wrapper to thoroughly adhere to the fragment surfaces
and simultaneously driving off any air residue between
the protective wrapper and fragment surfaces.
The method can be carried out in two manners, namely,
either part in an aseptic or a non~aseptic but hygienically
satisfactory environment, respectively.
Both embodiments of the improved ‘method, namely
the procedure prevailingly in an aseptic and in a non
aseptic environment, respectively, comprise the prepara
tory step of removing the crust from the cheese wheel on
the lathe. Of course turning is effected to remove the
crust only throughout its thickness avoiding any waste of
valuable paste which would necessarily arise by cutting by
conventional methods. This operation is carried out in
the non-aseptic but hygienically satisfactory environment.
According to the ?rst embodiment, the cheese wheel de
point, a diametrical marking line is drawn throughout the 35 prived of its crust turned to a cylindrical shape is subse
Wheel surface for subdivision into two equal halves, where
quently conveyed through a conduit having a sterilizing
upon the knife is sunk and owing to its structure acts like
action through admission of bactericide gases, such as
a wedge down a few centimeters along the marking line
formaldehyde or ozone into the conduit, whence it is
the knife being drawn twice, whereupon two such knives
40 brought to an environment of an aseptic nature afforded
are sunk into the furrow and, after a few seconds, both
by the action of ultraviolet rays.
knives are slowly forced apart to subdivide the wheel into
The cheese cylinder treated as above is subdivided into
two halves.
fragments of a predetermined shape and weight by means
The same process is necessarily adopted by retail sellers
of strong wire, the surface of the resulting fragments being
in order to obtain from wheel halves smaller fragments
almost perfectly smooth, free from discontinuities, any
for distribution to the purchasers.
cheese waste being avoided. The cutting wire is made
The surface of the cheese paste at the slit is of a granu
lar and foliated character, instead of being plain and V
smooth.
Judgment from the above described tests is a subjective
one for it relies upon sensorial organs (ear, smelling,
palate). It is therefore variable with subjects, frequently
even variable with the same subject.
Since faults ‘which may occur in cheese paste are of a
wide variety and number, such as ?avor faults (pungent
ewe-cheese, acid, Greek hay), crust faults (deforming '
corrections), risers, hollows (circumscribed cavities due
to localized development of gas, the adjacent paste being
highly lenticular and moist at times, etc.), full guarantee
would necessitate splitting all the wheels in the lot, which
would be’ absurd in trade considering that preservation
and outer crust hardness imply continuity of the crust.
Breach of the crust exposes the paste to air, which results
in drying, cracks, alterations in aspect, attack by mildew
(Penicilli and Aspergilli), Acarus (Acarus sir-0 typical of
cheese), ?ies (Piophila casei L, likewise typical of cheese),
Coleopters (Tenebri mauritanicus IL), dust, etc.
vObviously, anyone purchasing cheese in a shop receives
an irregular fragment with crumbs, obtained from a wheel
which has at times been exposed to air for several days,
on which contamination has started, though not perceiv
able by the eye, and will progress at the purchaser’s unless
it is readily consumed.
sterile by the same means as employed for sterilizing the
environment.
The last step of the method is likewise carried out in
an aseptic environment and consists in packaging the
cheese fragments by means of protective sheets which are
caused to adhere to the cheese surfaces by the action of
heat, in order to avoid leaving any air pocket between the
cheese and protective wrapper, the resulting protection
replacing the natural function of the previously removed
crust under all aspects, namely preventing any contami
nation from the outside and any decay due to oxidation
(staling).
Alternatively all the above described operations are car
ried out in a non-aseptic but hygienically satisfactory en
vironment, preservation of the packaged fragment being
obtained through simultaneous sterilization of the frag
ment and its wrapper by employing a source of heat which
raises the surface temperature to not less than 80‘0 during
10 seconds, care being taken that a further rise in tem
perature necessitates a gradual reduction of the period of
treatment.
The two embodiments of the improved preserving
method shall now be described with reference to the ac
companying drawings which show by way of example the
apparatus employed for carrying out the method. On
the drawings:
FIGURE 1 is a part sectional side view of a plant for
An object of this invention is to provide a method of
out the ?rst embodiment of the method;
preserving hard or semi-hard cheese, especially Parmesan 75 carrying
FIGURE 2. is a plan view of the plant shown in FIG. 1;
cheese in crustless fragments of a predetermined size,
5
3,060,034
FIGURE 3 is a part sectional perspective view of a
constructional detail of the plant shown in FIGS. 1 and 2;
FIGURE 4 is a sectional view on lines IV—IV of
FIG. 1;
FIGURE 5 is a sectional view on line V—V of FIG. 1;
FIGURE 6 is a sectional view on line VI—VI of FIG. 5;
‘ FIGURE 7 is a sectional view on line VII—VII of
FIG. 5;
6
chamber 23,’ respectively, in which the cheese wheel is
cut to fragments, ultraviolet lamps being likewise ar
ranged therein for sterilizing the environment.
The cheese wheel leaving the tunnel section 21 abuts
a number of piano steel wires anchored at one end to a
cross member 24 arranged beneath the bottom of the
tunnel 11 and at their other end to a slide 25 movable
on suitable guides arranged on the ceiling of the tunnel
section
23. A hood C overlies the guides and houses
tional detail of the structure shown in FIG. 5;
10 further ultraviolet ray lamps which sterilizes the piano
FIGURE 9 is a sectional view on line IX—IX of
steel wire section outside the chamber 23.
FIG. 7;
The slide 25 is normally located as shown in broken
FIGURES 10 to 13 show the wrapper adapted to form
lines in FIG. 1, when the wires extend perpendicular to
the protective package of the crustless cheese fragments;
the bottom and ceiling of the tunnel and occupy therein
FIGURE 14 is a perspective part view of the plant 15 the position denoted by 26.
shown in FIGS. 1 and 2;
On lowering of the stop I? the cheese wheel comes into
FIGURES 15 and 16 are perspective views of auxiliary
contact with the wires at 26, which are similarly spaced
appliances and manner of using them in carrying out the
as the grooves cut in the skirt of the cheese wheel. On
improved method.
further travel of the cheese wheel the wires are stretched,
On the drawings T (FIGS. 1 and 2) diagrammatically
the slide being moved from its position 25 to its posi
shows a lathe, having a self-centering chuck 1 which sup
tion 25'.
ports a Parmesan cheese wheel F, a cutting tool 2 being
As the slide reaches the latter position the cheese wheel
supported by a revolver 3 adapted to be displaced in an
F is at the level of two arm pairs 27, 28 (FIG. 3) reach
axial and radial direction to the axis of the chuck 1 by
ing within the tunnel through slots 29, 30 cut in one side
acting on hand-wheels 4 and 5.
25 wall thereof de?ned by members 31, 32 in which co-axial
The cheese wheel F can range in weight between 24
tapped holes are formed. The holes have screw sections
FIGURE 8 is a part sectional side view of a construc
kgs. and 70 kgs., its average weight being 30~35 kgs., its
diameter 35 to 45 cm. and its height 18 to 24 cm.
During turning the cheese wheel its crust, which is
about 6 mm. in thickness, is ?rst removed from the slightly
convex base surfaces, next from the cylindrical skirt.
Shallow equidistant grooves 6 are thereafter cut in the
cylindrical skirt of the wheel F again by turning (FIG. 2).
33, 34, respectively, screwed thereinto, which are adapted
to be actuated by rotating a handwheel 35 supported be
tween two perforated brackets 36, 37 secured to the tunnel
.side walls.
The screws 33, 34 are oppositely inclined, whereby ro
tation of the hand-wheel moves the arms 27 and 28 in
opposite directions. The moment the cheese reaches the
position shown in FIG. 1, the arms shall be so located
The wheel brought to a cylindrical shape is placed on
an incline 7 along which it is guided by lateral guides 8 35 that the lower arm pair are retracted within a lower re
and rolls in the direction of the arrow 9 (FIG. 1) open
cess 38 in the tunnel ?oor. On subsequently acting on
ing a swinging door 10 which closes the inlet to a tunnel
the hand-wheel 35 the arm pairs 27, 28 are drawn to
11. The tunnel is ideally subdivided into two sections,
gether and embrace the cheese wheel skirt centering the
namely, a ?rst section 12 in which the cheese wheel ad
wheel in a predetermined position. At this stage the
mitted thereto is subjected to the action of bactericide
cheese wheel is clamped between two lateral clamps, the
gases, such as formaldehyde or ozone which flow into the
structure of which is described hereafter.
tunnel through nozzles 13 depending from the ceiling fed
The tunnel side near the handwheel 35 is bored to
by a valve-controlled conduit 13a, the valve not being
rotatably
accommodate a pivot 40 (FIG. 5) carrying a
shown.
plurality of circular sectors 41 spaced by radial clear
ances
42.
Gas escaping from the tunnel on admission of the wheel 45
is exhausted by a fan V. The sterilizing gas is not con
The number of sectors is_ such that the radial clearances
form diametrical grooves in
tinuously delivered, delivery being controlled by the posi
the face of the clamp formed
by the sectors.
tion of a beam 14 fulcrumed at 15 to the bottom wall of
the tunnel 11.
On the opposite side
similar sectors 43 are arranged
On entering the tunnel the cheese wheel depressed at a 50 spaced by grooves 44. The sectors each carry two stems
given moment an end 14a. of the beam 14 against the ac
tion of a spring (not shown), thereby closing an electric
contact (not shown) actuating a valve adjusting delivery
of gas through conduit 13a to the nozzles 13.
On further travel in the direction of the arrow 9 the
wheel F acts upon the end 14b of the beam 14 restoring
it to its initial position, thereby opening the contact and
45 (FIG. 8), ending by enlarged portions or bulges 46
shdable in concentrical annular guides ‘47 formed in a
plate 48 (FIG. 7) clamped between a disc 49 having holes
bored therein for the stems 45 on the sectors 43 a
cured to a shaft 50
51 (FIG. 5).
closing the valve interposed in the conduit 13a which sup
radially extends beyond their
plies gas to the nozzles 13.
The cheese wheel is arrested at the end of the tunnel
section 12 by a stop 16 extending from the tunnel bot
tom wall biased by a spring 17. The stop 16 is con
nected by a longitudinal bar 18 to a further similar stop
19 biased by a spring 20. The stop 19 is arranged at the
end of the section 21 of the tunnel in which the cheese
wheels are subjected to the action of ultraviolet rays from
tent for purposes to be explained thereafter.
On the other side of the plate 48 a disc 52 is
securedly
?xed to a tapped sleeve 53 surrounding the pivot 50
rotatable from a hand-wheel 54.
lamps 22 arranged to irradiate the wheel surfaces through
out (FIG. 4). The tunnel size is selected so that the
spacing of the lamps and surface of the cheese does not
exceed 30 cm.
Sterilizing by means of ultraviolet rays is carried out
during 10 minutes, whereafter the bar 18 is lowered by
displacing stops 16-19 against the action of springs 17
and 20, thereby allowing the cheese wheel to go over
vfrom section 12 to section 21 and from the latter to a
Means (not shown) which may comprise rotatable rods
and gears are provided for causing the sector sets 43, 44
to intermittently rotate in full synchronism for the grooves
42 to be constantly aligned with the grooves 44 and for
two pairs at least of grooves to be perpendicular to the
bottom and ceiling of the tunnel after each given angu~
lar movement of the hand-wheel 51. The annular guides
47 cut in the plate 48 are sunk at a given position to
cause the bulges 46 on the stems 45 on each sector 43
in a given angular position to retract, as explained here
after.
Clamping of the cheese wheel between the lateral
clamps carrying the sectors 41 and 43 is effected by rotat
3,060,034
'
'
i
7
ing the handwheel 54 which by screwing into a corre
sponding screw-threaded seat in the side wall of the
tunnel 11, moves the disc 52 inwardly of the tunnel, there
by pushing the plate 48 which is incapable of rotating.
When it is desired to reduce the segments to a smaller
size than obtainable on the plant just described, this can
be e?ected by hand by meansof tools shown in FIGS.
15 and 16, the structure and use of which will be obvious
to the man of the art without any further detailed descrip
The plate 48 in turn pushes a perforated disc 49‘ and
tion.
.
sectors 43 against a lateral surface of the cheese wheel
Where the plant described above is employed for carry
which is pressed against sectors 41. Once the cheese is
ing out the embodiment of the process in a non-aseptic
clamped, the wheel is cut into discs by displacing the slide
environment, the tunnel 11 and sterile chamber 70 be
25 having anchored thereto the piano steel wires 26 from
come super?uous, for all operations can be carried out
its position shown at 25, FIG. 1 in broken lines to the 10 in a non-aseptic environment, provided it is hygienically
position shown at 25’. The wires travel through the
satisfactory, sterilization and sealing of the packages be
cheese Wheel and resume their initial position, the cylin
ing effected through the action of heat on the surfaces
drical cheese wheel being thereby subdivided into discs
of the packaged cheese wedge.
which are, however, still clamped between sector sets 41,
However, the latter procedure is advisable only when
43. Cutting of the discs to segments is effected by intro 15 the packaged cheese wedges should not be preserved very
ducing through suitable guides formed in the ceiling of
long, for it does not guarantee thorough removal of any
chamber 23 a cutting apparatus 55, the wire 56 of which
spore or possible source of deterioration of the cheese
(FIG. 3) acts as a cutter. Arms 57, 58 of the cutting
apparatus are of a thickness such as to enter the aligned
grooves 42, 44 arranged perpendicular to the bottom of 20
paste in the package.
Where the packaged cheese should be inde?nitely
preserved and made suitable more especially for shipment
the chamber 23. After each movement of the cutting
overseas and preservation under any climate, the ?rst
appmatus 55 in the direction of the arrow 59 (FIG. 3),
embodiment should preferably be adopted.
the former is lifted, the cheese wheel clamped between
FIG. 11 shows a metal or plastics sheet and folding
the two side clamps is rotated by acting on the hand-wheel
lines
therefor, suitable for packaging wedge-shaped cheese
51 through an angle such as to bring the other grooves 25 fragments in accordance with the improved process.
42, 44 to a position perpendicular to the bottom of the
FIGS. 12 and 13 show the intermediate steps of the
chamber 23‘.
packaging of a cheese portion, FIG. 10 showing the
In order to elfect the required rotation of the hand
?nished package.
wheel 51 reference indicia or snap devices (not shown)
What I claim is:
can be provided for “feeling” the successive cutting posi 30
1. A process for preserving crustless pieces of Parmesan
tions on the cheese wheel.
As a set of wedges to which the cheese wheel has been
cut reach their position denoted by 60, FIG. 6, the asso
ciated sector 43 releases its pressure against the cheese,
for the bulges 46 on its stem 45 have abutted recesses 61
hard cheese, comprising the steps of
(1) cleaning and removing the crust from an irregu
larly cylindrical Parmesan cheese wheel after the
latter has been submitted to a suitable conditioning
(FIG. 9) cut in the bottom of the annular grooves 47
in the plate.48. The set of cut wedges are, however,
gripped in this position by pincers 62 ?tted into the tunnel
from the outside, to prevent a disorderly fall of the
wedges. The pincers are equipped on the inside of their
arms with leaf springs 63 which catch the portion of the
cheese wedges extending beyond the outline of the sectors
41, 43. However, the pincers can be hand-actuated in
order to safely grip the pile of cheese wedges in the posi
tion 6th. By withdrawing the pincers 62 from the casing, 45
the cheese wedges caught by the pincers are released.
The wedges are deposited on ‘a rocking table 64 which
is connected by a pin 65 to a lever 66 arranged externally
of the tunnel. By lifting the lever 66 the table 64 is in
clined, the cheese Wedges being moved to a chute 67 of
stainless steel sloping enough to cause the cheese wedges
to fall along the chute to a chamber 68 in which they are
individually packaged by protective wrappers and heat
treated to effect ultimate sterilization and sealing of the
package. Alternatively, the chute can be vibrated by
electromagnetic vibrators.
The chamber 68 is shown in FIG. 14 and comprises a
frame 69 and glass walls 71} through which the operations
which are being carried out in its inside can be inspected.
The inside of the chamber 68 is maintained in a sterile 60
condition through the action of U.V.-rays emanating from
lamps 71. In the embodiment shown the cheese wedges
are packaged by hand by the worker outside the chamber
70 by means of previously prepared wrappers 72 which
are introduced into the chamber and sterilized by the
action of the ultraviolet rays. The packaged wedges are
heat treated by passing a heating means 73 substantially
similar to a ?at iron over each face of the packaged cheese
wedge, which is subsequently conveyed to an outlet 74
from the chamber '70. It is understood that packaging 70
of the wedges and subsequent heat treatment are actually
carried out in practice on an automatic machine. The
latter has not preferably been illustrated since it is outside
the scope of this invention as well as for the sake of
clearness.
for a period of not less than one year;
(2) subdividing the Parmesan cheese wheel into poly
hedral pieces of regular shape having smooth sur
faces and of desired size by means of resilient ten
sioned surfaces of limited surface area;
(3) packaging the Parmesan cheese pieces thus ob
tained in protective wrappers adhering to the sur
faces of Parmesan cheese pieces;
(4) heat treating the packaged Parmesan cheese pieces
to destroy surface vegetative cells of said cheese
pieces and the wrappers therefor, thereby causing the
later to adhere to the Parmesan cheese piece sur
faces and driving off any air residue between the
wrapper and the cheese piece surfaces.
2. A method of preserving crustless pieces of Parmesan
cheese, comprising the steps of
(l) removing the, crust throughout the crust thickness
while avoiding any waste of valuable Parmesan
cheese paste to form a cylinder;
(2) causing the crustless Parmesan cheese paste cylin
der to travel through a chamber containing bac
tericide gases, and treating said cylinder for ten
minutes in an environment which is rendered aseptic
by the action of ultraviolet rays the source of which
is spaced from the Parmesan cheese by at most 30
cm.;
(3) subdividing the Parmesan cheese paste cylinder
into portions of a predetermined shape and weight
by means of resilient tensioned surfaces of limited
surface area to form smooth-surfaced Parmesan
cheese pieces free vfrom discontinuities without waste
of material, the resilient cutting means being steri~
lized by the means employed for rendering the en
vironment aspectic;
(4) packaging by means of a protective sheet which
is caused to adhere to the Parmesan cheese by the
action of heat to avoid any air pockets, to cause the
wrapper to replace under all aspects the previously
removed crust, thereby preventing any contamina
tion from the outside or deterioration due to oxida
3,060,034
9
tion, said packaging and heat treatment being e?’ected in an aseptic environment.
3. A method as de?ned in claim 1 in which the steps
are carried out in an ordinary non-aseptic environment,
MB
80° C. during 10 seconds, care being taken to shorten
the period on further rise in temperature.
References Cited in the ?le of this Patent
preservation of the packaged Parmesan cheese portion be~ 5
UNITED STATES PATENTS
ing obtained by simultaneous destruction of surface
Wrapper
vegetativebycells
employing
of eacha Parmesan
source of heat
cheese
which
pieceraises
and the
its
2’461’98l
Hills
3:55:18““““““““
et a1‘ “““““““
'“ Fe;
Sir‘ 15’
153’ 1949
surface temperature of the cheese piece to not less than
2 684 905
Grindrod
July 27 1954
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