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Патент USA US3062119

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NOV. 6,
ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHIC
C. R. MAYO
COPYING APPARATUS
original Filed Feb. 7, 1955
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
B
ATTORNEY
Nov. 6, 1962
c. R. MAYo
3,062,108
ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHIC COPYING APPARATUS
Original Filed Feb. 7, 1955
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
69
65
INVENTOR.
Clyde R. Mayo
ATTORNEY.
Nov. 6, 1962
C, R, MAYO
3,062,108
ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHIC COPYING APPARATUS
Original Filed Feb. 7, 1955
l
4 Sheets-$1681’. 3
so.:
30.5
Fla 5
'
30d
.
.
mvENroR.
Clyde R.Mayo
30° .BY
Afro/mfr
Nov. 6, 1962
c. R. MAYO
3,062,108
ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHIC COPYING APPARATUS
Original Filed Feb. 7, 1955
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
44
/f24
(j
9o
INVENTOR.
Clyde R. Mayo
United rates
ICC
3,062,108
Patented Nov. 6, 1962
1
trating the mechanism provided for the development sta
tion;
3,062,108
ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHIC COPYING
APPARATUS
Clyde R. Mayo, Rochester, N.Y., assignor to Xerox
Corporation, a corporation of New York
FiGURE 4 is a View of a corona charging electrode ac
cording to one embodiment of the invention;
Ul
FIGURE 5 is a plan view of an alternative form of
projection slit advantageously employed under certain
circumstances;
Original application Feb. 7, 1955, Ser. No. 486,513. Di
vided and this application Dec. 29, 1958, Ser. No.
FIGURE 6 is a side View, partly in section, of a pre
ferred form of lens carriage and actuating mechanism;
10
This invention relates in general to xerography and, in
particular, to apparatus and mechanism for implementing
the xerographic process and for projecting an original to
FIGURE 7 is a transverse view, partly in section, along
the lines of 7--7 shown in FIGURE 6;
FIGURE 8 is a side view of an alternative embodiment
of the invention showing a preferred form of uniform
lighting by having the light source connected to and mov
able with the slit-provided carriage; and
FIGURE 9 shows an embodiment of the invention in
a moving surface such as a rotating cylinder or a moving
plate. This application is a division of copending Mayo
application Serial No. 486,513, filed February 7, 1955,
connection with the reproduction of the visible image
now abandoned.
disclosed an electrophotographic process, since known as
from the face of a cathode ray tube.
Referring more particularly to FIGS. l and 2, a xero
ingly, it is an object of this invention to provide a xero
These stages include an exposure station 12, a developing
In Carlson Patents 2,297,691 and 2,357,809 there is
xerography, and apparatus and mechanism for this proc 20 graphic machine generally designated 10 consists of a
cylindrical member 11 provided with a xerographically
ess. The apparatus and machines heretofore developed
sensitive surface. Around the cylinder are assembled the
in accordance with the Carlson invention have been man
various stages of operation for the xerographic process.
ual in operation and relatively time-consuming. Accord
graphic machine or apparatus capable of operating to 25 station 13, and a regeneration station 14, paper feed station
>15, transfer station 16, and a cleaning station 17 followed
produce a completed xerographic print in a matter of
by a charging station 18. Positioned above the exposure
seconds after original exposure and to repeat the process
steps so that a further xerographic copy can be reproduced
immediately thereafter with a total cycle time in the
order of fractions of a minute.
station and spaced apart are a movable lens system 19 and
a fixed support 20 for the original or master to be copied,
30 together with a slit projection arrangement and a source
of light 9, for example, sun lamps, operating preferably
It is a further object of this invention to provide that
the exposure of an original to be copied be made to a
sensitive moving surface, whether a rotating cylinder or
on the reliected back or opaque system.
At the exposure station, generally designated 12, is a
hood or bellows or other shield 21 adapted to protect the
a moving plate, wherein the original to be copied is posi
xerographic surface from extraneous light and having'a
tioned above a lens system arranged to fix an image of
slit 22 at its lower portion adjacent to the surface. The
the original on to the moving sensitive surface which in
upper end of this shield 21 is open to receive an optical
turn is spaced apart from the lens, and where proper
image from a master or original as described hereinafter.
registration of the image of the original is made upon
the moving surface by having the lens move in relation 40 Closely adjacent but spaced from the shield and positioned
above it is a slotted track 24 on which is mounted a -car
to the original.
riage 25 supporting and carrying a lens 26 which is there
It is a further object of the invention to provide a
by movable above and across the Lipper end of the shield
21. Spaced above this track 24 is a second track 28,
likewise bearing a carriage 29, which carriage has a trans
original or a plurality of copies of the original and to
verse slit 30 extending thereacross. Preferably, for ease
form such copies repetitively in quick succession.
of motion, both of these carriages may be mounted on
It is still another object of the invention to provide a
balls 27 and wheels 31 respectively or other means or
xerographic machine comprising a rotating cylinder hav
mechanism may be employed to cause these carriages to
ing at least a portion of its surface electrophotographi
cally sensitive, such cylinder rotating through a charging 50 move or slide easily and smoothly along their track. To
avoid vibration of the lens while it is moving, it bas
station, »an exposure station, a developing station, a paper
been found desirable to mount the lens (see FIGS. 6 and
yfeed and transfer station, and, if desired, a cleaning sta
7) in a heavy metallic carriage 25 and to employ chan
tion and a regenerating station whereby a xerographic
nels 32 formed in the heavy metal carriage 2S for the lens
image is produced by the successive steps of exposure,
development, and transfer. It is a further object of this 55 and in track 24, and by positioning for use in the channels
four metal balls 27, held in place by a suitable bearing
invention to provide for the use of this machine in connec
cage (not shown). This heavy metal and ball construction with slit projection and in such case to arrange for
tion can be machined to a high degree of perfection to
suitable and even lighting and also to provide for the
avoid the vibration of the lens.
motion of the lens and other parts in a way to avoid vi
Positioned above the upper track 23 is a fixed support
60
bration thereof.
2t) consisting, for example, of a copy board 33 which may
Another object of the invention is to provide apparatus
consist of a transparent plane member such, for exam
and mechanism for reproducing automatically a represen
ple, as a glass plate or the like, which is adapted to re
tation of a visible image from the face of a cathode ray
ceive a master or original placed face downward, on its
tube.
xerographic machine capable of operating to reproduce
a copy from an original selectively, either one copy of the
Additional objects of the invention will be understood
from the following specification and from the drawings in
which:
65
upper surface, in position for having its image projected
through the lens on to the sensitive surface of the cylin
der 11, and positioned over the copy board 33 is a flexible
copy cover 23, made, for example, of plastic, for holding
FIGURE 1 is a front elevation of a xerographic ma
copy fiat against the upper surface of the copy board.
chine according to an embodiment of the invention;
In order to provide for correlated motion of the lens
FIGURE 2 is a rear elevation, partly in section, of a 70
carriage
25 and slit-provided carriage 29 in their travel
machine shown in FIGURE 1;
across
the
respective tracks 24 and 28, whereby an optical
yFIGURE 3 is a rear elevation, partly in section, illus
3,062,103
¿i
a
image from the original placed face downwardly on copy
board 33 can be projected onto the photosensitive surface
of the cylinder 11 in proper coordination with the rota
tion of the cylinder, there is provided the following car
riage-actuating mechanism: Partial gear 34 is integrally
a part of the cylinder or optionally is integrally mounted
on an axle 35 with which the cylinder rotates. Adjacent
to this partial gear is a cam 36 integrally a part of the
projection slit during the transverse movement of the
carriage.
The size of the apparatus disclosed may be reduced
with the use of a wide angle lens. In such case, it may be
that a certain amount of uneven lighting of the slit is nec
essary. A form of slit that may be advantageously em
ployed is illustrated in FIG. 5. Such a slit 30]; is pro
vided with greater Width at its extremes 30C than at its
center 30d. This form of slit may also be profitably em
cylinder or optionally integrally mounted on the axle 35.
Adjacent to the partial gear 34 is a gear wheel 37 10 ployed in connection with slit projection where diliiculties
mounted on or connected with a first or inner pulley wheel
38 and a second or outer pulley wheel 39. The relative
sizes of partial gear 34, gear wheel 37, the inner pulley
wheel 38 and of pulley wheel 39 are coordinated and
related so that the circumference of pulley wheel 39 rotates
at the same speed as the circumference of cylinder il, while
the inner pulley wheel 38 is of one-half the diameter of
pulley wheel 39, whereby its circumference moves at one
due to uneven lighting may be encountered.
It is to be noted that the apparatus described herein
may be used for reproductions of the same size as the
original or for larger or smaller size as may be desired.
When one-to-one reproductions are to be made, the lens
will be positioned halfway between the photographically
Sensitive moving surface and the original to be copied.
When smaller reproductions are desired, then the lens is
half the linear rate of the motion of cylinder 1l. Cam
positioned closer to the photographic surface than to the
arrangement 36a, fixed to gear 37, cooperates with cam 36 20 original. For example, when the lens is located at one
to give to the lens assembly a gradual start. Around the
third the distance from the surface to the original, then
circumference of partial gear 34 are gear teeth 40 extend
a reduction in the reproduction to one-half is accom
ing along to a length such that pulley 39 is driven through a
plished. In the opposite way, larger reproductions may
distance equal to the maximum length of copy which is
be produced.
to be produced from the original on copy board 33. Flex 25
In the copying machine herein described, when adjust
ible tapes 41 and 42 are secured to the circumference of
ment of the spacing of the lens between the sensitive sur
pulleys 38 and 39, respectively. Tape 41 passes over
face and the original is made, a corresponding adjustment
freely movable wheels 44 positioned in line with track 24
of the linear distance through which the lens carriage 25
and extending therebeyond to a carriage return mechanism
and the carriage 29 provided with a transverse slit should
which may, for example, be a weight 45 suspended at the 30 also be made. For example, when the lens is positioned
free end of tape 41. In a similar manner, tape 42 passes
one-third the distance from the plate to the fixed position
over freely movable wheels 46 in line with track 28 and
of the original as when a half-sized reproduction is desired,
is secured to »a return mechanism which likewise may
the lens should move one-third of the distance that the
suitably be a weight 47 secured to the free end of tape 42
slit moves through. The rate of speed of the lens to that
after it passes over wheel 46. Tapes 41 and 42 in turn
of the motion of the slit must therefore be adjusted
are secured by fasteners 48 to carriages 25 and 29, respec
accordingly. In the machine described, this adjustment
tively, whereby linear motion of the tapes draws the car
may be effected by suitable designing of the size of the
riages along their tracks at a corresponding rate of speed.
respective gear wheels 34 and 37 or the pulleys 38 and 39.
yFrom the foregoing, it can be seen that a single ro
Automatic means controlling the movement of the lens and
40
tation of partial gear wheel 34 causes a partial rotation
the slit under these different circumstances may be pro
of pulleys 3S and 39 with the consequent winding up of
vided so that simple and expedient means may be used to
tapes 41 and 42 across the pulleys, causing carriages 25
produce, respectively, one-to-one reproduction, enlarge
and 29 to be drawn across their tracks, carriage 25 at a
rate of speed equal to one-half the rate of speed of the
surface of cylinder 11 and carriage 29 at a speed equal to
ment and reductions using the slit exposure system shown.
As a general rule, the slit should be small with respect to
the diameter of the drum. It has been found that, in the
the speed of cylinder 11. Upon completion of the drive
case of a l5 to 30 inch diameter drum, the slit may be
motion, completed by the release of partial gear 34 from
adjusted up to one inch to achieve proper radiation
intensity.
gear 37, the carriage return mechanisms, that is, weights
45 and 47, return the carriages to their original positions
Disposed adjacent to the exposure station 12 and directly
in preparation for another cycle of operation. It is ap
subsequent thereto in the direction of rotation of cylinder
parent, therefore, that during the drive phase of the cycle
11 is the development station 13 comprising essentially a
an optical image from the original placed on copy board
developing hopper 51 adapted to receive and contain a
33 is projected through lens 26, such projected image
charge of a developing material for a xerographic process.
passing through slit 22 on to the surface of cylinder 11 55 Preferably, the developing hopper has side walls 52 and
in mirror-image relation such that the image received by
tapering bottom walls 53 which lead down to a discharge
the moving cylinder surface is a true projected image
orifice 54. A closure member or gate 55 is mounted, for
of the original to be copied.
example, pivotally on a support 56 so as to open and close
discharge orifice 54. The motion of this gate 55 is con
In the case of slit projection, it is important that uni
form lighting be provided during the projection. The 60 trolled by suitable means such, for example, as an elec
trically operated solenoid 57 which may cause the gate 55
source of light 9, which may be sun lamps, is suitably
located to provide for reflected-back or opaque projection
between the lens and the original to be copied. It is de
sirable to illuminate all areas of the slit uniformly during
to be pivoted on its support 56.
Preferably, a batiie 59
sun lamps or other source of light 9 may be connected with
the movable carriage 29 carrying the slit 30 so that move
ment of the carriage and slit results in corresponding move
ment of the light, resulting in uniform lighting of the slit
at all times. Such a system is illustrated in FIG. 8. 70
its open position, it is close to but free from contact with
the surface of cylinder 11. Baflie 59 and gate 55 are dis
posed and positioned to direct the ñow of developer mate
rial from the hopper against the surface of cylinder 11.
The carriage Z9 traveling in track 28 is provided with
located near the upper portion of the cylinder in such
copy board 33 on which the original to be copied may be
placed face downwardly. Sun lamps 9‘ are añìxed to the
carriage by means of bracket 9b positioned below the
slit 30 to provide for the reflected uniform lighting of the 75
position that the developer material which is delivered
is adjustably located adjacent to the discharge orifice 54
and is positioned and adapted to cooperate with gate 55 in
all parts of the cycle of projection. Accordingly, the 65 closing the developer hopper 51. When the gate 55 is in
Desirably, the developer hopper 51 is disposed and
from the hopper falls to the surface of the cylinder at a
position where the surface is relatively near to the hori
zontal but at a definite angle from the horizontal. Thus,
3,062,108
5
for example, it is desirable that the developer material
from the hopper fall upon the cylinder where the cylinder
surface is at an angle between about 10° and 45° from the
horizontal so that the material can cascade or roll across
the surface of the cylinder for a substantial distance in
contact with the surface.
At the next subsequent position around the cylinder
6
sheet material and the rotating drum, a transfer station
16, consisting of a corona discharge electrode, is posi
tioned to effect transfer of the developed image from the
cylinder surface to the sheet material. The transfer elec
trode consists essentially of one or more corona discharge
wires 97 and control electrodes 99 positioned and dis
posed above a ground plate l98 substantially similar to the
and preferably located at or below the axis of the cylinder
discharging electrode 18 to be described hereinafter. The
is a developer catcher 60 which may still be regarded as
sheet-feeding and transfer mechanism are similar to the
part of the developing station. This developer catcher 10 type disclosed in Mayo et al. Patent 2,684,902 filed No
vember 23, 1951.
.
may be provided with a catching chute 61 positioned and
Immediately subsequent to the transfer station `16 are
adapted to catch and receive the development material
positioned strip lingers 181 operated by arm 102, in turn
cascading from the hopper across and along the surface
energized by cam member or follower 103 driven by a
of the cylinder and adapted to convey and direct the devel
Oper material to a mixing chamber 62. According to one
embodiment of the invention, the mixer 62. is in the form
of a cylindrical tumbler mounted at an angle of about
20° from the horizontal and having a plurality of vanes 63
(FIG. l). The mixer is mounted on bearing supports 65
adapted to be rotated by suitable drive mechanism (not
shown) and feeds into a bucket type return elevator com
prising a belt 66 carrying buckets 67 around lower and
upper wheels 69, the whole elevator mechanism being
second cam 104 integrally mounted on or connected with
the rotating cylinder 11. These strip or pick-off fingers
are adapted to be brought into contact with the surface
of the cylinder 11 slightly in advance of the sheet mate
rial and to strip the sheet material from the cylinder sur
face, directing the free sheet material into a fixing mecha
nism generally designated 105 and further defined in a
copendirig application Serial No. 232,152, filed .lune 18,
1951, now Patent No. 2,7101] 65 . The fixing apparatus dis
closed in FIG. 2 consists essentially of a heated rotating
contained within a shield or casing 70. At its upper end,
the bucket elevator feeds into a return chute 71 which in 25 drum 111 and a corona discharge electrode 112 or the
like, spaced closely adjacent thereto and adapted to re
ceive the sheet material therebetween, whereby the sheet
material is secured by electrostatic adhesion to the surface
of the heated drum, and the developed and transferred
is applied to the sensitive surface, the charge being of 30 image is fixed thereon by conducting heating from the
surface of the drum through the sheet transfer material.
polarity opposite to that which is applied for the initial
Cylinder 111 preferably is contained within a housing 113
sensitizing step described hereafter. Thus, optionally, a
and is driven by motor 113' operating through drive Wheel
reverse charging or regeneration station 14 may be posi
114 and belt «11S to drive the heating cylinder at a rate
tioned next subsequent to the developer station in the
which optionally may be the same as that of the rota
direction of rotation of the cylinder and prior to the proper
tion of cylinder 11. Sliding pick-off fingers 116 serve
feed and transfer stations 15 and 16. In the reverse charg
to pick the sheet material from the surface of heated drum
ing station, generally designated as 14 (see FIG. l), there
111 and direct it into a tray 117 wherein the completed
is provided a suitable charging member such as a corona
turn feeds the development material into `the'developer
hopper 51 for a repetition of the cycle. At another sta
tion around the cylinder 11,- it may be desirable to have a
reverse charging or regeneration station at which a charge
discharge electrode 72 consisting of one or more line con
xerographic print is collected and stored.
Y
source 81 such as a tray for a plurality of sheets 82 of a
cured on the surface of a solid or structural cylinder 127
Positioned next subsequent to the transfer and pick-up
ductive strands for corona discharge wires 73, control 40
station is a cleaning station generally designated 17, at
electrodes 75, and preferably a ground plate 74 similar to
which is disposed cylindrical brush 121 rotatively mounted,
the charging electrode 136 to be described hereinafter.
for example, on axle `122 and adapted to be driven by
Positioned next and adjacent to the regeneration sta
a motor y123 operating through belt 124. The entire
tion is a copy-feeding station provided with suitable sheet
cleaning section is mounted within a housing ‘125 with
feeding mechanism adapted to feed sheets of paper suc
a sub-housing or hood 126 surrounding the cylindrical
cessively to the cylinder 11 in coordination with the pres
brush
as disclosed and illustrated in FIG. 2. The cylin
entation of the developed image at the copy-feeding sta
drical brush may consist, for example, of rabbit fur se
tion. This sheet-feeding mechanism includes a sheet
suitable transfer material-_that is, typically, sheets of pa 50 and be rotated in a direction opposite to the direction of
rotation of the cylinder surface at the point of contact,
per or the like---and a pair of feed rollers 83 and 84
so that the relative motion between the brush surface and
adapted to direct the sheet material into contact with the
the cylinder surface is the sum of the two separate speeds
rotating drum at a speed preferably slightly in excess of
of motion. A filter member «128 may be positioned in one
the rate of travel of the surface of the drum. One of
these rollers 83 is a driven roller operated by a chain 55 wall of the hood, preferably the lower wall thereof, to
permit passage of air therethrough but at the same time
of gears 86, 87 and 88, driven in turn by a gear S9 in
to collect dust or electroscopic particles removed from the
tegrally connected with the rotating cylinder 11. Pref
surface of the cylinder by the brush. In the mechanism
erably, gear 89 is a partial gear whereby the paper feed
as illustrated in FIG. 2, the brush fibers, due to the high
rollers 83 and 84 are driven only during the portion of
the cycle where it is desired to feed the sheet material 60 centrifugal force caused by the rotating motion, extend
outwardly until they reach in contact the cylinder surface,
to the surface of the drum. A feeding finger 91 is driven
by a shaft 92, which in turn is operated by arm 93, piv
otally secured to fixed support 94, the arm 93 being en
ergized by a feeding member or cam follower 95, driven
when they are somewhat depressed. Immediately upon
release, the brush fibers extend outwardly again from the
surface, thus causing a vane-like action which causes a
liow of air into the hood area at the space between the
by cam 96, whereby the feeding finger 91 is adapted to 65 hood and the cylinder and out through filter 128. `In
feed the top sheet of the stack 82 to the feed rollers
this manner, a constant flow of air serves to free the brush
83 and 84 in coordination with the appearance of the de
fibers from electroscopic particles picked up by the clean
veloped image at the paper feed station as may be deter
ing action and thus to maintain absence of dust in the
mined by the cam 96. In this manner, the sheet material 70 surrounding atmosphere. If desired, this air flow action
is introduced between the feed rollers and is thereby
may be supplemented through the use of a supplemental
brought into contact with the rotating cylinder 11 at the
vacuum flow from an airblower or the like (not shown).
correct time and position to register with the developed
Next subsequent in the direction of rotation of cylinder
image.
11 is optionally positioned a light discharge source such,
Preferably, `at the exact point of contact between the 75 for example, as a neon light 1311 placed directly over the
3,062,108
7
surface of the cylinder 11 and adapted to flood the en
tire surface of the cylinder with light prior to its enter
ing into the next subsequent process stage of charging.
thus assuring at this point complete photoconductive dis
sipation of any residual electric charge from the photo
conductive sensitive surface of the cylinder.
The ñnal stage through which the rotating cylinder
surface passes, which stage may be considered as an in
itial stage of this or a subsequent cycle, is a charging
station 18 wherein the cylinder surface is adapted to pass
under a corona discharge electrode, generally designated
at 130 in FIG. 2, consisting of one or more ñne conductive
strands or corona discharge wires 132, optionally with a
ground plate ì33 at least partially surrounding the wires.
Control electrodes 134 are provided between the discharge
wires 132 and the surface of cylinder 11 whereby there
occurs a ñow of gaseous ions from the wires to the cylin
8
positioning or by mechanical means, the desired original
material is placed on the copy board. The cylinder is
then energized and exposure takes place with the carriages
2S and 29 passing across the surface of the copy in syn
chronized motion and correlated speed according to the
rotation of cylinder 1l. rIhe exposed portion of the sur
face of the cylinder then passes into the developing sta
tion wherein a suitable developed material is cascaded
across the surface and is collected by the developer catcher
and returned to the developer proper. The exposed and
developed portion of the surface of the cylinder 11 then
passes to the paper-feeding station and the transfer sta
tion where it receives a sheet of transfer copy material
and passes under a corona discharge whereby the devel
oped image is transferred to the paper or other transfer
member. rîhe cylinder, with the adhering transfer sheet,
then passes to the pick-up lingers 101 where the sheet
is stripped from the cylinder surface and enters the ñx
der surface. This corona discharge is of the type de
scribed and claimed in copending application Serial No.
ing chamber wherein the transferred image is fixed to
221,582, now Patent No. 2,778,946.
20 the transfer sheet by heat fusing or the like. The cylin
Cylinder or drum 11 around which are stationed the
der surface then passes to the cleaning station where any
various stages of the photographic process provides a
residual powder is removed by brush 121 and then after
cylindrical support surface of an electrically conductive
coming under discharging light `131 the surface passes to
material such, for example, as a metal surface or the like,
the charging electrode d3@ where an electrostatic charge
on which is placed a photoconductive insulating layer such, 25 is deposited on the surface of the drum and the drum
for example, as a layer or coating of vitreous selenium
is thus sensitized or re-sensitized and prepared for
or other photoconductive insulating material. Suitable
the succeeding exposure and development cycle. At
for this purpose are various photoconductive insulating
this stage, if more than one copy is desired, the cycle is
compositions characterized by an extremely high specific
repeated until suiiicient copies are obtained, where
resistivity in the absence of illumination, which resistivity 30 upon a different original is placed on the copy board
drops at least several orders of magnitude upon exposure
and the cycle then repeated as desired.
to bright light. Suitable material, in addition to selenium
According to the presently preferred procedure, the de
compositions, include, for example, anthracene, sulphur,
velopment composition employed includes a two-compo
sulphur-selenium mixtures and the like, as well as other
nent developer consisting of grossly larger carrier parti
photoactive material characterized by high insulation in the 35 cles and fine electroscopic powder particles, coated on
dark and by photo-initiated conductivity such, for ex
the surface thereof such, for example, as described in Pat
ample, as photoactivation of electrons in the molecular
ent No. 2,618,551. As the process continues through the
structure to a conductivity band or by other transitory
repetitive cycles, the quantity of electroscopic powder ma
or permanent change in conductivity upon exposure to
terial in the combination developer may become depleted
light. It is to be understood that the cylinder 11 may be 40 and it accordingly is desirable to replenish the developer
a cylinder surface having a photoconductive insulator di
composition with additional electroscopic powder, either
rectly on its surface or may, if desired, have a support
continuously or from time to time. The replenishment
member adapted to receive and support in cylindrical
of the developer composition may be achieved by adding
configuration one or more separate xerographic members
consisting of a conductive backing and a photoconductive
layer thereon. Then, if desired, the drum or light mem
ber may be directly coated with a vitreous selenium com
position or, alternatively, a rigid or flexible xerographic
to the developer mixture in the tumbler 62 or immediately
prior thereto a small additional quantity of the electro
scopic powder material. The addition of this small quan
tity of developer powder may be accomplished manually
or, if desired, by automatic means by a replenisher open
member may be suitably secured to the surface of a cylin
ing 62a as shown in FIG. l. The developer composition
drical support member.
50 with the replcnishing powder is mixed in tumbler 62,
In the device and apparatus disclosed in the drawings
whereupon uniform intermixing is achieved and the corn
herein, the various mechanisms connected with the stations
bination developer is then re-cyled into the developer hop
of exposure, paper feeding, paper pick off, and the like,
per for re-use through one or more succeeding xerograph
are controlled by a single unit, gears and partial gears,
ic cycles.
and by single unit cams, and therefore are adapted to co 55
According to a further embodiment of the invention,
operate with a cylinder or drum containing a single xero
the mechanism as herein described is adapted for the re
graphic member or a single xerographic station at its sur
production of an optical image formed on the face of a
face. It is to be understood, however, that a plurality of
cathode ray tube or like source of conversion of energy.
such members or stations around the cylinder may be
A suitable embodiment of this mechanism may be that
employed and that a plurality of partial gears, cam mem 60 disclosed in connection with FIGS. l and 2 wherein
bers, and the like may be used in cooperation there
with, whereby two or more separate xerographic cycles
may be accomplished in a single revolution of the cylinder
or drum 11.
Such an arrangement may be desirable un
the face of the cathode tube is substituted for the original
20 to be copied as shown in those figures or an embodi
ment such as shown in FIG. 9 wherein the lens 26 is kept
in constant position over the exposure section 12 of the
der certain circumstances and be adapted for a plurality 65 cylinder 11 and is not caused to travel back and forth
of cycles in a single cylinder revolution.
across the exposing station. In this modification, a cath
In the disclosure of the preferred form of embodiment
ode tube 9@ with its face 90a is held above the shield Z1
of the invention, a cylinder or drum has been employed to
of the exposure section which in turn is located above
provide a movable photosensitive surface. Such a mov
the rotatable cylinder 11. The photosensitive surface of
able surface may be secured in other ways, such as a 70 the cylinder 111 rotates through the exposure station 12
movable plate or belt and the invention is also applicable
and then through corresponding developing station, paper
thereto.
feed station, transfer station, cleaning station, and charg
The mechanism disclosed herein is suitable for the re
ing station, all as disclosed in FIGS. 1 and 2. An elec
production of one or more copies of an original placed
trical image is fed to the cathode ray tube according to
on the copyboard 33. By suitable means, such as hand 75 conventional electronic circuits, to yield an image on or
3,062,108
.
a "«
l@
connected to said scanning means to actuate said
scanning means to scan copy at a predetermined speed
moving across’ the face of the tube in coordination with
the rotation of the cylinder. This optical image is pro
jected'and focused on to the electrophotographieally sensi
relative to the movement of said xerographic plate,
and programmer means driven by said drive means to
tive cylinder surface to form thereon an electrostatic lat
ent image which in turn is developed and transferred to
actuate said sheet feed means and said pick-off
means in timed relation to the actuation of said
scanning means.
3. In a xerographic machine,
copy sheet material’or the like, all as previously de
scribed and shown in connection with FIGS. 1 and 2.
When a cathode ray tube or like source of an optical im
age is employed in conjunction with the vitreous selenium
type of the Xerographic surface, it is preferable that the 10
face of the cathode ray tube contain a phosphor, preferably
one which is relatively high in spectral sensitivity in the
blue-green range, this presently being the spectral range
of greater sensitivity for the vitreous selenium Xerographic
surface. The sensitivity of the xerographic member or
surface is such, however, that it performs satisfactorily
with substantially all conventional phosphor light emit
ters.
While this invention has been described in preferred
form, it is to be understood that modifications thereof may 20
be made without departing from the ambit of the inven
tion.
What is claimed is:
1.’ A Xerographic reproducing apparatus including in
combination a Xerographic plate journaled for rotation, 25
charging means positioned to impose a uniform electro
static charge on the surface of said xerographic plate,
support means for supporting copy substantially in a
the combination of a Xerographic plate mounted for
rotation,
charging means positioned to apply a uniform electro
static charge to said Xerographic plate,
a copy board for supporting copy substantially in a
plane,
scanning means including a movable lens to project
an image of copy yon said copy board onto said
xerographic plate, said movable lens being arranged
to traverse the plane of said copy board by movement
from a start-of-scan position to an end-of-scan posi
tion,
developer means positioned to develop an electrostatic
latent image on said Xerographic plate,
a container for sheet material,
sheet feed means positioned to feed sheet material
seriatim from said container into contact with said
Xerographic plate,
transfer means positioned to eñect transfer of a devel
oped image from said xerographic plate onto sheet
plane,
means for scanning copy supported by said support 30
material,
pick-off means positioned `adjacent said transfer means
means and for projecting an image thereof onto the
to remove sheet material from said Xerographic
xerographic plate, whereby to form an electrostatic
latent image of copy on said xerographic plate,
plate,
developing means to develop an electrostatic latent
image, whereby to form a xerographic powder irn 35
age of copy on said Xerographic plate,
and image transfer means to transfer a Xerographic
drive means connected to said Xerographic plate for
rotating said Xerographic plate, said drive means
being connected to said movable lens for moving
said movable lens through a predetermined path
from a start-of-scan position to an end-of-scan posi
tion in timed relation to the movement :of said xero
powder image to support material,
said last recited means including sheet feeding means
for superposing sheet material onto a Xerographic 40
graphic plate,
,
said driving means including means to return said
movable lens from its end-of-scan position to its
powder image on said xerographic plate and
start-of-scan position,
transfer means for causing a Xerographic powder im
age to adhere to sheet material,
pick-off means to separate sheet material from said
Xerographic plate after image transfer,
and means connected to said sheet feed means to effect
45
feeding of sheet material to said Xerographic plate in
timed relation with the rotational position of said
Xerographic plate.
and means actuated in accordance with the rotational
position of the Xerographic plate to initiate opera
4. A Xerographic copying apparatus including a Xero
tion of said sheet feeding means and said pick-off
graphic plate mounted for rotation,
charging means positioned adjacent said Xerographic
means in timed relation.
2. In a Xerographic machine,
50
_
plate for applying an electrostatic charge on said
Xerographic plate,
the combination of a Xerographic plate journaled for
rotation,
Ia copy board for supporting copy substantially in a
trostatic charge to said xerographic plate,
a slotted light shield positioned adjacent the surface
charging means positioned to apply a uniform- elec
plane,
a copy board for supporting copy substantially in aA 55
plane.
of said Xerographic plate,
. lens means mounted for movement in a path to traverse
a scanning means having a lens positioned to project
an image of copy on said copy board onto said Xero
graphic plate to form an electrostatic latent image
60
thereon,
developing means positioned to effect development of
the plane of said copy board from a start-of-scan
position to an end-of-scan position, to project an
image of copy on said copy board through said
slotted light shield `onto said xerographic plate to
form an electrostatic latent image of copy on said
xerographic plate,
an electrostatic latent image on said Xerographic
plate,
developing means positioned to develop an electro
static latent image on said Xerographic plate,
a container for sheet material,
sheet feed means positioned to feed sheet material
a container for sheet material,
sheet feed means positioned to feed sheet material
seriatim from said container into contact with said
seriatim from said container to said Xerographic
plate,
'
,
-
» transfer means positioned to effect transfer of a devel
oped electrostatic latent image from said xerographic
plate to sheet material,
'
pick-off means positioned adjacent to said transfer
means to effect removal of sheet material from said
xerographic plate,
drive means connected to said xerographic plate to
rotate said xerographic‘plate, said drive ymeans being
Xerographic plate,
70
transfer means positioned to effect transfer of a devel
oped powder image from said Xerographic plate onto
sheet material,
pick-off means positioned adjacent said transfer means
to effect removal of sheet material from said xero
graphic plate,
3,082,103
12
drive means connected to said Xerographic plate for
veloped image from said xerographic plate to sheet
rotating said xerographic plate,
material,
and scan control means connected to said drive means
pick-off means positioned to remove sheet material
for moving said lens means from said start-of-scan
from said Xerographic plate,
position to said end-of-scan position to scan copy
in timed relation to the movement of said Xerograph
ic plate and to return said lens means to said start
`drive means connected to said Xerographic plate and
said lens means to move said Xerographic plate and
said lens means at predetermined speeds relative to
of-scan position,
each other,
said scan control means also being connected to said
sheet feed means to effect the feeding of sheet ma l()
terial into contact with a developed image on said
Xerographic plate and for actuating said pick-off
7. In a Xerographic machine,
the combination of a xerographic plate journaled for
graphic plate.
5. A xerographic machine including a xerographic plate
mounted for rotation,
charging means positioned to apply a uniform electro~
static charge on said Xerographic plate,
rotation,
a copy board for supporting copy substantially in a
plane,
a slotted light shield positioned adjacent the surface 20
of said Xerographic plate,
a scanning means having a light source and a movable
lens positioned to project an image of copy on said
lens means mounted for movement in a p-ath to scan
copy board onto said Xerographic plate,
developing means positioned to effect development of
the optical image path from said copy board to there
`by project an image of copy through said slotted light
an electrostatic latent image formed on said Xero
shield onto said xerographic plate,
graphic plate,
movable illuminating means mounted for movement
to traverse the plane of said copy board,
developing means positioned to develop an electro
static latent image on said Xerographic plate,
30
a container for sheet material,
sheet feeding means operatively positioned adjacent said
a container for sheet material,
sheet feed means positioned to feed sheet material
seriatim from said container into contact with said
Xerographic plate,
transfer means positioned to effect transfer of a de
veloped electrostatic latent image from said Xero
container to feed sheet material seriatim into contact
graphic plate to sheet material,
with said Xerographic plate,
transfer means positioned to effect transfer of a deve -
oped powder image from said Xerographic plate to 35
sheet material,
pick-off means positioned adjacent said transfer means
»to effect removal of sheet material from said xero
pick-off means positioned adjacent said transfer means,
said pick-off means being adapted to pick off sheet
material from said Xerographic plate,
drive means connected to said Xerographic plate to
rotate said Xerographic plate,
said drive means including means to effect movement
graphic plate,
drive means connected to said Xerographic plate, said 40
lens means and said illuminating means to drive said
Xerographic plate, said lens means and said illumi
nating means at predetermined speeds relative to
each other, said lens means and said illuminating
means being moved fro-m original starting positions 45
through predetermined paths to form an electro
static latent image on said Xerographic plate during
rotation thereof,
said drive means including means to return said lens
means and said illuminating means «to their respec 50
`tive starting positions,
and control means connected to said Xerographic plate
to operate in timed sequence to the movement of said
of said movable lens whereby said lens is moved
across the plane of said copy board to project an
image of copy onto said xerographic plate as it is
rotated to form an electrostatic latent image,
and said drive means further including means to effect
operation of said sheet feed means in timed relation
to the formation of an electrostatic latent image on
said Xerographic plate whereby sheet material is ad
vanced to said Xerographic plate to coincide with the
position of a developed electrostatic latent image on
said Xerographic plate.
8. A xerographic reproducing apparatus including in
combination a Xerographic plate journaled for rotation,
charging means positioned to impose a uniform electro
xerographic plate to effect operation of said sheet
lfeeding means and said pick-off means.
55
6. In a Xerographic machine,
the combination of a Xerographic plate mounted for
rotation,
Icharging means positioned to apply a uniform electro
60
a copy board for supporting copy substantially in a
plane,
scanning means including lens means mounted for
movement to traverse the plane of said copy board
to expose the charged surface of said Xerographic 65
plate to an image of copy on said copy board, where
by to form an electrostatic latent image of copy on
the Xerographic plate,
developing means positioned to develop an electrostatic
latent image on said Xerographic plate,
70
a container for sheet material,
sheet feed means positioned to feed sheet material
seriatim from said container into contact with said
Xerographic plate,
Y
charging means positioned to apply a uniform electro«
static charge on said Xerographic plate,
a copy board for supporting copy,
transfer means positioned to effect transfer of a de
effect operation of said sheet feed means in timed
relation to the rotational position of said xerographic
plate.
means to remove sheet material from said Xero
static charge on said Xerographic plate,
and control means connected to said drive means to
static charge on the surface of said Xerographic plate,
support means for supporting copy,
means for scanning copy supported by said support
means and for projecting an image thereof onto the
xerographic plate, whereby to form an electrostatic
Ilatent image of copy on said Xerographic plate,
ydeveloping means to develop an electrostatic latent
image, whereby to form a Xerographic powder image
of copy on said Xerographic plate,
and image transfer means to transfor a xerographic
powder image to support material,
said last recited means including sheet feeding means
4for superposing sheet material onto a Xerographic
powder image on said Xerographic plate and
transfer means for causing a Xerographic powder image
to adhere to sheet material,
pick-off means to separate sheet material from said
Xerographic plate after image transfer,
and means actuated in accordance with the rotational
position o-f the Xerographic plate to initiate opera
tion of said sheet feeding means and said pick-off
means in timed relation.
9. In a xerographic machine,
3,062,108
13
the combination of a xerographic plate journaled for
rotation,
charging means positionedI to apply a uniform electro~
static charge to said Xerographic plate,
a copy board for supporting copy,
a scanning means having a lens positioned to project
an image of copy on said copy board onto said xero
graphic plate to form an electrostatic latent image
thereon,
developing means positioned to eiîect development of
an electrostatic latent image on said Xerographic
plate,
a container for sheet material,
sheet feed means positioned to feed sheet material
seriatim from said container to said Xerographic
plate,
transfer means positioned to effect transfer of a de
veloped electrostatic latent image from said Xero~
graphic plate to sheet material,
pick-off means positioned adjacent to said transfer 20
means to effect removal of sheet material from said
xerographic plate,
14
drive means connected to said xerographic plate to
rotate said Xerographic plate, said drive means being
connected to said scanning means to actuate said
scanning means to scan copy at a predetermined
speed relative to the movement of said xerographic
plate,
and programmer means driven by said drive means to
actuate said sheet feed means and said pick-off means
in timed relation to the actuation of said scanning
means.
References Cited in the file of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
998,663
2,123,151
Wood _______________ __ July 25, 1911
Petit et al. ____________ _„ July 5, 1938
2,153,186
2,211,766
2,703,280
2,781,705
Henderson ____________ __ Apr. 4,
Brown _______________ __ Aug. 20,
Butterfield et al. _______ __ Mar. l,
Crumrine et al. _______ __ Feb. 19,
1939
1940
1955
1957
FOREIGN PATENTS
579,513
Canada ______________ .__ July 14, 1959
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