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Патент USA US3062327

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Nov. 6, 1962
D. B. FITZWATER
3,062,318
.FOLDING SCAFF'OLD LADDER
Filed March 6. 1959
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
\.
INVENTOR.
DONALD B. FITZWATER
BY Maw
Nov. 6, 1962
D. B. FITZWATER
3,062,318
FOLDING SCAFFOLD LADDER
Filed March 6. 1959
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENTOR.
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DONALD E. FlTZWATER
BY
Nov. 6, 1962
D. B. FITZWATER
3,062,318
FOLDING SCAFFOLD LADDER
Filed March 6. 1959
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
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INVENTOR.
DO ALD B. FITZWATER
tilt
States Pate
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1
2
FIG. 4 is a view of the ?ights of the step ladder show
ing how the ladder is folded toward a storage position in
3,062,318
FOLDING SCAFFOLD LADDER
which it is of compact size;
Donald B. Fitzwater, 223 N. 13th St., Beatrice, Nebr.
Filed Mar. 6, 1959, Ser. No. 797,656
4 Claims. (Cl. 182—27)
FIG. 5 shows a frontal elevation of a clip assembly of
the invention;
FIG. 6 shows a side elevation of the clip assembly of
This invention relates to folding scaffolds and more
particularly it is an object of this invention to provide a
folding sca?old which is adapted also to be used as an
extension ladder and as a step ladder.
Heretofore various patents have been issued on de
FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 shows the ladder in a position for storage;
FIG. 8 shows the ladder from a side elevation arranged
1O for use as an extension ladder;
FIG. 9 is a top plan view of the ladder in position of
vices which serve both as a scaffolding and as a ladder,
FIG. 8 when the ladder is laying horizontally, and as seen
an example is the patent issued to O. E. Lindfors, titled
from the bottom of FIG. 8;
FIG. 10 is a view of the ladder in the position shown in
“Folding Ladder,” Serial No. 801,388, issued October
10, 1905.
15 FIG. 8 and as seen from the top;
However, as distinguished from such devices, it is an
object of this invention to provide a folding scaffold of
an adjustable height and with the same components also
providing both an extension ladder of a maximum rigidity
and safety.
I achieve safety by using one section in a bridging rela
tion with respect to the hinges of the other section.
I also provide rigidity with one of two overlapped sec
tions arranged with its longitudinal members bearing
against the longitudinal members of the other sections
rather than against the rungs thereof. The latter has
been used heretofore in the Austrian patent issued to
Bosch, Patent 1,139,910.
3,0523%
Fatented Nov. 6, 1962
FIG. 11 particularly showing a pair of cleats attached
thereto and for the purpose of engaging the rungs of
other sections;
20
FIG. 12 is a side elevation of the ladder section of
FIG. 11;
FIG. 13 is a side elevation of the securing cleats of the
present invention;
FIG. 14 is a side elevation of one of the hinges used to
secure the sections together;
FIG. 15 is a view of the ladder parts in position for
use as a step ladder;
FIG. 16 is a typical cross section through two of the
?ights of the ladder illustrating the cleats for retaining
A further object is to provide a four-section ladder in
the ?ights in assembled relation, and with part of one of
30
which the bridging or stiffening section, as described, can
the ?ights broken away.
be used to extend downwardly from one of the other sec
Referring to the drawings and particularly to FIG. 8
tions in order to make possible a scaffold of adjustable
it will be seen that the ladder of this invention comprises
height.
a ?rst ?ight 40‘ having a secondly relatively short ?ight
Yet another object is to provide a sca?old in which two
12 connected thereto hingedly at one end of the ?rst
sections can be placed at an inclination with respect to 35 ?ight.
the remainder of the ladder and in adjustable telescoping
relationship with respect to each other in order to make
one of the inclined sections extendible to make possible
The hinge connection is made by means of a hinge,
best seen in detail in FIG. 14, the hinge being identi?ed
by the numeral 16 and having two parts 18 and 20* at
the positioning of a scaffold a greater or lesser distance
tached respectively to the ?rst and second ?ights 40 and
40
from the side of a building.
12.
A further object is to provide a scaffold in which the
The hinge sections 18 and 26 have portions 22 which
upper part is formed of hingedly connected sections ar
extend outwardly to one side of each section respectively
ranged in triangle for more rigidly supporting horizontal
at those ends of the sections ‘which are disposed adjacent
scaffold boards, a part of the triangle being formed by a
each other.
45
relatively strong section arranged at an acute angle with
The outwardly extending portions 22 of each pair of
respect to the horizontal section for providing more
sections 18 and 2% of a hinge are connected together piv
rigidity whereby other means for providing such rigidity
otally by a suitable pin 24 disposed on a side of the end
is unnecessary and the expense of the latter is avoided.
sections 18 and 20.
Other and further objects and advantages of the present
As best seen in FIG. 9, each ?ight has a plurality of
invention will be apparent from the following detailed
equi-distantly spaced rungs 30 disposed between and con
description, drawings and claims, the scope of the inven
nected to side rails 32.
tion not being limited to the drawings themselves as the
drawings are only for the purpose of illustrating a way
The hinges 16 are connected to side rails 32 of the re
spective ?ights It}, 12 and 40 with one hinge being dis
in which the principles of this invention can be applied.
55 posed on the outer side of each side rail 32.
Other embodiments of the invention utilizing the same
The second ?ight 12 is similarly composed of spaced
or equivalent principles may be used and structural
rungs 30 and side rails 32.
changes may be made as desired by those skilled in the
Other hinges 16 connect the opposite end of the second
art without departing from the present invention and
?ight 12 to a third ?ight 10 which latter is also composed
the purview of the appended claims.
of rungs 30 and side rails 32.
In the drawings:
The ?rst, second and third ?ights as, 12 and it} each
FIG. 1 is a side elevation of the ladder arranged in
have brackets or cleats 43 extending outwardly on one
the position for providing a horizontal section spaced
side thereof as best seen in FIG. 8, the brackets 48 being
outwardly from the side of a building, the building being
shown in dotted lines;
secured to the side rails 32 of the respective ?ights and
FIG. 2 is a side elevation of the ladder in position for 65 extending laterally and being L-shape with in-turned ends
providing horizontal section on which a workman can
49, best seen in FIG. 10, so as to receive thereunder a
stand and on which the horizontal section is higher than
in the view of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 shows the ladder substantially in the same posi
tion as FIG. 2 but with the horizontal portion at a lesser
fourth ?ight 50 which latter is also composed of side
distance from the bottom;
rails 32 and rungs 30.
The fourth ?ight 50 is provided with a pair of securing
cleats attached thereto as shown at 64} in FIG. 11. The
cleats 69 are elongated and are connected to the side
3,062,318
ii
3
outwardly from the building 1% in a position very handy
rails 32 of the fourth ladder section 5'3 by means of a pin
62 extending through a hole 64 in one end of the cleat.
The opposite end of each cleat 6t? is provided with a
protrusion 66 for engaging a ladder rung in a conventional
manner. Each cleat is further provided with an arched
slot 68 for receiving a pin 73 as extends also through the
respective rail 32- as best seen in FIG. 11, the latter also
for supporting a workman as he works on an outwardly
projecting cave 12d of the building 100.
Referring now to PEG. 2 it will be seen that the fourth
section 50 can be placed alongside of and overlapping
the ?rst section 43, and with the fourth section 5i} dis
posed in the brackets of the ?rst sectio
and extending
downwardly beyond the third section
to elevate the
being of conventional construction.
second section 12 to a higher position, all other ?ights
As best seen in FIG. 8, the fourth section 59 can be
placed alongside the ?rst, second and third sections and 10 being in the same positions with respect to each other as
in FIG. 1.
in position for overlapping the hinges between the other
Referring to PR]. 3 an arrangement is shown which is
sections and with the cleat protrusions (:6 engaging a
the same as that described in MG. 2 with the exception
selected one of the rungs of the ?rst section 40. When in
that the fourth section St’) is disposed co-extensive with.
this position an extension ladder is formed for reaching
the ?rst section 40, as they are of the sa. re length. Thus
a considerable height and the extension ladder will be
the fourth section
is not here used for extension but
rigid and safe.
is ir- a storage position.
Referring now to FIG. 4 it will be seen that the fourth
As thus described it will be seen that this invention
section 56 can be placed opposite the ?rst section Kill as
has provided a ladder capable of use as an extension
they are preferably of the same length, thereupon the
ladder can be folded as best seen by the arrow 72 in 20 ladder, a step ladder, and further as a ladder for support
ing one of its sections in horizontal position, either against
FIG. 4 whereby the ?rst and second sections 4t} and 12
or spaced from a building or the like.
respectively can be placed alongside the third section It}
From the foregoing description, it is thought to be ob
to put the ladder in a compact, folded storage position, as
vious that a folding scaffold ladder constructed in accord
best seen in FIG. 7.
ance with my invention is particularly well adapted for
Referring now to FIG. 15 we see in this view that the
use, by reason of the convenience and facility with which
ladder is arranged for use as a step ladder in which the
it may be assembled and operated, and it will also be
fourth section 50 is disposed alongside the third and sec
obvious that my invention is susceptible of some change
ond sections it) and 12 which latter form two sides of
and modification without departing from the principles
a triangle having the ?rst section 46 as the other side.
A suitable safety chain 8t) can be attached to the third 30 and spirit thereof, and for this reason I do not wish to
be understood as limiting myself to the precise arrange
section 10 and the ?rst section 40 for keeping ?ights of
ment and formation of the several parts herein shown in
the ladder in position.
carrying out my invention in practice, except as claimed.
Referring now to FIG. 1 it will be seen that when it is
I claim:
desired to arrange the ladder in the position for providing
a horizontal section spaced outwardly from the side of a 35
1. In a folding scaffold and ladder, the combination
which comprises a ?rst ladder ?ight having spaced paral
building ltlt), then the ?rst section 46 is rested with its
bottom on the ground 192 in a substantially upright posi
lel side rails retained in spaced relation by spaced rungs,
a second ladder ?ight having spaced side rails retained
tion, the second ?ight 12 is arranged with its upper surface
in spaced relation by spaced rungs, the length of the sec
horizontal, and the third ?ight it} is arranged in a posi
tion extending from its connection with the second ?ight 40 ond ?ight being less than that of the ?rst ?ight, hinges
pivotally connecting one end of the second ?ight to an
l2 downwardly toward the ?rst ?ight 4th at a substantial
end of the ?rst ?ight, a third ladder ?ight having spaced
inclination with respect to the vertical, providing a di
agonal brace.
Suitable means are provided for securing the ?rst ?ight
40 to the third flight 10 at the lower end of the ?rst m."
?ight whereby the ?rst ?ight 4d‘, the second ?ight l2, and
the third ?ight 16 form a triangle with the ?rst and third
U
l
side rails retained in spaced relation by spaced rungs,
hinges pivotally connecting said third ?ight to the end
of the second ?ight opposite to the end of the second ?ight
connected to the ?rst ?ight, the length of said third ?ight
being such that the combined length of the second and
third ?ights is equal to that of the ?rst ?ight, spaced
?ights 40 and 10 disposed beneath and supporting the
cleats positioned on outer surfaces of the side rails of
second ?ight 12. The preferred means for this is the
clip shown in FIG. 6 which comprises two members 110 50 the ?ights and having L-shaped extended ends projected
inwardly for retaining rails of one ?ight upon rails of an
of substantially C'shape with their mid sections secured
other ?ight, means for anchoring the end of said third
together by a bar 112 suitably attached to the mid section
?ight opposite to the end connected to the second ?ight
of each C-shaped member 116.
to said first ?ight at a point substantially midway of the
The endmost rung 36 of the terminal end of the third
section 10 is received in corresponding hook ends 116 55 length of said ?ight, and a fourth ladder ?ight substan
tially of the same length as that of the ?rst ladder ?ight
of the C-shaped members 116 and the hook ends 116 are
and having spaced side rails retained in spaced relation
?xed to the endmost rung 3G by means of pins 126 which
by spaced rungs positioned with faces of the side rails
close the respective hook ends of each C~shaped mem
thereof, selectively, in meeting relation with faces of the
ber .lltl.
As thus described it will be seen that the opposite ends 60 side rails of the second and third ?ights, or in meeting
relation with faces of the side rails of said ?rst ?ight;
130 of the members 110 are adapted to hook about and
whereby the ?ights of the ladder may be, selectively, in
engage the respective run‘T 30 of the ?rst ?ight do which
nested relation for storage and shipping, or in extended
latter rung is selected in order to make the second ?ight
12 be disposed horizontally.
Referring to FIG. 1 it will be seen that the cross-section
or ?ight 50 can then be placed on the underside of the
third section 10 and lapping the ?rst section 16 with
the side rails of the fourth ?ight 50' being received in
positions with the upper portion of the ?rst ?ight and
second and third ?ights in extended relation forming a
triangle, and wherein said fourth ?ight extends, selectively,
from the upper end of the third ?ight, or from the lower
end of the ?rst ?ight.
2. A folding sca?old and ladder as described in claim 1,
the brackets 43 of the ?rst section 40.
As best seen in FIG. 1 the cleats 60 of the fourth 70 in which the means for anchoring the third ?ight on the
?rst ?ight includes a bar having C-shaped members on
?ight 50 can be disposed in engagement with a selected
one of the rungs of the third ?ight it) in order to extend
the ends and wherein the C-shaped members are posi
the upper end of the fourth ?ight 50 a desired distance
tioned to hook over rungs of the ?ights.
to reach the wall 100.
3. In a folding scaffold and ladder, the combination
Further, as seen in FIG, 1. the second ?ight 12 is spaced 75 which comprises a ?rst ladder ?ight having spaced paral
3,062,318
5
6
lel side rails retained in spaced relation by spaced trans
of said third ?ight being such that the combined length
verse rungs, a second ladder ?ight having spaced side
of the second ?ight to an end of the ?rst ?ight, a third
of the second and third ?ights is equal to that of the ?rst
?ight in a nested relation for storage and shipping With
said second and third ?ights in alignment, and said ?rst
?ight alongside and parallel to said ?rst and second ?ights,
spaced cleats positioned on the outer surfaces of the side
ladder ?ight also having spaced side rails retained in
spaced relation by spaced transverse rungs, hinges pivotal
rails of said ?rst, second, and third ?ights and having L
shaped extended ends that project inwardly of said ?ights
rails retained in spaced relation by spaced transverse
rungs, the length of the second ?ight being less than that
of the ?rst ?ight, hinges pivotally connecting one end
ly connecting said third ?ight to the end of the second
?ight opposite to the end connected to the ?rst ?ight,
the length of said third ?ight being such that the com
bined length of the second and third ?ights is equal to
that of the ?rst ?ight, and releasable means for anchoring
that end of said third ?ight which is opposite to the end
connected to the second ?ight to said ?rst ?ight at a
point substantially midway of the length of said ?rst
?ight, whereby the ?ights of the ladder may be positioned,
selectively, in an extended position with said second and
and generally parallel to said rungs, and a fourth ladder
?ight also having side rails retained in spaced relation by
spaced transverse rungs, said fourth ladder ?ight being
adapted to be received in selected ones of said cleats,
whereby said ?ights are adapted to assume a nested rela
tionship with said second and third ?ights in alignment
and With said said ?rst ?ight alongside and parallel to said
second and third ?ights and with said fourth ?ight received
in the cleats of said ?rst ?ight or of said second and third
?ights.
third ?ights forming a triangle With the ?rst ?ight upright
and the second ?ight horizontal, or in a nested relation
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
for storage and shipping with said second and third ?ights
in alignment, and said ?rst ?ight alongside and parallel
to said third and second ?ights.
4. In a folding scaffold and ladder, the combination
which comprises a ?rst ladder ?ight having spaced par 25
allel side rails retained in spaced relation by spaced trans
verse rungs, a second ladder ?ight having spaced side
rails retained in spaced relation by spaced transverse
rungs, the length of the second ?ight being less than that
of the ?rst ?ight, hinges pivotally connecting one end of 30
the second ?ight to an end of the ?rst ?ight, a third lad
der ?ight also having spaced side rails retailed in spaced
relation by spaced transverse rungs, hinges pivotally con
necting said third ?ight to the end of the second ?ight
opposite to the end connected to the ?rst ?ight, the length 35
UNITED STATES PATENTS
113,273
301,726
316,643
Delrnot ______________ __ Apr. 4, 1871
Koch _______________ __ July 8, 1884
Niehaus _____________ __ Apr. 28, 1885
353,868
Koerner _____________ __ Dec. 7, 1886
432,869
Fry _________________ __ July 22, 1890
442,360
575,397
781,898
1,284,275
2,760,706
Coomes _____________ __ Dec. 9,
Hilliker _____________ __ Jan. 19,
McNaughton _________ __ Feb. 7,
Erickson _____________ __ Nov. 12,
Pearl _______________ __ Aug. 28,
1890
1897
1905
1918
1956
FOREIGN PATENTS
139,910
Austria ______________ __ Dec. 27, 1934
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