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Патент USA US3062438

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Nov. 6, 1962
R. E. JACKE
3,062,432 I‘
SELF-SEALING METALLIC OVERWRAP
Filed Jan. '7, 1958
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
RM M o N D 6 JME
ATTORNEY
Nov. 6, 1962
R. E. JACKE
3,062,432
SELF-SEALING METALLIC OVERWRAP
Filed Jan. '7, 1958
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
RAYMOND £I </A€/(E
ATTORNEY ‘
Fired States
l
T ice
3,052,432
Patented Nov. .6, 1962
1
2
3,062,432
SELF-SEALING METALLIC OVERWRAP
Raymond E. .lacke, Louisville, Ky., assignor to Reynolds
plurality of rotatable toothed blades which are driven
by contact with the moving web and which are adjusted
by a biasing means to effect a closely controlled depth
of penetration of the web. A resilient and rotatable
back ng roll is disposed on the paper side of the travel
Metals Company, Richmond, Va., a corporation of
Delaware
Filed Jan. 7, 1958, Ser. No. 707,490
8 Claims. (Cl. 229—87)
ling web and serves as a backing against which the pres
sure of the blade biasing means is expended as the blade
cuts through the metallic side of that web. Each blade
includes a number of spaced cutting teeth on its periph
This invention relates generally to an improved lami
nated sheet having a metallic surface and more particu~ 10 ery, such teeth having a con?guration which not only
larly to such a sheet for use in overwraps or lners and
minimizes the flaking or detach'ng of particles of the
in which the sheet may be self-sealed, in enveloping re
metallic layer from that layer, but also minimizes the
lation to the material to be enclosed, by application of
tendency of the exposed adhesive to build up on the
heat to its metallic surface. In addition, the invention
blade. Following the perforating step, the perforated
further relates to an improved method and apparatus for 15 web as an intermediate article of manufacture may be
producing the improved sheet.
stored for later use or may be directed immediately into
Laminated sheet of this general type which includes
packaging mach'nery in which it is cut transversely to
layers of metallic foil, adhesive and paper is well known
form the improved overwrap as a separate article.
and has been employed in many specialized wrapping
The novel features which I believe to be characteristic
and lining usages. More speci?cally, this invent'on re 20 of my invention are set forth with particularity in the
lates to providing such a sheet with apertures in the
appended claims. My inventionitself, however, both as
metallic foil layer so that when heat is applied to the
to its organization and method of operat on, may be
metallic layer, the adhesive may readily flow through the
best understood by reference to the following descrip
apertures and spread upon the metallic layer surface
tion, taken in conjunction with the accompanying draw
thereby to provide a medium for bonding the metallic 25 ings in which:
layer to itself by a self-sealing action in regions where
FIG. 1 is diagrammatic side elevation view showing
such layer is in contact with itself. Di?iculty is experi
the path of travel of the web under treatment;
enced in providing apertures which enable this purpose
FIG. 2 is a transverse view along line 2—2 of FIG. 1,
to be accompl shed without, at the same time, unduly
showing the relation of the backing roll and perforating
weakening the sheet; unduly limiting the spread of ad 30 blades;
hesive which, of course, would weaken the self-sealing
action; or unduly interfering with rapid production of a
clean sheet due to ?aking of the metallic surface, ac
FIG. 3 is a view partly in section taken on line 3—-3 of
FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a plan view partly in section taken on line
cumulation of adhesive on the aperture-forming means
4—4 of FIG. 2;
or inability to maintain accurate depths of apertures Over 35
FIG. 5 is a side elevation view of a typical perfo
a period of time.
rating blade, only a portion of the teeth being shown;
It is these and similar problems in the manufacture
FIG. 6 is a plan view of a'?nished overwrap;
FIG. 7 is a sectional view taken on line 7—-7 of FIG. 6,
and to a greatly exaggeratedscale; and
For simplicity of description, 40
FIG. 8 is a perspective view of a loaf of bread en
of, and in broadening the capabilities of, laminated sheet
comprising metallic, adhesive and paper layers, which
my invention overcomes.
such sheet will hereinafter be referred to generally as
“overwrap” although it will be understood that the in
vention comprehends the use of such sheet for lining
of containers or in other ways in which the sheet en
velops a material or object and wherein its self-sealing
function is employed. As an illustrative example of one
use of the invention, an overwrap suitable for efficiently
enwrapping a conventional loaf ‘of bread will be disclosed.
An object of the invention is to provide an improved
self-sealing metallic type overwrap which contains a plu
rality of perforations adapted to dIr-ect su?icient adhesive
to the metallic surface to insure a secure metallic ‘to
metallic sealing of the overwrap.
Another object is to provide an ‘improved self-sealing
metallic type overwrap which contains a plurality of'per
forations arranged to avoid any tendencythereof to act
as tear strips during normal usage of the overwrap.
Another object is to provide an improved method for
rapidly perforating an imperforate web of laminated
metallic type overwrap material.
A further object is to provide an improvedapparatus
for rapidly perforating an imperforate web of laminated
metallic type overwrap material under an exacting control
with respect to depth of perforation.
Still a further object is to provide an improved over
wrap for a loaf of bread.
In carrying out my invention, ‘I provide ‘a .spooling
machine to which a rapidly travelling imperforate Web
of overwrap is supplied under tension furnished by that
wrapped with the overwrap of FIG. -6.
Referring ?rst to FIGS. 6 and 7, a typical overwrap
article made in accordance with the invention may
comprise a rectangular sheet having parallel side edges
10 and 11 and parallel end edges 12 and 13. The
sheet is of a laminated construction comprising a rela
tively thin metallic layer .14 .on .a ?rst side and a rela
tively thick paper layer _‘15 on a second side. Inter~
mediate these layers is a layer of thermoplastic adhesive
such as a heat sealable wax 16 having a thickness
commensurate with the degree of sealing required when
the sheet is employed for its intended purposes. Along
each of the side edges of the overwrap, a band of
laterally spaced rows of perforations is provided for
the purpose of directing the adhesive to the outer sur
face of the metallic layer during the sealing operation,
these bands being shown generally at 17 and 18 and
comprising ?ve such rows of perforations in each band.
As will later appear, the number of such rows of per
forations is not critical and may be more or less than
the ?ve rows as shown without departing from the
invention. The overall dimensions of the overwrap are,
of course, chosen with respect to the article to be en
wrapped, as, for example, the loaf of bread indicated
by the dotted ‘outline 20 near the center of FIG. 6.
'Consideringnow FIG. 1, as conventional 'spooling
machine may include-a frame portion 21 for rotatably
supporting a driven shaft .22 to which is detachably con
nected a take-up spool 23. A suitably controlled motor
machine, and on which the web may be spooled after 70 24 may drive shaft 22 by any conventional means such
being perforated. Cooperating with the spooljng ma.
chine is an improved perforating means comprising a
as a belt 25. Guiderolls 26, 27 may be mounted upon
the spooler frame to direct the incoming perforated
8,062,432
3
web toward the take-up spool after a generally hori
zontal passage from the supply roll 28. Similar guide
rolls 29, 30 may be mounted upon any suitable support
to direct the imperforate web toward the perforating
apparatus.
The perforating apparatus may be mounted upon a
stationary portion 31 of the spooler frame intermediate
the pairs of guide rolls as be means of spaced, ?at
mounting plates 32 and 33 suitably affixed to the sides
of the frame by bolts 34 (FIG. 1). As seen in FIG. 1,
these mounting plates project forwardly of the frame in
the direction of the incoming web. Adjacent an upper
projecting edge of the frame, inclined recesses 35 and
36 are provided with an open end facing in the direc
4
with respect to the mounting plates on the sides of the
frame merely by rocking it with handle 58 whereupon
it may be locked into stationary position by adjustment
of bolts 48 and 49 bringing the bearing boxes 44 and
45 into tight engagement with that shaft. If desired,
a conventional rapid adjusting handle 59 may be em
ployed for this purpose.
Since the spring backboard
members are securely clamped to the shaft by means
of the caps bolted therewith, rocking movement of the
shaft during this initial adjustment also rocks the spring
backboard members.
Moreover, due to the presence
of the compression springs the adjustment of the spring
backboard members causes the yokes to pivot downwardly
toward the web as seen in FIG. 1.
Carried between the arms of each yoke is one or
tion of the incoming web and into which the stub shaft 15
more, preferably identical, perforating blades, ?ve being
ends 37 and 38 of a backing roll 39 are adapted to rest.
shown in FIG. 4 at 74, 75, 76, 77 and 78. These blades
This roll may include a cylindrical hollow tube of metal
are mounted for rotation independently of each other
to which the stub shaft ends are ai?xed. As an im
upon a pin 79 extending between the sides of the yoke
portant feature of the invention, the metallic roll has
a resilient covering 40 thereon into which the ?nal 20 and are provided with a conventional friction reducing
bearing, such as a ball bearing, permitting the blade to
biasing energy of the perforating blades, later to be de
move easily. Since these blades serve the purpose of per
scribed, is expended. As will be understood, the roll is
forating the metallic layer of the overwrap to enable ad
driven by contact of its covering with the paper layer
hesive to be directed outwardly upon that metallic layer
15 of the travelling web. I have found that a covering
of rubber having a durometer reading of ninety and a 25 and are not for the purpose of providing an overwrap
weakening or tear-strip function, the construction, as well
thickness of about 3/16 inch is suitable for use with the
as the actuation of those blades is signi?cant. I have
perforating apparatus now to be described and when
found that the length of the perforation formed by the
manufacturing an overwrap as described in the example
blade, as well as the spacings between adjacent perfora
hereinafter disclosed.
tions within the same row, is in general more important
As another feature of the invention, an adjustable shaft
than the width between adjacent rows of perforations or
41 serving the dual function of providing an initial
the number of such rows of perforations. Accordingly,
positioning of the perforating blades supported thereby
I provide each of the perforating blades, one being shown
and of forming a support with respect to which those
at FIG. 5, with a series of peripheral sharp bevelled teeth
blades may be carefully adjusted for variation of depth
so, each of which is about 3&2 inch in length and which
of web penetration, is also provided.
are spaced from each other bv an undercut 81 which like
This shaft extends parallel to roll 39 and may con
wise is about %2 inch in length.
veniently be mounted at one end in a pillow block 42
Accordingly, it will be seen that the perforations in
which may be adjustably clamped as by means of bolts
each row of the bands 17. and 18 (FIG. 6) are equal in
43 to a forwardly extending portion of plate 33 (FIG. 2).
At its other end, the shaft is supported between com 40 length and are equally spaced within a given row, but
that the perforations of one row are randomly spaced as
plementary upper and lower bearing boxes 44 and 45.
regards the perforations in an adjacent row due to the
These bearing boxes may contain threaded holes for
receiving bolts 46, 47 adjustably clamping the lower
bearing box to plate 32 and for receiving bolts 48, 49
for clamping the upper bearing box to the lower bearing
box. At the end adjacent these bearing boxes, the shaft
has rigidly af?xed thereto a handle 50.
independent rotation of the several perforating blades.
The pattern of perforations thus obtained may be des
ignated as a “skip-score” pattern in which the ends of
adiacent perforations in a given row are separated by a
bridge of metal helping to preserve the tensile strength
of the web.
Having in mind the type of overwrap to be produced
and the above-described apparatus, mv method may be
as four, at 51, 52, 53 and 54, are mounted upon shaft 41
practiced as follows by reference to FIGS. 1 and 2. Op
for support thereby. Considering now FIGS. 3 and 4,
eration of motor 24 rotates roll 23 at a desired speed
each of the perforating assemblies includes a yoke mem
which imposes a tension on the web coming from supnlv
ber having spaced arms 60 and 61 joined at a rear end
roll 28 and guided across backing roll 39 bv the several
by a cylindrical spacer 62 having an aperture there
through for reception of shaft 41 with a close but freely 5: guide rolls. Frictional engagement of the paper side 15
of the web with the resilient covering 40 of the backing
movable ?t. Suitably attached to the spacer as by weld
roll causes that roll to rotate. By means of appropriate
ing, is a tangentially extending plate 63 projecting above
adjustments. the shaft 41 occupies a position above the
and rearwardly of shaft 41. A threaded aperture is
metallic surface of the moving web. which causes the
provided in this plate adjacent its rearmost end and en
gaging in the aperture is a selectively adjustable screw 60 vokes supported by that shaft to hold the rotatable blades
in engagement with the metallic surface of that web. The
64 having an abutment 65 engaging at all times with a
blades accordingly are driven by their contact with the
compression spring 66.
web and cut into the thin metallic layer. The selected
Laterally disposed with respect to the yoke member is
Depending upon the width of the web to be perfo
rated, a number of perforating assemblies, here shown
adinstrnent of screws 64 determines the value of the bias
an L-shaped spring backboard member having a spring
backing plate portion 67 and a shaft engaging portion 68. 65 inrz spring pressure which is to be expended by the blade
upon the web, the heavier such pressure. the deeper the
This latter port'on includes a generally semi-circular
cut for a given web. and the lighter such pressure the
recess, which recess ?ts against the under surface of
shallower the cut. Upon penetrating the metallic laver
shaft 41, as best seen in FIG. 3. Cooperating with that
14 (FTG. 7) the blade encounters little or no resistance
latter portion is a cap member 69 adapted for clamping
to the spring backboard member as by bolts 70 and 71 70 from the adhesive 16 and if the spring biasing is suf
?cient to cause the blade to cut through the former. the
on each side of shaft 41. Compression spring 66 of
blade extends its cut to the upper surface of the paper
course, bears at all times against the backing plate
portion 67.
layer as seen at 82.
As will further be seen, the more
the yoke pivots about the shaft 41, the less will be the
shaft may be initially set into prescribed angular relation 75 residual biasing pressure since the spring is diminishing
By means of the construction as thus far described, the
5
‘3,062,432
its applied energy as it elongates. Therefore, when the
blaoe touches the metallic layer, the entire web is pressed
?rmly against the covering of the backing roll which is
sufficiently resilient to assist in reducing the tendency of
the blade to bite too deeply into the web. The residual
energy of the biasing sprmg thus is opposed and absorbed
by the rubber covered backing roll. Should the blade
tips scratch the upper surface of the paper layer, how
ever, no appreciable weakening of the web occurs, since
spaced from each other by 5732 inch bridges of aluminum.
The metallic layer comprised dry annealed aluminum foil,
0 temper and 0.00035 inch in thickness. The paper layer
comprised fully bleached sulphite 20 pound bond paper
having a thickness of about 0.002. inch (depending upon
the density of the paper). The wax layer comprised micro~
crystalline wax amounting to 16 pounds of wax per ream
of paper. A ream consists of 480 sheets 24 inches by 36
inches. Following perforation, the described sheet retained
in general the thickness of that paper layer is several 10 a tensile strength of 17.8 pounds per inch when subjected
times the thickness of the metallic layer and, at the same
to stress in the direction of the axis of the rows of perfo
time, the compression spring is substantially fully ex
rations; of 3.54 pounds per inch when subjected to stress
tended by the time the blade tips reach the paper layer.
in a direction normal to the axis of those rows; and of
Thus, it will be seen that in carrying out the method, a
7.65 pounds per inch when subjected to stress at 45°
gross or approximate setting of the blades is ?rst pro
diagonally of those rows. When sealed by lightly passing
vided by the setting of shaft 41, followed by a re?ne-:1
a heat sealing means into contact with the folded ends of
setting of the blade by application of a spring biasing
pressure, followed by expanding of any surplus biasing
the overwrap enclosing a loaf of bread and after heat
perforations permits ample adhesive to bleed through the
edges upon itself, each perforation having a depth suffi
tions and to spread upon the metallic surfaces. Since
aluminum is an excellent conductor of heat, merely touch~
ing a heating means to the tucks near the ends of the loaf
effects ‘a rapid ‘self-sealing which when the adhesive sets,
will afford a substantially air-tight seal.
to penetrate said paper layer to a substantial weakening
extent while penetrating at least part of said layer of ad
hesive, said voverwrap containing said perforations having
The tensile strength retainedby the overwrap following
its perforating is of signi?cance as regards the enwrapping
the longitudinal spacing between perforations within each
sealing the longitudinal seam 19, the overwrap provided
energy upon the blade by absorbing that energy in the
resilient backing roll. As the web moves through the 20 a substantially hermetic seal for the article enclosed
thereby. During the enwrapping and sealing operation on
perforating stage it is thus perforated in parallel bands
high-speed packaging operation no tearing of the overwrap
the number of which depends upon the number of perfor
along the rows of perforationsoceurred.
ating assemblies employed. If wrinkles or discontinuities
In accordance with the patent statutes, I have described
are present in the incoming web, the separate perforating
what at present is considered to be the preferred embodi
blades are unaffected since they rotate independently.
ment of my invention, but it will be obvious to those
No ?aking or abrasion of the metallic layer occurs and
skilled in the art that various changes and modi?cations
no build-up of adhesive occurs on the blades since cen
may be made therein without departing from the true spirit
trifugal force tends to keep the blades clean.
and scope of the invention and I aim, therefore, to cover,
Overwrap made in accordance with ‘the above process
may be used for various purposes and for all such pur 30 in the appended claims, all such equivalent variations and
modi?cations.
poses possesses the self-sealing characteristic. As seen in
What I claim is:
FIG. 7, the several perforations 82 expose the adhesive
1. In a laminated heat-scalable overwrap having a
layer 16 so that when heat is applied to the metallic layer
layer
of metallic foil on a ?rst side, a layer of paper on a
14, such adhesive may bleed outward upon that metallic
second side, said paper layer being thicker than said metal
surface. Also, as is well known in the art, the adhesive
lic layer, and a layer of adhesive intermediate said metallic
will bleed or “strike-through” the pores of the paper layer
and paper layers, the improvement comprising, two bands
15 upon heat application. When enwrappinng a loaf of
of
perforations formed in said metallic layer for directing
bread for example, as seen in FIG.8, this bleeding is em
said layer of adhesive to the outer surface of said metallic
ployed to fashion a longitudinal seam 19. In general, the
.most difficult seal and the one which heretofore has caused 40 layer during the sealing thereof, said bands extending con
tinuously along each of two parallel side edges of said
the greatest problem, is the seal at the ends of that loaf.
overwrap, each band comprising a plurality of laterally
When the loaf 20 is enwrapped by conventional wrapping
spaced rows of elongated perforations having each perfo
apparatus which forms and tucks in the wrapper, these
ration in each row spaced longitudinally of its adjacent
tucks include metallic surfaces face-to-face and since the
perforation in the same row and extending in the same
loaf of bread is readily compressible, it is essentially that
direction, each band being of a size su?icient to provide
the overwrap be self-sealing upon application of a'heating
within the con?nes of said bands a substantial area of
means with relatively little pressure. The present inven
metal-to-metal contact upon folding of each of said side
tion satis?es these requirements since the band 17 of
perforations into an area near the ends of those tuck por 50 cient to fully penetrate said metallic layer and insuf?cient
since many conventional wrapping machines hold the over
wrap which is furnished as a roll, under tension at one or
a greater tensile strength in the axes of said bands of
perforations than in the direction transversely thereof, the
lateral spacing between adjacent rows of each band and
row being sufficiently great to overcome the tendency of
said perforations to act as tear-strips during normal en
more stages of operation. By reason of the present inven 60 wrapping and sealing operations employing said overwrap.
2. An overwrap as de?ned in claim 1 wherein the length
tion, the perforated self-sealing, overwrap may be used
of each perforation within a row is substantially equal to
upon such conventional machines since it does not tear
the spacing between adiacent perforations in the same row.
along the perforated lines.
3. An overwrap as de?ned in claim 1 wherein the perfo
The advantageous features of the above described ap
paratus and method of the invention may be further seen 65 rations within each row have a predetermined spacing rela*
tive to each other and a random spacing relative to the
by reference to the following speci?c example of the par
nearest perforation in adiacent rows.
ticular overwrap article used for a standard size and shape
4. An overwrap as de?ned in claim 1 wherein the length
of a loaf of bread.
of each perforation is about 1%2 inch.
Example
5. A product hermetically sealed by a laminated heat
70
The width of the overwrap was 15% inches and the
sealable overwrap comprising: a product to be sealed; a
length was 18%. inches. The outermost row of perfora
heat-sealable overwrap enveloping said product; said heat
tions of each bank was 3/8 inch from the side edge of the
sealable overwrap consisting of a layer of metallic foil on
overwrap and the ?ve rows were each 14 inch apart. Th
a ?rst side, a layer of paper on a second side, a layer of
perforations within each row were 3/52 inch long and were 75 adhesive intermediate said foil and paper layers, said layer
3,062,432
to each other by the migration of said layer of adhesive
through the perforations in said foil layer upon the appli
of foil having two bands of elongated perforations extend
ing continuously along each of two parallel side edges of
said 0» erwrap, each band comprising a plurality of laterally
cation of heat and pressure to the ends of said product.
spaced rows of perforations having each perforation in
each row spaced longitudinally from its adjacent perfora
heat-sealable overwrap comprising: a product to be
8. A production hermetically sealed by a laminated
tion in the same row; the perforations in each row being
randomly spaced relative to the perforations in adjacent
rows, said laminated overwrap having each band of perfo
rations folded about opposite ends of said product to form
sealed; a heat-scalable overwrap enveloping said product;
said heat-sealable overwrap consisting of a layer of metal
lic foil on a ?rst side, a layer of paper on a second side,
a layer of adhesive intermediate said foil and paper
at least some areas of foil to foil contact; and said foil 10 layers, said layer of foil having two bands of perfora
tions extending continuously along each of two parallel
to foil contact areas being sealed to each other by the
side edges of said overwrap, each band comprising a
migration of said layer of adhesive through the perfora
plurality of laterally spaced rows of perforations having
tions in said foil layer upon the application of heat and
each perforation in each row spaced longitudinally from
pressure to the ends of said product.
6. A product hermetically sealed by a laminated heat 15 its adjacent perforation in the same row; said laminated
overwrap enveloping said product with its hands of per
sealable overwrap comprising: a product to be sealed; a
forations being normal to the longitudinal axis of said
heat-scalable overwrap enveloping said product; said heat
product and with its ends being overlaped forming a
sealable overwrap consisting of a layer of metallic foil
on ?rst side, a layer of paper on a second side, a layer of
longitudinal seam parallel to the longitudinal axrs or
tion in the same row; said laminated overwrap having eac .
contact and other areas of paper to foil contact, said foil
to foil contact areas being heat-sealed to each other
adhesive intermediate said foil and paper layers, said layer 20 said product; said longitudinal seam being sealed by
migration of said layer of adhesive through the paper
of foil having two bands of perforations extending con
layer to the foil layer upon the application of heat and
tinuously along each of two parallel side edges of said
pressure to said seam; said laminated overwrap having
overwrap, each band comprising a plurality of laterally
each band of perforations folded about opposite ends
spaced rows of perforations having each perforation in
of said product to form at least some areas of foil to foil
each row spaced longitudinally from its adjacent perfora
band of perforations folded about opposite ends of said
product to form at least some areas of foil to coil contact
and other areas of paper to foil contact; said foil to foil
by the migration of said layer of adhesive through the
perforations in said foil layer and said areas of paper
contact areas being heat-sealed to each other by the migra 30 to foil contact being heat-sealed by the migration of
said layer of adhesive through the paper layer to the
tion of said layer of adhesive through the perforations in
foil layer.
said foil layer and said areas of paper to foil contact being
heat sealed by the migration of said layer of adhesive
References Qited in the ?le of this patent
through the paper layer to the foil layer.
UNITED STATES PATENTS
7. A product hermetically sealed by a laminated heat
sealable overwrap comprising: a product to be sealed; a
260,930
Blackham ____________ __ July 11, 1882
heat-sealable overwrap; said heat-scalable overwrap con
688,302
Grether ____________ __ Dec. 10, 1901
sisting of a layer of metallic foil on a ?rst side, a layer of
1,597,677
Everett _____________ __ Aug. 31, 1926
paper on a second side, a layer of adhesive intermediate
said foil and paper layers, said layer of foil having two
bands of perforations extending continuously along each
of two parallel side edges of said overwrap, each band
comprising a plurality of laterally spaced rows of perfo
rations having each perforation in each row spaced longi
tudinally from its adjacent perforation in the same row;
said laminated overwrap enveloping said product with its
bands of perforations being normal to the longitudinal
axis of said product and with its ends being overlapped
forming a longitudinal seam parallel to the longitudinal
axis of said product; said longitudinal seam being scaled
by migration of said layer of adhesive through the paper
layer to the foil layer upon the application of heat and
pressure to said seam; said laminated overwrap having
each band of perforations folded about opposite ends of 55
said product to form at least some areas of foil to foil
contact; and said foil to foil contact areas being sealed
1,702,325
2,048,895
2,115,318
2,185,469
2,185,470
2,320,092
2,382,400
2,407,641
2,441,477
2,542,298
2,544,146
Van Sickels _________ __ Feb. 19,
Rosen _______________ __ July 28,
Rosen ______________ __ Apr. 26,
MacDonald ___________ __ Jan. 2,
MacDonald ___________ __ Jan. 2,
Miller _______________ __ May 25,
Decker et al. _________ __ Aug. 14,
Anderson ____________ __ Sept. 17,
Farrell ______________ __ May 11,
Zinn ________________ __ Feb. 20,
Erikson ______________ .._ Mar. 6,
1929
1936
1938
1940
1940
1943
1945
1946
1948
1951
1951
2,565,944
Bergstein ____________ __ Aug. 28, 1951
2,596,997
2,598,649
2,628,681
2,675,851
2,954,912
Harter ______________ __ May 20, 1952
Rintoul _____________ __ May 27, 1952
Kane _______________ __ Feb. 17, 1953
Mutti _______________ __ Apr. 20, 1954
Kauffeld _____________ __ Oct. 4, 1960
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