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Патент USA US3062945

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510-12
SR
KR
RH'EKH‘QUE
Mam mum
31:56-21‘ 935
3,062,935
K. E. HASTINGS
Nov. 6, 1962
ELECTRODYNAMIC RELAY
Filed May 25, 1960
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
13
FIG. 1
l \ Il/
‘m
P _
"
ME
FIG. 4
lNl/ENTOR
KENNETH E .
H
BYM
'
ATTORNEY
TIN
>
Nov. 6, 1962
K- E- HASTINGS
'
'
Filed May 25. 1960
ELECTRODYNAMIC
'
3,062,935
RELAY
5 sheets-sheet 2
Nov. 6, 1962
K. E. HASTINGS
3,062,935
ELECTRODYNAMIC RELAY
Filed May 25. 1960
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
itd States Patet
‘
rice
2
1
3,062,935
ELECTRODYNAMIC RELAY
Kenneth E. Hastings, Rochester, Minn., assignor to Inter
national Business Machines Corporation, New York,
N.Y., a corporation of New York
3,062,935
Patented Nov. 6, 1962
' electromagnets, it is possible to mold both the housing
and the magnets out of ceramic material and then polarize
the ceramic material at the desired locations to form the
magnetic circuit. Not only does this arrangement lend
itself to automated techniques, but ceramic material would
permit operation at higher temperatures.
Filed May 23, 1960, Ser. No. 31,153
7 Claims. (Cl. 200—87)
The coils of the relay have a low resistance to current
flow and, therefore, the relay may operate at relatively
low voltages. Relays capable of operating at low voltage
This invention relates to an electrodynamic relay and,
more particularly, to an electrodynamic relay adapted to 10 are desirable because they are more compatible withv solid
state electronic circuitry, such as transistor circuitry.
operate at relatively low voltages and high speeds.
Accordingly, a prime object of the invention is to pro
The electrodynamic relay in the present invention oper
vide an improved electrodynamic relay.
ates on the well-known principle that a conductor located
Another object of the invention is to provide an elec
in a magnetic ?eld will tend to move out of the magnetic
?eld in a direction perpendicular to the magnetic lines of 15 trodynamic relay which is capable of operating at low
voltages.
force when a current is passed through the conductor.
Still another object of the invention is to provide an
The force upon the conductor is according to the equation
electrodynamic relay which is adapted to operate at rela
F=Bil cos 0 wherein:
B=air~gap magnetic ?ux density,
i=current ?owing in the conductor,
l=the length of conductor in the magnetic ?eld,
0=relative angle between conductor and magnetic ?eld.
tively high speeds.
20
In the present invention, the conductors are in the form
of a ?at coil adherent to both sides of a thin dielectric 25
sheet. The coil upon one side of the dielectric sheet is
-
An additional object of the invention is to provide an
electrodynamic relay which operates with a uniform max
imum force.
Yet another object of the invention is to provide an
electrodynamic relay which is capable of operating at
relatively high temperatures.
A very important object of the invention is to provide
connected in series with the coil disposed upon the other
an electrodynamic relay which is relatively inexpensive to
side. The dielectric sheet carrying the coils is disposed
manufacture.
between a pair of permanent magnets oriented relative to
The foregoing and other objects, features and advan
each other so that the magnetic ?eld is perpendicular to 30 tages of the invention 'will be apparent from the following
the conductors upon the dielectric sheet. The coils are
more particular description of preferred embodiments of
in the form of a rectangular loop so that current, when
the invention, as illustrated in the accompanying draw
applied to the coil, ?ows‘ in one direction through the
ings.
conductors of the lower half of the coils and in an oppo
In the drawings:
site direction through the conductors of the upper half of 35
FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of the relay;
the coils. However, the conductors of the lower half of
FIG. 2 is a side elevational view of the relay;
the coils are associated 'with a ?rst pair of opposite mag
FIG. 3 is a schematic view showing the magnetic mem
netic poles and the conductors of the upper half of the
bers and the magnetic ?eld;
coils are associated with a second pair of opposite mag
FIG. 4 is a partial view in side elevation showing an
netic poles oppositely arranged from the arrangement of 40 alternate contact structure;
said ?rst pair of opposite magnetic poles. The dielectric
FIG. 5 is a schematic showing of the coils upon the di
sheet is free to move relative to the magnets. When cur
electric sheet;
rent is passed through the conductors forming the coils,
FIG. 6 is partial view in front elevation showing an
the dielectric sheet is moved relative to the magnetic ?eld.
alternate form for connecting the coils to supply ter
Because of the particular arrangement for the coils and 45 m'inals;
pairs of magnetic poles, the forces upon the conductors
FIG. 7 is a sectional view taken along the line 7-7 in
of the lower half of the coils are additive to the forces
FIG. 1;
upon the conductors of the upper half of the coils. As the
FIG. 8 is perspective view schematically showing a slid
dielectric sheet moves in response to the forces upon the
ing type of contact structure;
50
conductors forming the coils, it acts upon electrical con
FIG. 9 is a perspective view schematically showing an
tacts.
other sliding type of contact structure;
In conventional electromagnetic relays, the force upon
FIG. 10 is a perspective view schematically showing an
the armature or member for transferring the electrical
arrangement where the dielectric sheet carries an adherent
contacts is'a function of the distance that the armature
conductor adapted to establish an electrical connection
55
is from the core of the magnet. Hence, the force upon
with contact elements;
the armature is not uniform. Generally, the starting
FIG. 11 is a partial view in side elevation showing an
force is small and then the force increases as the arma
other type of contact structure; and,
ture approaches the core of the magnet. It is apparent
FIG. 12 is a perspective view schematically showing a
that this type of relay is a slower operating relay than
the one of the present invention where the forces de
veloped, as current is passed through the coils, are uni
form.
Hence, once the current builds up, a peak force
60 sliding contact arrangement for connecting the coils to
supply terminals.
With reference to the drawings and particularly to
FIGS. 1 and 2, the invention is illustrated by way of ex
ample as a relay 10. The relay 10 includes permanent
will be acting at all times to displace the dielectric sheet
for transferring the contacts of the relay.
magnetic members 11 and 12 ?xed opposite each other
Another desirable feature is that the structure of the 65 with opposite poles facing each other. The magnetic
instant relay lends itself to automated production and
members 11 and 12 are ?xed relative to a rectangular
assembly techniques. Therefore, the resultant relay is
frame 13 either by suitable fastening means or by the
relatively inexpensive. The conductors forming the coils
mutual attractive force of the magnetic members 11 and
upon the dielectric sheet are produceable by well-known
12. The magnetic members 11 and 12 are rectangular
70
techniques for manufacturing “printed circuitry.” While
in shape and are provided with longitudinal grooves 14
the magnets may be any suitable permanent magnets or
and 15, respectively, which separate the poles of the mag
8,062,935
4
3
ber 16 which functions to space the magnetic members 11
and 12 from each other. In this example, the rib mem
ber 16 is approximately 40 mils thick. Hence, the mag
netic members 11 and 12 are spaced 40 mils apart. The
sheet 25 is moved. A spring 70 may be utilized to bias the
dielectric sheet 25. The transfer contact springs 38 are
normally in contact with transfer contacts 44, FIG. 2, and
with normally closed contacts 45. When an energizing
current is supplied to the coils 23 and 24, the dielectric
sheet is forced away from the bottom of the housing 13
carrying the transfer contact springs 30 away from the
spacing between the magnetic members should be kept to
normally closed contacts 45 and into contact with nor
netic members. The dimensions of the grooves 14 and 15
are critical and will be discussed subsequently.
The frame 13, as seen in FIG. 7, includes a rib mem
mally open contacts 46. The dielectric sheet 25 will re
bers is low. To some degree, there is a practical limit be 10 main displaced so long as the energizing current is supplied.
It is recognized that other contact arrangements are
cause of limitations of known materials and techniques for
a minimum so that the reluctance between magnetic mem
possible, such as shown in FIG. 4. Contact transfer
springs 60 and 61 are associated with terminals 62 and
63, respectively, and with a common terminal 64. The
rials improve, the spacing between magnetic members
could be reduced. The depth and width of the longitudi 15 contact 61 is normally in contact with the terminal 64,
while the contact 60 is normally held out of contact with
nal grooves 14 and 15 in the magnetic members 11 and 12,
the terminal 64 by the dielectric sheet 25, which is slotted
respectively, are related to the amount of spacing between
to permit the contact 60 to pass therethrough. The con
the magnetic members 11 and 12. The width of the
tacts 60 and 6-1 are prestressed to be urged into contact
grooves 14 and 15 is approximately twice the amount of
with the terminal 64. Hence, the dielectric sheet is biased
spacing between the magnetic members 11 and 12. The
by springs 71 to hold the contact 60 away from the termi
depth of the grooves 14 and 15 is critical in connection
nal 64. When an energizing current is supplied to the
with the width of the grooves. In order to avoid a low
coils 23 and 24, the dielectric sheet 25 is displaced so as
reluctance magnetic path between poles of one of the mag
to carry the contact 61 away from the terminal 64 and
netic members, the depth of the groove should approxi
mately be equal to the width of the groove. With this 25 permit the contact 60 to come against the terminal 64.
Of course, the contact 60 aids the dielectric sheet in its
arrangement, while there will be some fringing of mag
displacement. If it is desirable to transfer the contact
netic ?ux between poles of the same magnetic member, a
61 prior to the transfer of contact 60, the dielectric sheet
low reluctance magnetic path is provided between the op—
producing thin conductors adherent to a thin dielectric
sheet. It is expected that, as these techniques and mate
posite poles of the oppositely disposed magnetic members,
25 could be positioned to abut the contact 61 to bias the
as shown in FIG. 3. The strength of the magnetic ?eld 30 same so as to hold the contact 60 away from the terminal
64.
developed between the magnetic members 11 and 12 is, of
In FIG. 11, a hairpin type of transfer contact 75 is
course, dependent upon the reluctance of the magnetic
connected to a terminal 76 and has one leg 77 normally
path. The lower the reluctance, the stronger is the mag
in contact with a terminal 78 and another leg 79 adapted
netic ?eld. The stronger the magnetic ?eld, the greater is
the force developed upon conductors 20 and 21 adherent 35 to make contact with a terminal 80 when permitted to
do so by the dielectric sheet 25. The dielectric sheet 25
to opposite sides of the dielectric sheet 25, FIG. 5.
is provided with an aperture to permit the legs 77 and
The dielectric sheet 25 is rectangular in shape and is
79 to pass therethrough. The contact legs 77 and 79
approximately 32 mils thick. The thickness of the con
are prestressed to be normally urged into contact with
ductors 20 and 21 adherent to the dielectric sheet 25 is
approximately 2 mils for the conductors on each side; 40 the associated terminals 78 and 80, respectively. The
hence, the composite structure is approximately 36 mils.
dielectric sheet 25 is biased by springs, not shown, in a
The dielectric sheet 25 with the conductors 20 and 21 is
manner to permit the contact leg 77 to make contact
freely contained on edge between the magnetic members
with the associated terminal 78 and to hold the contact
11 and 12 with approximate clearance of 2 mils on each
leg 79 out of contact with its associated terminal 80.
side. The dielectric sheet rests on edge upon the bottom 45 When an energizing current is supplied to the coils 23
of the housing 13, as seen in FIGS. 1 and 2. In this ex
and 24, the dielectric sheet 25 is displaced so as to carry
ample, FIG. 5, the conductors 20 and 21 are connected
in series by a through connection, such as metallic rivet
22, and are formed upon the dielectric sheet 25 in coils 23
the contact leg 77 away from the terminal 78 and permit
the contact leg 79 to make contact with the terminal 80.
The contact leg 77 is carried away from the terminal 78
and 24 so that current will flow in the same direction in 50 substantially at the same time the contact leg 79 makes
the conductors 20 and 21.
Of course, current ?ows
contact with the terminal 80.
If it is desired to move
through the conductors 20 and 21 disposed within the
the contact leg 77 away from the terminal 78 prior to
upper portion of the dielectric sheet in one direction and
the contact leg 79 making contact with the terminal 80,
in the opposite direction through the conductors 20 and 21
the lower edge of the aperture in the dielectric sheet 25
disposed within the lower portion of the dielectric sheet. 55 is positioned to normally abut the contact leg 77.
By this arrangement, the energizing current passes between
In FIG. 8, the dielectric sheet 25 carries a Z-shaped
one pair of poles of magnetic members 11 and 12 in one
terminal 85 having a central portion 86 in constant sliding
direction and in the opposite direction between the other
contact with a common terminal 87. The central por
pair of poles. The forces upon the upper and lower con
tion 86 is joined to an arm 88 normally in sliding contact
ductors 20 and 21, therefore, act in the same direction to
with a terminal 89 and to an arm 90 normally out of con
displace the dielectric sheet 25 away from the bottom of
tact with an associated terminal 91. When an energizing
the housing or frame 13.
current is supplied to the coils upon the dielectric sheet
As shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the dielectric sheet 25 is
25, the same is displaced so that the arm 88 slides out
biased against the bottom of the housing 13 by wire con
of contact with the terminal 89 and the arm 90 slides
tact transfer springs 30. In FIG. 1, the two outer or end 65 into contact with the terminal 91, while the central por
springs 30 normally are in contact with supply terminals
tion 86 remains in sliding contact with the terminal 87.
40 and 41 and with edge tabs 42 and 43 adherent to the
Another type of sliding contact arrangement is shown
dielectric sheet 25 and connecting with conductors 20 and
in FIG. 9. The dielectric sheet 25 carries a terminal 92
21, respectively, as shown in FIG. 5. In this manner,
which is adapted to slide relative to terminals 93 and 94
energizing current is supplied to the coils 23 and 24. Of 70 so as to establish and interrupt an electrical connection
course, it is possible to supply the energizing current in
therebetween as the dielectric sheet 25 is moved in the
di?erent ways, such as in FIG. 6, where a ?exible lead 50
manner described above. The dielectric sheet may be
is permanently attached to the terminal 41 and to a side
biased so that the terminal 92 is normally in or out of
tab 51, or as in FIG. 12. In FIG. 12, the terminal 41
contact with the terminals 93 and 94.
is adapted to bear against the side tab 51 as the dielectric 75
In FIG. =10, an edge terminal 95 is adapted to establish
3,062,935
5
6
and interrupt an electrical connection between terminals
96 and 97 as the dielectric sheet 25 carrying the terminal
95 moves the same into and out of contact with the termi
nals 96 and 97.
From the foregoing, it is seen that a relay has been
5. An electrodynamic relay comprising: a frame mem
ber having a central rib; a pair of permanent magnetic
members, each provided with a slot to form the poles
thereof, mounted relative to said frame member whereby
said rib spaces said magnetic members to form a gap
therebetween, said magnetic members being disposed so
that opposite poles are opposite each other; a linearly
movable dielectric sheet disposed within said gap to abut
the relay is of simple construction and lends itself to
against said central rib, said dielectric sheet having an
automated techniques including those for “printed cir
cuitry.”
aperture
therein; a pair of electrical contacts, the relative
10
motion which is controlled by the motion of said di
While the invention has been particularly shown and
electric sheet, one of said contacts extends through said
described with reference to preferred embodiments there
provided whereby the member for actuating the contacts
is displaced with a uniform force.
It is also seen that
aperture in said dielectric sheet; and a ?at coil carried
of, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that
by said dielectric sheet so that substantially the entire
the foregoing and other changes in form and details may
be made therein without departing from the spirit and 15 coil is between said pair of magnetic members and where
by, upon electrical energization of said ?at coil, said
scope of the invention.
dielectric sheet is linearly moved to move at least said
What is claimed is:
one contact relative to the other contact.
1. An electrodynamic relay comprising: a frame mem
6. An electrodynamic relay according to claim 5 fur—
ber having a central rib; a pair of permanent magnetic
ther comprising: means for biasing said dielectric sheet
members provided with a slot to form the poles thereof
so that said one contact is held away from the other con
mounted relative to said frame member whereby said
tact.
rib spaces said magnetic members from each other to form
7. An electrodynamic relay according to claim 6 fur
a gap therebetween, said magnetic members being dis
ther comprising: a contact normally abutting said other
posed whereby opposite poles are opposite each other;
a linearly movable dielectric sheet disposed within said 25 contact and adapted to be moved away therefrom by said
dielectric sheet.
gap and resting upon said rib; means for biasing ~said
dielectric sheet against said rib; a pair of series connected
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
?at coils carried upon opposite sides of said dielectric
sheet; at least one pair of electrical contacts, the relative
UNITED STATES PATENTS
motion of which is controlled by the linear motion of 30
318,345
Boyle _______________ __ May 19, 1885
said dielectric sheet; and terminals connected to supply
an energizing current to said coils.
2. An electrodynamic relay according to claim 1 Where
in said terminals are adapted to bias said dielectric sheet
against said frame.
3. An electrodynamic relay according .to claim 1 where
in the width of said slot in said magnetic members is
substantially equal to twice the distance of said gap.
4. An electrodynamic relay according to claim 3 where
in the depth of said slot in said magnetic members is
substantially equal to the width of said slot.
1,628,115
Call _________________ __ May 10, 1927
1,628,991
Miller _________ .._' ____ __ May 17, 1927
1,668,998
2,053,619
Bruce ________________ __ May 8, 1928
Le Goff ______________ __ Sept. 8, 1936
2,666,879
Godsey et al ___________ __ Jan. 19, 1954
2,773,239
Parker _______________ __ Dec. 4, 1956
2,799,746
Raymond ____________ __ July 16, 1957
2,847,619
2,936,353
2,997,560
Shafer ______________ __ Aug. 12, 1958
Hanlet _______________ __ May 10, 1960
Callaway ____________ __ Aug. 22, 1961
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