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Nov. 6, 1962
3,062,966
F. R. MERRIAM, JR
STARTER MOTOR
Filed March 14, 1960
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
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IN VENTOR.
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BY éljgxw
A T TORNEKS‘
Nov. 6, 1962
F. R. MERRIAM, JR
3,062,966
"sTARTER MOTOR
Filed March 14, 1960
3 Sheets-$heet 2
24
FIG,2
FRANK R. MERR/AM, JR.
11v VEN T0 R.
BY
A T TORNEKS"
Nov. 6, 1962
F. R. MERRIAM, JR
3,062,966
STARTER MOTOR
Filed March 14, 1960
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
.1
FIGS
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FRANK RMERR/AMJR
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INVENTOR.
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United States Patent
3,052,966
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Patented Nov. 6, 1962
2
1.
An object of the present invention is the provision of
3,062,966
a starter motor for an internal combustion engine which
STARTER MOTUR
is relatively inexpensive and mechanically uncomplicated.
Frank R. Merriam, Jr., Plymouth, Mich, assignor to Ford
Motor Company, Dearhorn, Mich., a corporation of
Another object of the invention is to provide a starter
motor for an internal combustion engine in which an
electromagnetic means is employed to furnish the ?eld
Delaware
Filed Mar. 14, 1960, Ser. No. 14,661
8 Claims. (Cl. 2%w-38)
excitation for the motor and to move a pinion gear into
engagement with an engine turning means.
Other objects and attendant advantages of the present
This invention relates to an internal combustion en
gine starter motor and more particularly to a starter motor 10 invention will become more readily apparent as the speci
in which an electromagnetic means positioned adjacent
one end of the starter motor simultaneously provides ?eld
excitation for the motor and a magnetic ?eld for moving
a pinion gear into engagement with an engine turning
means.
The present invention provides an internal combustion
engine starter motor in which a pair of movable pole
pieces are operatively connected to a pinion gear. An
?cation is considered in connection with the attached
drawings in which:
PEG. 1 is a sectional view partially in elevation taken
along the lines 1———1 of FIG. 3;
PEG. 2 is a sectional view partially in elevation taken
along the lines 2-2 of FIG. 3;
HS. 3 is a cross sectional view taken along the lines
3-3 of FIG. 2 with certain portions omitted for pur
poses of clarity, and
electromagnetic means, preferably in the form of an an
H6. 4 is a circuit diagram including the starter motor
nular ?eld coil, is positioned at one end of the starter 20
of the present invention.
motor adjacent the pinion gear. The electromagnetic
Referring now to the drawings in which like reference
means, when energized, furnishes the ?eld excitation for
numerals designate like parts throughout the several views
the motor and moves the movable pole pieces axially
thereof, there is shown a starter motor 19 for an internal
relative to the starter thereby moving the pinion gear into
engagement with an engine turning means. Thus, there 25 combustion engine. The starter motor is provided with
a frame 11 constructed of a nonmagnetic material, for
is provided a starter motor which employs a single electro
example, aluminum, which includes end plates 12 and
magnetic means for furnishing the ?eld excitation for
13. The two end plates may be constructed either of
motoring action, and for moving a pinion gear into en»
a magnetic or nonmagnetic material, and in the preferred
gagement with an engine turning means.
This invention provides advantages over prior art starter 30 embodiment of the invention these two end plates are
constructed of a nonmagnetic material such as aluminum.
mechanisms which employ an electromagnetic means for
The end plates 12 and 13 carry bearings 14- and 15
moving a pinion gear into engagement with an engine
respectively in which an armature shaft or power shaft 16
turning means. Among the prior art are starter motors
is rotatably mounted. Positioned upon the armature
which employ the ?eld windings to shift the whole arma
shaft are a commutator 17, a laminated armature core 18
ture in'a direction parallel to the armature shaft for mov
and armature coils 19.
ing a pinion gear into engagement with an engine turning
means.
In this type of starter motor a wide commutator
The armature or power shaft is provided with a helical
must be employed since the armature shifts axially rela
splined portion positioned a short distance axially along
tive to the brushes or, as an alternative, some mechanism
the shaft from the end of the laminated core 18. A heli
must be employed to move the brushes along with the 40
armature. Furthermore, the armature presents a large
mass which must be shifted axially and this requires a
large magnetic ?eld with a large number of ampere turns.
Also, since the entire armature is moved the starter motor
must be very sturdily constructed if it is to withstand the 45
heavy shock loads which occur when the pinion gear
fails to mesh properly with the engine turning means.
The present invention eliminates these difficulties since
only the movable pole pieces and the pinion gear are
shifted when the starter is energized.
The invention also possesses advantages over other
starter motors which employ electromagnetic means for
engaging a starter motor pinion gear with an engine turn
ing means. Many of these starter motors employ an
electromagnetic means, other than ?eld windings, for mov 55
ing the pinion gear into engagement with an engine turn
ing means and also employ a complicated system of levers
for transferring the motion of a member actuated by
this electromagnetic means to the pinion gear. Other
starter motors employ the ?eld windings to actuate lever 60
mechanisms which move the pinion gear into engagement
with an engine turning means.
cal spiined barrel 21 is positioned over the splined por~
tion of the armature shaft for engagement therewith. A
driven means, preferably a pinion gear 22 adapted for
engagement with an engine turning means 23, such as, a
ring gear on a flywheel, is slidably mounted on the arma
ture or power shaft 16 and is rotatably driven thereby.
An overrunning clutch, the external portion of which is
designated by the numeral 24, is positioned between the
helical splined barrel 21 and the pinion gear 22. A spring
member 25 ai?xed to the end frame 13 engages the pinion
gear 22 to bias it out of engagement with the engine turn
ing means 23.
A pair of movable pole pieces designated by the nu
merals 26 and 27 are mounted within the frame 11 for
axial movement relative to the armature or power shaft
16. As can best be seen by reference to FIG. 3, these
movable pole pieces are positioned in channels 28 and 31
formed in the internal periphery of the frame by radially
inwardly extending projections designated by the numerals
32, 33, 34 and 35. These projections extend axially of
the frame for a distance su?icient to guide the movable
pole pieces over the entire extent of their travel. Each of
the movable pole pieces 26 and 27 has a radially inwardly
extending terminal portion designated by the numeral 36
(see FIG. 1). These terminal portions are al?xed to a
means for providing the ?eld excitation for the motor,
and for moving the pinion gear into engagement with an 65 collar 37 constructed of a nonmagnetic material, such as,
aluminum or sintered copper, by means of pins, one of
engine turning means, thus eliminates one of the electro
which is shown at 38.
magnetic means employed by certain of the starter mo
The collar 37 includes a thickened end portion 41 hav
tors mentioned above. Additionally, since the movable
ing an internal diameter substantially equal to the external
pole pieces are arranged to move axially of the starter
The present invention, by utilizing one electromagnetic
motor, in the same direction that the pinion gear must 70 diameter of the armature or power shaft 16 so that the
collar and the shaft engage each other in a sliding ?t rela
be moved to engage an engine turning means, no com
plicated lever mechanisms need be employed.
tionship. The mid-portion of the collar 37 engages the
apes, 966
u)
helical splined barrel 21 in a similar sliding ?t relation
ship. The other end of the collar has an internal groove
42 positioned therein for the reception of coil spring 43
which is positioned about the helical splined barrel 21.
A shoulder 44 formed by the groove 42 engages one end
portion of the spring 43 while the external portion of
overrunning clutch member 24 engages the other end of
the spring.
A pair of ?xed pole pieces 45 and 46 extend through
slots 47 and 43 in the frame 11 and are af?xed to a pair
of frame covers 51 and 52 by screws 53 and 54. These
frame covers are constructed of a magnetic material.
An electromagnetic means, such as, an annular ?eld
coil 55 in the form of a solenoid, is positioned in spaced
relationship about the armature or power shaft 16 at the
end of the frame adjacent the pinion gear 22 by means
4
shoulder 44 of the collar 37 engaging the spring 43.
The spring 43 cushions the shock load which may occur
if the pinion ‘gear 22 strikes the engine turning means
23 in a nonengaging position.
Prior to the time that the pinion gear 22 fully engages
the engine turning means 23, the armature revolves slow
ly thereby slowly turning the pinion gear to aid its engage
ment with the engine turning means.
As soon as full
engagement is accomplished, however, the starter motor
power shaft or armature shaft revolves at a high speed
to drive the engine turning means 23. This action can
readily be explained by reference to FIG. 1. It can be
appreciated that the reluctance of the magnetic path de
scribed above is quite high prior to the full engagement
of the pinion gear 22 with the engine turning means 23
because of the large air gap between the terminal ends
of a support member 56 constructed of a magnetic mate
36 of the movabie pole pieces 26 and 27 and the support
rial. The support member 56 has a radially extending
member 56. The density of the ?ux passing through the
?ange 57 which extends through a circumferential slot
in the frame 11 into engagement with both of the frame 20 armature from the ?xed pole pieces to the movable pole
pieces, therefore, is quite small and the armature revolves
covers 51 and 52 and is affixed thereto by means of
at a relatively low speed. As soon as the pinion gear 22
screws, certain of which are designated by the numerals
fully
engages the engine turning means 23, the terminal
58 and 59. The internal diameter of the support mem
ber 56 is substantially equal to the external diameter of
the collar 37 so that the collar and the support member
engage in a sliding ?t relationship. An annular shoulder
end portions 56 of the movable pole pieces 26 and 27
come into engagement with support member 56 and the
air gap between them is reduced substantially to zero.
61 on the support member 56 engages a shoulder 62 on
At this time, the reluctance of the flux path is greatly
the end frame 13. This together with the sliding ?t en
gagement of the support member with the collar 37
properly positions the support member within the starter
increased. This causes the armature shaft to turn at the
motor. The annular ?eld coil 55 ?ts within a comple
mentary annular groove 63 in the support member 56 and
above that the electromagnetic means or annular ?eld
reduced and the flux density in the armature is greatly
designed cranking speed.
It can be readily appreciated from the discussion given
coil 55 simultaneously provides the ?eld excitation for
the
motor and the magnetic ?eld for moving the pinion
The starter motor as shown on the attached drawings
22 into engagement with the engine turning means
may be held together by a plurality of bolts positioned 35 gear
23.
externally of the machine. These have not been illus
is affixed thereto by any suitable means (not shown).
trated since they are not pertinent to the novel features
of the motor and since it is well within the skill of the
routineer to provide them.
Referring now to FIG. 4 which shows a circuit diagram
of the present invention, it will be seen that the starter
motor is a series connected machine. The annular ?eld
coil 55 is connected through lead 71 to the brush 73 which
engages commutator 17 and is connected through lead 72
to a starter motor switch 74.
The starter motor switch
is in turn connected to the positive terminal of battery 75.
The negative terminal of the battery and the brush desig
nated by the numeral 76 are grounded to complete the
circuit.
When the starter motor switch 74 is closed, the annular
?eld coil 55 is energized to provide the typical ?ux pat
tern of a solenoid. In the starter motor shown, the mag
netic path for the ?ux extends from the center of the
solenoid through the support member 56 including the
radial extending ?ange 57 out to the frame covers 51 and
52. This flux path can best be seen by reference to FIG.
2. The ?ux path then extends to the ?xed pole pieces 45
and 46 through the armature core 18 and the armature
windings T9 to the movable pole pieces 26 and 27 (see
FIG. 3).
Since the frame 11 is constructed of a non
magnetic material, such as aluminum, the ?ux path from
the ?xed pole pieces to the movable pole pieces is through
the armature and windings rather than through the frame.
From" the movable pole pieces 26 and 27 the ?ux path
extends through the air gap between the radially inwardly
extending terminal portion 36 of each of the movable
pole pieces and the support member 56 to the portion
of the support member 56 positioned radially inwardly
from the annual coil 55.
The magnetic ?eld thus created causes the movable
pole pieces 26 and 27 to move to the right, in FIGS.
1 and 2, to close the air gap between the terminal por
tions 36 of these movable pole pieces and the support
member 56. This action moves the pinion gear 22 into
engagement with the engine turning 23 by means of the
It ‘will be understood that the invention is not to be
limited to the exact construction shown and described,
but that various changes and modi?cations may be made
without departing from the spirit and scope of the inven
tion, as de?ned in the appended claims.
I claim:
1. In an internal combustion engine, an engine turn
ing means, a starter motor, said starter motor compris
ing a frame, a power shaft mounted in said frame, a
pinion gear slidably mounted upon and rotatably driven
by said power shaft, four pole pieces positioned about
the periphery of said frame, two of said pole pieces being
slidably mounted in said frame and operatively engaging
said pinion gear, a ?eld coil positioned in said frame
in spaced relationship about the periphery of said power
shaft at the end of said frame adjacent said pinion gear,
said ?eld coil when energized moving said slidably
mounted pole pieces ‘toward said engine turning means
whereby said slidably mounted pole pieces move said
pinion gear into engagement with said engine turning
means.
2. In an internal combustion engine, a starter motor
comprising a frame, an armature including an armature
shaft rotatably mounted in said frame, a pinion gear
60 slidably mounted upon and rotatably driven by said arma
ture shaft, a plurality of pole pieces positioned around
the periphery of said frame, one of said pole pieces be
ing slidably mounted in said frame, means engaging said
slidably mounted pole piece and said pinion gear, said
pinion gear 'being adapted to engage an engine turning
means positioned adjacent one end of said starter mo
tor, and means positioned at the end of said starter mo~
tor adjacent said engine turning means for furnishing the
?eld excitation for said motor and for moving said slid
ably mounted pole piece toward said engine turning
means whereby said pinion gear moves into engagement
with said engine turning means.
3. In a starter motor assembly, a starter motor frame,
a power shaft mounted in said frame, a pinion gear slid
ably mounted upon and rotatably driven by said power
3,062,966
5
shaft, a movable pole piece slidably mounted in said
frame, said movable pole piece operatively engaging said
pinion gear, and electromagnetic means positioned at the
end of the starter motor frame for supplying the ?eld
flux for said starter motor and for slidably moving said
movable pole piece and said pinion gear upon said shaft.
4. In a starter motor assembly, a starter motor frame,
a power shaft mounted in said frame, a pinion gear slid
ably mounted upon and rotatably driven [by said power
shaft, a pair of movable pole pieces slidably mounted in
said frame and upon said shaft for movement axially
along said shaft, said pair of movable pole pieces hav
6
motor and for moving said pole piece and said pinion
gear axially of said starter whereby said pinion gear
moves into engagement with said engine turning means.
7. A starter motor for an internal combustion engine
comprising, a starter motor frame constructed of a non
magnetic material, a power shaft rotatably mounted in
said frame, a pinion gear slidably mounted upon and ro
tatably driven by said power shaft, a plurality of pole
pieces mounted about the periphery of said frame, two
of said pole pieces being slidably mounted in said frame
for axial movement along said power shaft and engaging
said pinion gear, the remainder of said pole pieces being
stationary with respect to said frame, an annular ?eld
ing means in operative engagement therewith for engag
coil mounted in said frame in spaced relationship to said
ing said pinion gear, and an annular ?eld coil mounted
at one end of said starter motor adjacent said pinion for 15 power shaft at one end of said frame adjacent said pinion
gear, means external to said frame for completing a mag
supplying the ?eld excitation for said starter motor and
netic circuit between said annular ?eld winding and said
the magnetic ?eld to move said movable pole pieces and
stationary ?eld pole pieces, and means internal of said
said pinion gear axially upon said shaft.
5. In an internal combustion engine, the combination
comprising an engine turning means, a starter motor for
actuating said engine turning means, said starter motor
including movable means for engaging said engine turn
ing means, means movable axially of said starter motor
engaging said movable means, ‘and means positioned at
the end of the starter motor adjacent said movable means
and said engine turning means for providing the ?eld
excitation for said starter motor and for moving said
frame for completing a magnetic circuit between said slid
ably mounted pole pieces and said annular ?eld winding
whereby said annular ?eld winding provides the ?eld ex
citation for said starter motor and moves said pinion gear
axially upon said shaft by means of said slidably mounted
pole pieces.
8. In a starter motor assembly, a starter motor frame,
a power shaft mounted in said frame, a pinion gear slid
ably mounted upon and rotatably driven by said power
shaft, slidable means movable axially relative to said
power shaft mounted in said frame and engaging said
said movable means is [brought into engagement with
pinion gear, and means positioned at the end of the
30
said engine turning means.
starter motor frame adjacent said slidable means for pro
6. In an internal combustion engine, the combination
viding ?eld excitation for said starter motor and for slid
comprising an engine turning means, a starter motor for
ably moving said slidable means and said pinion gear
actuating said engine turning means, said starter motor
axially relative to said power shaft.
including a pinion gear movable axially of said starter 35
motor for engaging said engine turning means, a pole
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
means axially of said starter motor on said shaft whereby
piece movable axially of said starter motor and operatively
engaging said pinion gear, and means positioned in said
starter motor for furnishing the ?eld excitation for said
up.)
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,813,206
Jensen ______________ __ Nov. 12, 1957
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