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Nov. 13, 1962
Filed‘ Aug. 9, 1960'
- HI‘
United States Patent O??ce
Patented Nov. 13, 1962
ing therewith so as to create the propelling jet of liquid,
said annular duct being orientable by the pilot both in the
vertical and horizontal planes, so as to enable him to con~
Dimitri Issaiewitch Rebiko?‘t, Cannes, France, assignor to
trol the liquid jet at will and to adjust the direction of
thrust, and thus to steer his craft.
Several variations of this basic principle are possible.
In particular, the entire rear portion of the submarine
vessel may be articulated, including the engine, being
Loral Electronics Corporation, New York, N.Y., a cor
poration of New York
Filed Aug. 9, 1960, Ser. No. 48,460
6 Claims. (Cl. 114-16)
hinged to the remainder of the craft by means of a ball
and-socket joint or a universal joint, which does not trans
mit a rotational movement. This arrangement has the ad
The present invention relates to a new control system
for submarine vessels of all types, large structures as well
as small sports equipment actuated by riders equipped
vantage of making possible the provision of a cowling or
streamlining very near to the screws, this cowling being
equipped with ?xed blades which cooperate with the
with independent breathing apparatus.
A submarine has usually in or on its rear part a direc
tion ?n or rudder and a depth or elevator ?n, the opera
tion of the latter being coupled with that of submersing 15 blades of the screw and form thus a kind of turbine. It is
also possible to maintain the conventional structure of the
submarine vessel; in this case the motor is rigidly ?xed to
the frame and its single screw is connected to the motor
without the interposition of a universal joint or the like;
the direction of the liquid current or jet is effected by
bars or hydroplanes in front. The task of these rear con
trols is to de?ect the current of water, created by the
propulsion system, consisting of one or several screws
which may sometimes operate inside open channels in
front and behind in the desired direction, making it pos~
sible to direct the vehicle both in the lateral and vertical
swivelling the annular cowling surrounding the screw and
channeling the jet right from the beginning.
directions. The initial propulsive force is always directed
along the longitudinal axis of the submarine vessel, and
It can thus be seen from the foregoing two examples
that the direction of the submarine craft, both in the ver
energy. This has two disadvantageous results. Firstly, 25 tical and horizontal planes, may be chosen by the genera
tion of a liquid jet of appropriate direction, whereby the
the effective output of the power unit is much lower if
conventional ?ns placed at the rear of the craft may be
the path of the vessel deviates from the straight line, lead
reduced or even omitted.
ing to a costly and useless expenditure of energy; this is
The invention will be further described, by way of ex—
serious, because the driving force of a submerged (non
this necessary deviation results in a considerable loss of
atomic) submarine is supplied by an accumulator battery 30 ample with reference to the accompanying drawing, relat
ing to the two embodiments. In the drawings:
and is, therefore, very limited. Secondly, the manoeuvr
FIG. 1 is a longitudinal vertical cross~section of a ?rst
ability of the submarine is reduced, owing to the braking
embodiment of a submarine craft of the invention;
effect of the ?ns, if the path is not straight. If this braking
FIG. 2 is a transverse and vertical cross-section of the
eifect could be eliminated, it would be possible to obtain
a considerable increase in the development particularly of 35 same embodiment along the line II-~II of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 shows the rearward portion of a second embodi
small submarine driving units.
ment of the submarine craft of the invention in vertical
It is the object of the present invention to provide an
longitudinal section;
improved arrangement for directing the liquid current in
FIG. 4 is a rearward view of a part of the embodiment
the desired direction without any braking so that the
propelling units create this liquid current directly in the 40 of FIG. 3.
FIG. 1 relates to a small submarine craft, ridden by a
desired direction. This principle is, in fact known broadly
diver for independent diving operations; in this craft all
from the speci?cation of French Patent No. 171,878 which
rearward ?ns have been omitted, in that the entire rear
describes the use of a propeller screw on a universal shaft
ward portion A, comprising the motor 2, the screw 3, and
and with a universal joint, making it possible to “ma
noeuvre in any direction” and thus to do without ?ns. 45 the streamlining annular cowling 4 of the screw, are artic
ulated about a geometrical point 1 by means of a ball
However, the present invention starts with this principle,
joint. The screw 3 is a multi-blade screw, and the cowling
but eliminates the universal joints on the propeller shaft,
4 forms a tube whereby the liquid jet is directed. Fixed
it is, in fact, rather di?icult to realize such a joint operat
ing in water and transmitting considerable power. It was
blades 5 and 5' serve both to support the cowling 4 and
to direct the jet suitably, whereby the assembly of blades
therefore attempted to develop an arrangement orienting
only the parts which are non-rotating themselves, whilst
‘5 and ‘5’ and the blades of the screws 3 constitutes a kind
of turbine operating like a pump. The screw blades are
carried by a boss ‘6. The main enclosure 7 of the vessel
creating a liquid current directly in the desired direction.
It is, for various reasons, advantageous to surround the
has walls which are suf?ciently thick to withstand the.
cowling. More particularly, in the case of a small vessel, 55 water pressure and holds an accumulator battery 17, con
nected to the motor by a cable 8 passing through the joint
ridden by a pilot equipped for independent submersion,
1. Two control cables or rods 9 and 9’ are connected to
serious risks are avoided, since the diver cannot be injured
the ends 10 and 10' of a frame which is integral with the
by a blade of the screw. Moreover, the blades are pro—
screw of a submarine vessel by an annular streamlining or
rear portion A and are ?xed at their other ends to a cen—
tected against any accidental contact with obstacles which
the vessel might encounter. Finally, it is possible to op 60 trally pivoted bar 11, which is in turn connected by a
rigid rod 12. to a control lever 13,.
This lever controls, in a manner known per se, the
erate a multi-blade screw rather after the manner of a
turbine, by equipping the annular tube with stationary
blades, whilst the moving blades are designed to ful?l the
task of turbine blades, whereby the performance of the
apparatus is further improved. ‘
submersing bars 14 in front, which are retained. These
submersing front bars 14 may be expediently replaced by
mobile ailerons.
‘ According to the present invention there is provided a
A longitudinal movement of the lever 13 acts simul—
submarine craft, in which control of direction in both the
vertical and in the horizontal planes is effected by direct
ing the liquid jet acting as propellant, from its point of
‘ taneously on the right and left ailerons and on the an—
nular cowling and, moreover, the lever 13 is on a ball
and socket joint, after the manner of a control column
generation, in such a way as to reduce or even eliminate 70 of an aeroplane, and its movement in the lateral direc
tion moves the right and. left ailerons in opposite direc
the conventional ?ns at the rear of the craft, wherein the
tions as is the case with an aircraft. This arrangement
screw or screws are enclosed by an annular duct cooperat
does not form part of the invention and has been dis
closed already in the speci?cation of my French Patent
No. 1,136,673. The lateral movements of the part A
member, a motor connected to‘ said energy source and
rotating said screw, an annular duct surrounding said
are directly controlled by the pilot’s feet, who lies flat
screw and substantially coaxial therewith, a universal joint
connecting said duct to said body member at a point
on the craft so that his feet rest on the ends of a second
substantially along the longitudinal axis thereof permit
frame 15—15', positioned at right angles to frame 10.
ting swinging of said duct relative to said body member
The ‘operation is easy to understand. The pilot of the
craft controls the angular position of the rear portion of
about a vertical and a transverse axis, a ?rst control means
for swinging said duct about said vertical axis and a
his craft by the lever 13 and the foot frame 15—15'. He
second control means for swinging said duct independently
directs the liquid jet as he pleases, without entailing any 10 of said ?rst control means about said transverse axis.
braking by a ?n, and can propel his craft without loss of
2. A submarine craft according to claim 1 wherein
said motor and said screw are connected to said duct
A modi?cation of this embodiment, not shown in the
and swingable therewith about said universal joint.
drawings, lies in the use of two coaxial counter-rotating
3. A submarine craft according to claim 1 wherein
screws: this modi?cation eliminates the tendency of the 15 said universal joint is de?ned by a ball and socket joint.
rear part to twist relative to the front. Thus the articula
4. A submarine craft according to claim 1 including
tion by a ball and socket joint without transmission of
laterally projecting ?ns mounted on the forward portion
forces is perfecly suitable.
of said body member and tiltable about a transverse axis
FIGS. 3 and 4 show schematically a more simple em
with the swinging of said duct about a transverse axis.
bodiment applicable to a craft of the same kind. The 20
5. A submarine craft according to claim 1 wherein
rear part of the submarine craft is ?xed relative to the
said second control means comprises foot pieces project
front part, so that the axis of the screw 3a is always the
ing laterally from said duct.
same. Only the cowling 4a now swivels about the ball
6. A submarine craft according to claim 1 wherein
joint 1a, which may consist of ball bearings and is now
said energy source is an electric battery and said motor
placed at the point of the boss 6a of the screw. The 25 is an electric motor.
position of the cowling 4a is controlled by a system of
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
rods or cables 9a and 9'a, connected to a bar (not shown)
and controlled as described above. The direction con
trol is always assured by the action of the pilot’s feet.
Desenberg et al. _______ __ June 4, 1912
The cowling 4a is connected to the joint In by three
Dunne _______________ .._ May 7, 1918
arms 16, clearly shown in FIG. 4, which also shows the
?ve blades of screw 3a. The ends of the screw and the
centre of the joint 1a are located in the same plane The
de?ection of the liquid jet is obtained simply by displac
ing the cowling 4a, located at the starting point of this 35
jet, whereby the braking effect is eliminated and advan
tages result, which are similar to those of the ?rst em
bodiment, whilst the tension of the rods or cables is
su?icient to hold the cowling on the boss.
I claim:
1. A submarine craft comprising a longitudinally ex
tending body member, an energy source housed in said
body member, a screw located at the rear of said body
Heminger ___________ __ Mar. 24,
De Laval _____________ __ June 6,
Landgraf ____________ __ Jan. 19,
Tinker ______________ __ Dec. 20,
Robinson ____________ __ June 13, 1961
Fogarty _____________ __ Dec. 26, ‘1961
Great Britain _________ __ Aug. 15,
Germany ____________ .__ Dec. 10,
France ______________ __ Dec. 29,
France _______________ __ Feb. 2,
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