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Nov. 13, 1962
3,063,422
J. H. GREGOWSKI ETAL
ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICE
Filed June 13, 1960
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INVENTORS‘
JOE L GREGOWSKI
GLENN/
A. WALTER;
.
AGE/VT
United States Patent O?ice
1
3,063,422
ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICE
Joel H. Gregowski, Mountain View, and Glenn_ A.
Walters, Atherton, Calih, assignors, by mesne assign
ments, to the United States of America as represented
by the Secretary of the Navy
Filed June 13, 196i), Ser. No. 35,853
4 Claims. (Cl. 121-38)
Ii???iiAZZ
Patented Nov. 13, 1962
2
wherein the length of ?uid connections therebetween are
negligible.
These and other objects and many of the attendant ad
vantages of the present invention will be readily appreci
ated as the same become better understood by reference to
the following detailed description when considered in
connection with the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 represents an end view of a preferred embodi
ment of an electromechanical actuator of the present in
The present invention relates to electromechanical servo 10 vention;
devices and more particularly to a magnetically inert
FIG. 2 represents a sectional view of the actuator taken
electromechanical actuator for a gimbal stabilized mag—
substantially on the line 2—2 as shown in FIG. 1 and
netometer detecting head.
further illustrates the actuator mounted on a fragmentary
Magnetic detecting systems using saturable core mag
cross-section of a gimbal;
netometers as detectors have been adapted for use by low 15
FIG. 3 represents a sectional view of the actuator taken
?ying aircraft to locate submerged submarines and other
substantially on the line 3——3 as shown in FIG. 2;
similar objects by measuring ambient magnetic anomalies
FIG. 4 represents a sectional view of the actuator taken
or irregular deviations caused by the presence of the sub
substantially on the line 4~—4 as shown in FIG. 2;
marine in the same magnetic ?eld of the earth as the de
FIG. 5 represents an enlarged, partly cut-away, view
tector. Small angular displacements of the detecting ele
of a preferred embodiment of the valve element employed
ment from this ?eld will produce signals undistinguishable
in the actuator as shown in FIGS. 1 and 4; and
from anomalous signals caused by asubmarine. To prop
FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram of the ?uid control cir
erly evaluate these anomalies, it is therefore necessary to
cuit in the actuator.
stabilize the magnetometer detecting element in a given
Referring now to the drawings, wherein like reference
direction or orientation with respect to the magnetic ?eld 25 characters designate like or corresponding parts through
of the earth. Stabilization is accomplished through ap
out the several views, there is illustrated in FIG. 1 a pre
propriate servo actuators and gimbals which maintain a
ferred embodiment of an electro-mechanical actuator as
given orientation of the detecting element irrespective of
viewed toward the shaft end thereof. Taken with the
the aircraft motions of roll, yaw, or pitch. These motions
cross-sectional elevation view shown in FIG. 2, it is seen
are often severe and rapid, hence a fundamental require 30 that the actuator comprises an end bearing plate 11 seal
ment, in addition to the necessity that the servo actuators
ingly seated at the open end of cylindrical enclosure cup
and gimbals be constructed of substantially nonmagnetic
12. A pair of inlet ori?ces 13 and 14 contained in the
materials, is that the actuators have relatively high fre
end bearing plate 11 permits the ?ow of a high pressure
quency response and position repeatability characteristics
servo ?uid therethrough. The actuator is ?xed to one end
whereby the detecting head is maintained stabilized.
35 of an outer gimbal 16 by suitable means whereby the axis
A general purpose of this invention is to provide an
of rotation of an inner gimbal, not shown, coincides with
electromechanical actuator which can be used for position
the axis of rotation of an output shaft 21 of the actuator.
ing the gimbals supporting a magnetometer detecting head
without degrading measurement of the ambient magnetic
?eld anomalies caused by a submarine. To achieve this
purpose, the present invention employs a magnetically
A high pressure ?uid supply duct 17 in the gimbal 16
communicates through suitable seals with the inlet ori?ces
13 and 14; while an outlet ori?ce 18, substantially dia
metrically opposite of the inlet ori?ces 13 and 14, com
inert electrostrictive bilaminar or Bimorph 1 ceramic strip
municates through a suitable seal with a low pressure ?uid
drain duct 19 also in the gimbal 16. The output power
actuated valve in combination with a ?uid-operated rotary
vane motor for positioning the gimbals in accordance with
shaft 21 extends into the cup 12 through the end bearing
an electrical signal applied to the strips indicative of the 45 plate 11 and terminates in a shoulder 22 having a vane
angular displacement of the detecting head from the pre
23 extending radially outward therefrom. A spacer ring
scribed orientation with respect to the magnetic ?eld of
24, best shown in FIG. 2 taken with FIG. 3, is ?xed to the
the earth. The valve and motor are arranged so that the
enclosure cup 12 adjacent to the end bearing plate 11 and
connections therebetween obtain a minimal ?uid com
includes a separating wall 24 of equal width directed
pliance.
50 radially inward and disposed between the inlet ori?ces 13
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to
and 14. The shoulder 22, ring 24 and separating wall 26
provide a magnetically inert electromechanical actuator
are urged against the end bearing plate 11 by a cover plate
for a gimbal-stabilized-magnetometer detecting head.
23 secured to end bearing plate 11 by suitable fastening
Another object of the invention is the provision of a
means. Vane 23 extends outwardly from shoulder 22
fluid motor and valve combination having high frequency 55 until it slidingly engages the inner circular wall of the
response characteristics together with discrete and precise
spacer ring 24»; and separating wall '26 extends inwardly
motor positioning for ‘all angular displacements.
until it slidingly engages shoulder 22. Two expansible
A further object is to provide an electrostrictive bi
chambers 27 and 28 are formed thereby having the inlet
laminar ceramic strip for actuating a cantilever ?apper
ori?ces 13 and 14- respectively communicating high pres
type valve element- for controlling ?uid ?ow from a 60 sure ?uid from duct 17 thereto.
nozzle.
A pair of bleed ori?ces 31 and 32 in the cover plate 29
Still another object of the invention is the provision of
are disposed substantially opposite of inlet ori?ces 13 and
a ?uid motor and valve combination which is extremely
small, compact and relatively simple to construct.
14, respectively, and maintain ?uid communication
Yet another object of the invention is to provide a 65 through the cover plate 29. Fluid ?ow from bleed ori
?ces 31 and 32 are directed toward each other by nozzles
rotary-vane ?uid motor having very close tolerances and
34 and 33, respectively, and are interposed by the free
still maintaining a minimum coe?‘icient of friction be
end
of a cantilever ?apper-type valve element indicated
tween the moving parts.
‘
generally by the numeral 36. The ?uid is drained from
A still further object of the invention is to provide an
integrally arranged valve and ?uid motor combination 70 within the space de?ned by the cup 12 and cover plate
29 through holes 37 and 38 to the outlet ori?ce 18 and
1 A trademark registered in the TLS. Patent O?ice.
then through the drain duct 19. The relative positions
3,063,422
3
of the above-described bleed ori?ces 31 and 32 and
nozzles 33 and 34 are shown in H68. 3 and 4.
The cantilever valve element 36 is supported at the
?xed end between two electrically nonconducting mount
ing plates 41 and 42 which are in turn secured to the
cover plate 29 by screws 43. An electrical supply, not
4
inches per minute. A torque of 18 ounce-inches is also
attained.
It should be understood, of course, that the foregoing
disclosure relates only to a preferred embodiment of
the invention and that numerous modi?cations and varia
tions may be made therein without departing from the
spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in the ap
pended claims.
44, 45, and 46 which pass through a suitably sealed out
What is claimed is:
let 47 in the enclosure cup 12.
1. A magnetically inert electromechanical actuator for
The structure of the valve element 36 is best shown in 10
a gimbal-stabilized magnetometer detecting head; com
more detail in FIG. 5. The valve element 36 includes
prising: a hollow cylinder closed at one end mounted
an electrically conductive center support member 49 hav
on a ?uid-conducting gimbal, a cylindrical ?uid motor
ing substantially magnetically inert, electrostrictive
housing coaxial with said cylinder closing the other end
ceramic ?at strips 51 and 52 intimately secured to both
of the ?at sides and for the entire length of the main sup 15 of said cylinder, a shaft extending out of said motor hous
ing, a vane ?xed to the inner end of said shaft rotatable
port member 49. The center support member 49 is pref
about the common axis of said cylinder and said motor
erably constructed of a resilient metallic strip which pro
housing and extending radially outward to the side of said
vides ample de?ection at the free end but which retains
motor housing, a separating wall ?xed to the side of said
sut?cient stiffness to prevent undesirable oscillation. The
strips 51 and 52 are preferably constructed of barium 20 housing and extending radially inward to the common
axis thereby forming two expansible chambers in said
titanate or another ceramic having similar or better de
motor housing, two inlet ori?ce means formed to directly
?ection versus applied voltage characteristics. Conduc
communicate a high pressure ?uid in said gimbal through
tive coatings 53 and 54, contiguous to the outer surface
the outer end of said motor housing respectively to each
of each of the strips 51 and 52, are commonly connected
by the wire 44 to the wire 45 which leads through the 25 of said chambers, two bleed ori?ce means communicat
ing through the inner end of said motor housing for con
outlet 47. Separate from the conductive coating 53 and
ducting the ?uid respectively from each of said chambers
54 and contiguous to four sides of the valve element 36
into said cylinder, two nozzle means respectively con
at the ?xed end is another conductive coating 56 elec
nected to said bleed ori?ce means for directing the ?uid
trically connected to the exposed edges of the center sup
from said bleed ori?ce means toward each other, an out
port member 49. The coating 56 is connected to the
let ori?ce means formed to directly communicate a low
wire 46 which leads through the outlet 47 like the wire 45.
pressure drain in the said gimbal through the motor hous
It is important that the strips 51 and 52 be polarized in
ing to within said cylinder; valve means for regulating the
a manner such that, when a direct current voltage of a
?ow of the ?uid from said chambers comprising: an elec
given polarity is applied across the Wires 45 and 46, the
trically conductive cantilever support means secured to
free end of the value element 36 disposed between the
the enclosed end of said motor housing, the free end of
nobbles 33 and 34 will de?ect in one direction an amount
said support means extending between said nozzle means,
proportional to the magnitude of the voltage. Reversing
two polarized electrostrictive ?at strips intimately secured
the polarity will also reverse the direction of the de?ec
respectively to the ?at sides of said support means, ?rst
tion.
conductive coatings contiguous to the outer surface of
The operation of the actuator will now be summarized
each of said strips and extending over a length inter
with reference to the schematic diagram of FIG. 6. A
mediate the ends of said strips, second conductive coat
high pressure ?uid supply is delivered to the inlet ori?ces
ings contiguous to four sides of said valve means at the
13 and 14 through the ?uid supply duct 17 in the gimbal
secured end and connected to the exposed edges of said
16 and then ?ows into the chambers 27 and 28. The
aperture size of the inlet ori?ces 13 and 14 and bleed 45 support means, and conductor means adapted to connect
a direct current electrical signal to said ?rst and second
ori?ces 31 and 32 are proportioned in a manner whereby
coatings; whereby said shaft rotates with respect to said
a null electrical input signal at wires 45 and 46 will posi
gimbal in response to a change in the signal applied to
tion the valve element 36 midway between the nozzles
said conductor means, and wherein all of said actuator is
33 and 34 and maintain equal pressures in the chambers
constructed of substantially nonmagnetic materials;
27 and 28. Hence, the vane 23 is stationary. When a
2. A magnetically inert electromechanical actuator for
direct current voltage signal of a given polarity is applied 50
a gimbal-stabilized magnetometer detecting head; com
to wires 45 and 46, the valve element 36 will de?ect closer
prising: an enclosed cylinder mounted on a ?uid-conduct
to one of the nozzles 33 and 34 and thereby change the
ing gimbal, an expansible chamber ?uid motor ?xed at
pressures in the chambers 27 and 28 and cause the vane
the end of the cylinder adjacent said gimbal, an output
23 to rotate in one direction. Reversing the polarity of
shaft on said motor, inlet means formed to directly com
the signal will cause the valve element 36 to de?ect to
municate a high pressure ?uid in said gimbal to said
ward the other of the nozzles 33 and 34 and cause vane
motor, bleed means in said motor for conducting the
23 to rotate in the other direction.
?uid respectively from said motor into said cylinder, out
In a gimbal-stabilized magnetometer detecting element
let means formed to directly communicate a low pressure
application of the actuator, the electrical signal repre~
sents the angular displacement of the detecting element 60 drain in said gimbal to within said cylinder; valve means
for regulating the ?ow of the ?uid from said motor com
from an oriented position with respect to the magnetic
prising: an electrically conductive cantilever means se~
?eld of the earth. The position of the vane 23 and the
cured to said motor adjacent to said cylinder, the free
shaft 21 attached thereto accordingly will correct the po
end of said cantilever means occluding said bleed means,
sition of the gimbals supporting the detecting element.
65 polarized strip means intimately secured to said cantilever
It is contemplated that the actuator be constructed of
means, ?rst conductor means contiguous to the outer
substantially nonmagnetic materials such as aluminum
surface of said strip means and extending over an outer
and surfaces subject to sliding contact hardened and
portion of said strip means, second conductor means
polished to very close tolerances so as to maintain a low
connected to said cantilever means, and third conductor
coefficient of friction between the sliding parts thereby 70 means adapted to connect an electrical signal to said
reducing the wear between these parts to a minimum. It
?rst and second conductor means; whereby said shaft
is further noted that an actuator, constructed according
rotates with respect to said gimbal in response to a change
to this disclosure, is capable of attaining good frequency
in the signal applied to said third conductor means, and
response up to 100 cycles per second with a supply pres
wherein all of said actuator is constructed of substan
sure of only 150 psi. and a maximum ?ow of 22 cubic 75 tially nonmagnetic materials.
shown, for exciting the element 36, is connected by wires
5
3,063,422
6
3. A magnetically inert electromechanical actuator for
a gimbal-stabilized magnetometer detecting head; com
prising: a ?uid motor mounted on a ?uid-conducting gim
bal, an output shaft in said motor, ?rst means formed
to directly communicate a ?uid in said gimbal to said
motor, second means in said motor for conducting the
?uid from said motor, third means formed to directly
means in said motor for conducting the ?uid respectively
from said motor into said cylinder, outlet means formed
to directly communicate a low pressure drain in said
member to Within the cylinder; valve means for regulat
ing the ?ow of the ?uid from said motor comprising: an
electrically conductive cantilever means secured to said
motor adjacent to said cylinder, the free end of said
return the ?uid from said second means to said gimbal;
cantilever means occluding said bleed means, polarized
cantilever-type valve means for regulating the flow of the
strip means intimately secured to said cantilever means,
?uid from said motor comprising: ?rst cantilever conduc 10 ?rst conductor means contiguous to the outer surface of
tor means secured to said motor, the free end of said ?rst
conductor means occluding said second means, polarized
means secured to said ?rst conductor means, second con
ductor means contiguous to the outer surface of said
each of said strip means and extending over an outer
portion of said strip means, second conductor means
connected to said cantilever means, and third conductor
means adapted to connect an electrical signal to said
means, third conductor means connected to said ?rst con 15 ?rst and second conductor means; whereby said output
ductor means, and fourth conductor means adapted to
shaft rotates with respect to said member in response to
connect an electrical signal to said second and third
a change in the signal applied to said third conductor
conductor means; whereby said output shaft rotates with
respect to said gimbal in response to a change in the
signal applied to said fourth conductor means, and Where 20
in said actuator is constructed of substantially nonmag
netic materials.
4. An electromechanical device; comprising: an en
closed cylinder mounted on a ?uid-conducting member,
an expansible chamber motor ?xed at the end of the 25
cylinder adjacent said member, an output shaft on said
motor, inlet means formed to directly communicate a
high pressure ?uid in said member to said motor, bleed
means.
'
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES 'PATENTS
2,443,333
Tucker ______________ __ June 15, 1948
2,447,825
2,722,614
2,863,076
2,928,409
Tippen ______________ __ Aug. 24,
Fryklund _____________ __ Nov. 1,
Koren et al. ___________ __ Dec. 2,
Johnson et al. ________ __ Mar. 15,
1948
1955
1958
1960
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