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Nov. 13, 1962
3,063,442
C. T. BROWN
SURFACE HEATER
Filed May 8, 1961
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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INVENTOR.
CHA NCEY T. BROWN
BY
Nov. 13, 1962
3,063,442
C. T. BROWN
SURFACE HEATER
Filed May 8, 1961
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
45
43
FIG
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FIG
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INVENTOR
0H UNQEYT BROWN -
Unit
Stats
1
3,063,442
SURFACE HEATER
Chauncey T. Brown, Seattle, Wash, assignor, by mesne
assignments, to Martin-Marietta Corporation, Chicago,
is
3,663,442
Patented Nov. 1a., 1%.‘:
2
A further object is to provide a heater which at a
predetermined moment will apply additional or supple
mentary heat for a designated period of time in order to
insure proper setting of the thermosetting adhesive.
., a corporation of Maryland
A further object is to provide a heater which is small,
compact and portable so that it may be easily moved
by hand from one position to another.
It is also an object of this invention to provide a heater
This invention relates to an apparatus for applying heat
which will preheat the markers before they are actually
to the surface of various materials such as wood, con
applied to the road surface.
crete, asphalt, tile and the like. More particularly this
Another object is to supply a heater which is simple in
surface heater device is useful for heating an area of
design and operation and inexpensive to manufacture and
a roadway preparatory to and for the attachment of traf
which with other advantages permits one person to oper
fic control markers and the like.
ate a number of the heaters simultaneously.
Paint is commonly employed to mark center stripes, 15
These and other features and advantages of the in
parking areas, pedestrian zones, left-turn lanes and other
vention will be understood by consideration of the follow
such dividing lines. Paint lines are relatively easy to
Filed May 8, 1961, Ser. No. 108,388
4 Claims. (Ci. 126-2712)
apply. However, its durability and re?ective properties
on road surfaces are poor.
Repeated restriping is neces
sary on all road surfaces, the frequency of such restriping
depending, of course, on traf?c volume and density. It
it not uncommon to restripe at three to six month
intervals in ‘dense tra?ic areas. Paint striping is known to
ing description and the attached drawings which exemplify
the preferred embodiment.
In the drawings:
FIGURE 1 is an elevational view of the heater show
ing generally the arrangement of the parts;
FIGURE 2 is a diagrammatic view for the purpose of
more clearly illustrating the heater control system and
“?ood out” or disappear during heavy rainfall at night,
burner heads;
which is the situation in which the need for adequate 25
FIGURE 3 is a view partially in section of the dash
delineation is greatest.
pot
and valve by which fuel is supplied for high level heat;
The art of marking road surfaces has recently turned
FIGURE
4 is a partial plan view of the heater housing
to the more durable and more easily visible form of raised,
taken along line 4——4 of FIGURE 1; and
three-dimensional type marking devices, or “buttons.”
FIGURE 5 is a di-grammatic view of a cart having a
These devices generally require special preparation of the 30 plurality
of heaters.
road surface before they can be secured in place. It is
General Structure
with the problem of preparing and securing the markers
Referring
now
to
FIGURE 1 and the general structure
in place that this invention is particularly concerned.
of the invention it may be seen that the heater, gen
Other means for marking employ adhesives to bond
continuous plastic strips or individual markers to the 35 erally designated by reference numeral 10; is preferably
cylindrical in shape being approximately seven and one
road surface. The use of such adhesives is greatly fa
half inches in diameter and about thirty inches in height.
cilitated by ?rst heating the road surface, applying the
The cylindrical heater design serves both to support the
adhesive thereto, and then placing the marking device
burners and to shield the ‘area being heated from the wind.
in position on the adhesive and allowing the adhesive to
set. If the adhesive is of the thermosetting type it is 40 Of course, the heater 10 may have other cross-sectional
shapes such as a square or rectangle to accommodate it
advantageous to be able to continue the heat application
self to the particular area being heated.
to the surrounding area to insure full thermosetting in the
The heater 10 comprises the main body or cylinder 12.
shortest possible time. Rapid setting of the adhesive is
A shallow cap or lid 9 ?ts over the upper end of the
particularly important when lane markers are being in
stalled on roads which are open to trai‘?c. Such instal 45 cylinder 12 to permit the fuel tank to be removed if
lation requires closing the lane temporarily and rapid
setting of the adhesive will minimize tra?ic delays and
congestion.
This invention is particularly useful for the application
of marking ‘devices which are bonded to the road surface
necessary. Cap 9 is held securely by a tight overlapping
relationship between the outer wall surface of the cylinder
12 and the inner surface of the skirt of the cap. The
cap is provided with an opening in its top so that valve
2%‘ and its control handle 19 may protrude therethrough.
Spaced slightly below the head or lip of cap 9 are two
with adhesives of the thermosetting type. Of course,
this device is also useful when employing thermoplastic
adhesives and for softening asphalt road surfaces for the
application of inset markers.
short coaxial, supporting shafts (not numbered) secured
to and extending outwardly from diametrically opposed
burner.
parallel portions thus permitting the bale 23 to be piv
otally received on the short supporting shafts. The bale
points on the cylinder 12. Bale 23, shaped as a square,
This surface heater comprises a source of fuel and 55 inverted U from a narrow strip of heavy gauge sheet
metal, has the free ends or tips of its legs bent or doubled
two or more burners arranged to direct their ?ames
back. Thus the doubled-back portion is parallel with the
against the road surface. One burner acts as a constant
leg itself. Holes or openings are provided through the
source of heat and additionally serves to ignite a second
The second burner acts as a booster heater to
increase the heat supply for a predetermined time. The
second burner is located sui?ciently close to ?ame from
the ?rst burner to be ignited thereby. Flame from the
second burner impinges on the same area to more rapidly
apply heat needed under certain conditions during the
application process.
Accordingly it is a primary object of this invention
to provide a heater which is specially adapted to secure
raised markers to a road surface.
23 permits the operator to move the heater about from
area to area with a minimum of di?iculty.
Cylinder 12 is partitioned near its midpoint by partition
wall 11. The wall 11 divides the interior of the cylinder
generally into an upper compartment 15 and a lower
compartment 17. A bottom partition or wall 7 closes
the lower compartment 17. A screen may be substituted
for wall 7 if it is desired to have hot gases from the
burners pass directly into compartment 17.
Another object is to provide a heater which is par
70
Cylinder 12 does not contact any surface on which the
ticularly adapted to secure to road surfaces raised mark
heater
is brought to bear, but rather is supported above
ers which are placed with thermosetting adhesive.
such surface by virtue of the cylindrically shaped base
3,063,442
3
13. Base 13 is larger in diameter than cylinder 12 and
is held in spaced, concentric relation to cylinder 12 by
.
burner 26.
"
.
‘
'
The burner 26 more speci?cally applies a
constant low level heat intensity to the surface area.
a plurality of brackets 35. It will be noted that said
brackets 35 are attached to the very lower end of cylinder
12 around its outer circumference. The brackets are also
firmly secured to the upper inner circumference of base
13. As a result cylinder 12 is supported well above the
surface being treated. Base 13 is also furnished with a
plurality of feet 37 for stabilizing purposes and so that
the lower edge or end of base 13 does not rest directly on 10
And because of its proximity‘ and relationship to burner
30, burner 26 also serves to ignite burner 30 when fuel
is released from valve 28 via conduit 31.
The level of high intensity heat is periodically applied
the surface being treated.
structure of FIGURE 3 will be described.
a
The heater 10 comprising the general structure just
described contains and supports a source of fuel, .fuel
conduits and valves, burners and other appurtenances.
Burners, Fuel Supply, Conduit and Control System
It will be seen, referring now to FIGURES l and 2,
that upper compartment -15 of the cylinder 12 accommo
through valve 28 by the use of a dash pot and lever
mechanism best seen in FIGURE 3. Other'devices may
be used to control the closing rate of valve 28 but for
purposes of illustrating this preferred embodiment the
The dash pot, generally designated by the reference
numeral 36, comprises a small cylindrical housing 42
which is slightly in excess of two inches deep and slightly
more than two inches in diameter. Size, of course, may
vary. A piston 38 is located within the dash pot and con
nected to piston rod 40. The piston 38 may be seen to
be of substantially smaller diameter than the cylinder it
self. Piston 38 is provided with a conventional piston cup
of fuel, preferably gas, connected directly to the upper 20 39 which is made of a resilient, ?exible material such as
plastic or synthetic rubber or leather. The piston cup 39
end of tank 18 is ?rst fuel control valve 20 and extend
is shaped in the nature of a shallow pan with an upwardly
ing therefrom valve control handle or knob 19. Conduit
and outwardly sloping wall having knifed edges. As can
21 passes from ?rst valve 20 over the cap 9 and down
the side of cylinder 12 to pressure reducing valve 22.
be seen the piston 38 is sectional so as to receive the ?at
Reducing valve 22 functions to reduce the variations in 25 bottom of cup 39 between the two sections. The two sec
tions of piston 38 and the cup 39 may be securely fas-.
fuel pressure on the supply side and to present a uniform
rate of fuel flow and pressure on the down stream side.
tened together by ‘any one of many known means, none of
Conduit 23 extends downwardly from the reducing valve
which is shown. The wall of cup 39 sloping upwardly and
outwardly is designed to contact the cylinder wall at the
and then branches into two distinct fuel lines. One line
or conduit 25 proceeds to an adjustable needle or second 30 upper edge of said cup wall thus closing the annular space
valve 24. Needle valve 24 serves both as a shut-off and
between the cylinder and the piston and preventing in a
?ame throttling valve for burner 26 (more fully described
conventionally known manner the air above the piston
hereinafter). Conduit 29 extends downwardly from valve
from escaping around the piston.
24 along the lower length of cylinder 12, into the space
Piston rod 40 depends from piston 38 and through a
between said cylinder and base 13 and then turns under
suitably placed opening in the bottom end wall extends
the bottom end of said cylinder and connects to ?rst
outside the cylindrical housing 42. 1A coil spring 41 is
burner 26. First burner 26 is a conventional burner head
placed around the rod 40 between the piston and the
provided with a single circular row of ports.
lower end wall to urge the piston upwardly. A small ori
The second conduit 27 branching from line 23 leads to
?ce 47 is provided in the bottom end wall to permit air
to enter between the bottom of piston 38 and the lower
third fuel control valve 28. Third valve 28 is of the
quick opening type and is normally closed by a biasing
end ‘wall of cylindrical housing 42. The upper end wall
spring 33 (shown in FIGURE 3) which for purposes
of housing 42 is provided with a needle valve assembly,
of illustration is shown to be mounted internally of the
to regulate air flow from the space above piston 38. This
valve. The spring may be located externally of the valve,
valve is comprised of a small cylindrical enclosure 44 ris
however. The spring 33 biases the valve head and its 45 ing above the center of the upper end wall of housing 42.
stem upwardly to a shut position. It will be understood
The upper end wall itself is provided with a small ori
that to open the valve 28 it is necessary to depress the
?ce 43 leading to the inside of enclosure 44. A needle 55
stem 32 which protrudes upwardly out of and a slight
is threaded into the top of enclosure 44 and depends there~
distance from said valve against the force of spring 33.
from to extend into the ori?ce 43. An air escape port 45
Thus the head moves away from the seat within said
is provided in the side wall of valve enclosure 44 to permit
valve. On the intake side of the housing of valve 28 is
air from the space above piston 38 to escape to the at
a vertical, or upstanding, bracket or hinge 53 with a
mosphere. The amount of air permitted to escape obvi
hole therein, the purpose of which will be more fully
ously depends on the adjustment of needle 55.
The lower end of piston rod 40 which protrudes ‘from
described, infra.
V
Conduit 31 connects the exit side of valve 28 with sec
the dash pot 36 has lever 34 connected thereto. The
ond ‘burner 30. It will be seen that second burner 30
lower end of the rod 40 has attached thereto a prong or
is not annular in’ shape as is ?rst burner 26 but is designed
fork or yoke 49 to pivotally receive lever 34. A suitable
to project a more concentrated ?ame. Both burners are
connection is made with yoke 49 so that lever 34 will pivot
directed to surface area lying directly beneath burner 26.
about a point approximately at its midpoint. nOne end of
At this junctureit is deemed advisable to discuss more 60 lever 34 is designed so that it may be pushed downwardly
fully the purpose of the dual burner aspect of this inven
‘by ?nger pressure. The other end of lever 34 has de
tion which purpose was mentioned only brie?y at the be
pending therefrom a short vertical bracket 51 which is
ginning of this speci?cation. Burner 26 acts to maintain
provided with a hole. Thus a hinge or pivot connection
lower compartment 17 at a relatively warm temperature.
is made between bracket 53 on valve 28 and bracket 51
Its primary function, however, is to apply heat to the 65 by aligning the holes and inserting therein a pin or nut
surface area directly beneath and Within the con?nes of
and bolt.
the base 13. The second burner has as its function to
The dash pot 36 and lever 34 are so located that the
apply a high and intense level of heat to the same area
upper end of valve stem 32 of valve 28 contacts the under
for a predetermined period of time measured usually in
side of lever 34 between pivot connections 51-—53 and
fractions of a minute. The time period is variable ac 70 49. ‘Downward pressure on the vfree end of lever 34 de
cording to valve adjustments. The second burner 30
presses valve stem 32 to open valve 28. It may be seen
can be seen to extend from conduit 31 in the form of
that the springs 33 and 41 augment each other in forcing
the piston upward.
a small diameter cylindrical shield. Burner 30 extends
It may now be understood how the valve 28 may be
at an angle into the space between cylinder 12 and base
13 and is directed at the same general area alfected by 75 opened and permitted to supply fuel to burner 30 for a
dates a metal bottle or tank 18 which contains a supply
5
3,063,442
6
predetermined period of time. The needle 55 of valve
enclosure 44 is adjusted to permit air to escape through
valve 28. When gas is admitted to burner 30 through
valve 28 it is ignited by ?ame from burner 26 and the
high level heat intensity is applied as desired, the time,
again, being selected by adjustment of needle 55 in valve
port 45 at a predetermined rate. When lever 34 is pushed
down stem 32 and its head or "alve 28 are depressed to
fully open valve 28. At the same time piston 38 is car
ried to the lower end of dash pot 36. Vacuum in the up
per chamber (above the piston) as the piston descends
draws air past the cup 39 to form an air cushion above the
piston. Pressure from springs 33 in valve 28 and 41 on
enclosure 44.
The heaters may be operated with various types of
fuel, it being only necessary to use suitable burner heads.
Portable heaters preferably employ compressed, liqui?ed
propane or butane.
However, kerosene, diesel oil or gas
rod 40 urge the piston upwardly against the air cushion. 10 oline are also acceptable, suitable, and equally useful.
The air cushion will hold the valve open if the needle 55
Liquid fuels can be supplied to the burners by gravity feed.
in valve enclosure 44 is completely closed in ori?ce 43.
However, it is preferred to use pressurized fuel to obtain
As mentioned above, by controlling the escape of air
clean, hot ?ames.
through port 45 the rate of closing of valve 28 may be
To install adhesive bonded markers on a road surface
regulated.
15 using the thermosetting adhesives, the heater is operated
Several modi?cations of the burner arrangement are
as described above.
The length of time second burner
contemplated within the spirit and scope of this invention.
30 is operated will-‘depend on the amount of heat desired
The burner 30 might be concentn'c with burner 26 either
on the road surface. Generally higher temperatures are
internally or externally of the diameter of said burner 26.
desired on concrete roadways than on asphalt surfaces.
On the other hand it is equally possible to eliminate one 20 When second burner 38 shuts off the heater is moved-to
burner altogether and utilize a single burner to perform
the side. An adhesive is applied to the hot portion of
both functions.
the road surface, a marker placed in position and the
Such modi?cation could be easily accomplished by
heater then replaced over the marker. The heat level
eliminating burner 30 and substituting dash pot 36, lever
supplied by the continuously operating ?rst burner 26
34 and valve 28 for valve 24. In such a case it would be 25 will prevent the adhesive from cooling before it is ther
necessary to keep valve 28 open to a slight degree to per
mit the burner 26 to provide a constant low level heat
moset and will thus insure a rapid and thoroughly cured
intensity. Maintaining valve 28 open slightly could be
after the marker has been placed.
When the heater is used to install marking devices
with a thermoplastic adhesive, it is used to preheat the
bond.
accomplished by mounting or threading a stop nut 57 on
the lower portion 56 of piston rod 40 as indicated in FIG
URE 3. Thus the high level heat intensity could be sup
Normally high level heat intensity is not applied
surface in the manner described above so that the ad
hesive will liquify and thoroughly wet both surfaces to be
plied in the manner described for a twoaburner heater but
nut 57 would hold valve 28 open enough to permit low
joined. The adhesive is applied after preheat and the
marker set in place. As the road surface and the ad
level heat application. An alternative method to stop
nut 57 would be a set screw inserted through the top of 35 hesive cool a ?rm bond will be achieved. The utility of
the heater in this application resides in its ability to rapid
dash pot 36 to stop piston 38 at a certain point short of
full ascent.
ly heat the road surface and maintain the surface in a
hot condition until the operator can apply the adhesive and
FIGURE 4 shows the use to which lower compartment
marker thereto.
17 of cylinder 12 is put. By reference to both FIGURES
When the heater is used to install inset markers in
1 and 4 it will be appreciated that the wall of cylinder 12 40
asphalt roadways, it is operated in the manner described
has a large opening provided therein and a door 8 with
above. However, the second burner may be operated for
appropriate hinges and latch secured thereto to cover the
a considerably longer period of time to supply the more
opening. Since the road markers are usually round, a dis
intense heat needed to permit actual removal of the as
pensing cylinder 6 is welded vertically to the door as at 5.
A stock of markers may be dropped into the cylinder 45 phalt-gravel mixture. The flame level of the ?rst burner
may be increased by opening the ?rst fuel control valve
when the door is swung open. The stock of markers is
more and thus supply a higher level of constant heat until
retained in dispensing cylinder 6 by an interior semi
the operator can remove the section of roadway.
circular ledge or lip 4 at the bottom of said cylinder.
The heater is very useful for installing markers during
When the door is closed the markers are warmed in the
preheating chamber 17 and maintained in such condition 50 inclement weather. Full heat readily dries wet surfaces
and maintenance heat keeps the surface dry until the ad
until needed. It is obvious that the dispensing cylinder
hesive and the marker are in place.
6 may be of any shape desired and may be made detach
While a preferred form of the invention has been
able and thus interchangeable with other dispensing cyl
shown and described, the same is not strictly limited
inders. Dotted lines in FIGURE 4 illustrate the door
and ‘dispensing cylinder structure when said door is open. 55 thereby, since certain changes in the exact shape, form
and arrangement of the various parts may be resorted to
The preheating chamber 17 may be utilized to melt the
without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention
adhesive by placing a container of adhesive therein. By
as de?ned in the appended claims.
suitable construction said chamber can preheat the ad
What is claimed is:
hesive and the markers simultaneously.
1. A surface heater, comprising:
FIGURE 5 illustrates diagrammatically how a plurality
(a) an upstanding cylindrical body including a base,
said base held in spaced, concentric, external rela-.
of the burners 10 may be operated simultaneously. A
cart having a low suspended bed 14 and wheels 16 carries
tionship to said body;
several burners. The bed 14 would be designed to be
lowered when the cart is rolled into position'and raised
when the cart is to be moved.
65
Operation
The burner will be described as employing gas for the
(b) a ?rst burner head mounted in said base and ar
ranged to ?ame continuously downwardly toward a
surface on which said base rests;
(c) a second burner head mounted in said base in
purposes of illustrating its operation. First fuel valve 20
spaced relation to said ?rst burner and directed to
ward the surface area impinged upon by said ?rst
is turned on to initiate fuel ?ow from tank 18. The fuel 70
passes to reducing valve 22 and thence to the branch con
burner, said second burner being adapted to be ignit
ed by said ?rst burner;
duits leading to the second valve 24 and third valve 28.
Valve 24 is adjusted to permit the desired fuel flow to
burner 26 which is then ignited. Flow through third
valve 28 is not allowed until lever 34 is depressed to open 75
(d) a source of fuel in said body;
(e) fuel conduit means connecting said source of fuel
to said ?rst and second burner heads;
(1‘) valve means in said vfuel conduit means for con—
3,063,442
'7
trolling the ?ow of fuel to said second burner head;
and
(g) an adjustable control means for opening said valve
means to permit fuel ?ow to said second burner head
and for closing said valve means at a predetermined
rate of closure.
2. A surface heater, comprising:
(a) an upstanding cylindrical body including a base,
said base held in spaced, concentric, external rela
tionship to said body;
10
(b) a ?rst burner head mounted in said base and ar
ranged to ?ame continuously downwardly toward a
surface on which said base rests;
(c) a second burner head mounted in said base in
spaced relation to said ?rst burner and directed to 15
ward the surface area impinged upon by said ?rst
burner, said second burner being adapted to be ignit
ed by said ?rst burner;
(d) a source of fuel in said body;
(e) fuel conduit means connecting said source of fuel 20
to said ?rst and second burner heads;
(1‘) valve means in said fuel conduit means for con
trolling the ?ow of fuel to‘ said second burner head,
said valve means being normally biased to a closed
position.
(g) means to manually open said second valve means;
and
(It) adjustable control means connected to and adapted
to gradually close said valve means at a predeter
mined rate of closure.
30
3. A surface heater, comprising:
(a) an upstanding cylindrical body including a base,
said base held in spaced, concentric, external rela
between said ?rst burner'headeand said fuel supply
means;
-
(f) a second fuel control valve in said conduit means
connecting said fuel supply means and said second
burner
head;
7
~
'
>
.
(g) means to manually open said second fuel control
valve; and
()2) variable biasing means adapted to close said sec
ond fuel control valve at a predetermined rate of
closure.
4. A surface heater, comprising:
(a) an upstanding cylindrical body including a base,
said base held in spaced, concentric, external rela
tionship to said body;
(b) ?rst and second burner heads, said base maintain
ing said burner heads spaced from the surface to be
heated, each of said burner heads positioned to direct
?ames downwardly to impinge essentially the same
area of surface, said second burner head positioned
to be ignitable by the flame from said ?rst burner
head;
(0) a fuel supply means in said body;
(d) conduit means connecting said fuel supply means
and said ?rst and second burner heads;
(e) a ?rst fuel control valve in said conduit means
between said ?rst burner head and said fuel supply
means;
(1‘) a second fuel control valve in said conduit means
between said fuel supply means and said second
burner head; said second valve means being normally
biased to a closed position;
(g) means to manually open said second valve means;
and
(h) adjustable control means connected to and adapted
tionship to said body;
to gradually close said second valve means at a pre
(b) ?rst and second burner heads, said base maintain 35
determined rate of closure.
ing said burner heads spaced from the surface to be
heated, each of said burner heads positioned to direct
References Cited in the ?le-of this patent
?ames downwardly to impinge essentially the same
area of surface, said second burner head positioned to
UNITED STATES PATENTS
be ignitable by the ‘flame from said ?rst burner head; 40
1,150,383
Phelps _______________ __ Aug. 17, 1915
(c) a fuel supply means in said body;
1,970,237
Kramer ______________ __ Aug. 14, 1934
(d) conduit means connecting said fuel supply means
2,754,896
Gerstmayr ____________ __ July 17, 1956
with said ?rst and second burner heads;
(e) a ?rst fuel control valve in said conduit means
2,833,272
Kennepohl ____________ __ May 6, 1958
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