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Патент USA US3063698

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NOV. 13, 1962
H, 5 FORDYCE ErAL
3,063,688
SUSPENSION STRUCTURE FOR COOLING TOWER FILL ASSEMBLY
Filed June 2, 1958
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
Z ' ArmingI
Nov. 13, 1962
H. E. FQRDYCEO Em
3,063,688
SUSPENSION STRUCTURE FOR COOLING TOWER FILL ASSEMBLY
Filed June 2, 1958
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
336
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INVENTORS
Homer 5, FEM ce
A TTORN K
Nov. 13, 1962
|-|_ E, FoRDYcE |-_—|-A|_
3,063,688
SUSPENSION STRUCTURE FOR COOLING TOWER FILL ASSEMBLY
Filed June 2, 1958
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
I‘
INVENTORS
//07/76’ éI/brd
00'
A? Eager
BY ?agala’
United States Patent 0
""
‘
Ce
1
3,063,688
SUSPEN?HQN STRUCTURE FOR CGQLENG TEBWER
ASdEMELY
Homer E. Fordyce, Gashiand, and Donald R. Baker,
Blue Springs, Mo” assiguors to The Marley Company,
Kansas titty, Mm, a corporation of Delaware
Filed June 2, E58, Ser. No, 739,961
6 (Jlainis. (Cl. 261-—1(l8)
3,053,688
Patented Nov. 13, 1962
2
taining and adjusting the, degree of tautness of the sus
pension structures after the same have been mounted in.
operable positions on the tower; to the provision of fo
raminous supporting structures for splash slats, the char
acter whereof precludes any loss in efliciency due to col
lecting or channeling of the water upon verticalparts;
to the provision of suspension structure for cooling tower
?ll assemblies which requires no fastening means for the
individual slats; and to the provision of an, assembly
This invention relates generally to the ?eld of cooling 10 wherein the splash slats may be easily adjusted as to posi
tion and slide to and from the operative relationship to
towers of the character wherein streams of water are
broken into large numbers of globules and caused to
each other.
pass downwardly through a ?lling of splash slats as cur
Other objects and salient features of the instant in
rents of
are directed through the tower and into con
vention will appear as the following speci?cation pro
tact with the wetted splash slats and water globules.
More particularly, this invention is concerned with the
gresses, particularly when referring to the accompanying
drawings, wherein:
provision of novel, normally horizontally spaced sus
pension structures adaptcd for mounting the splash sets
FIGURE 1 is a fragmentary, vertical, cross-sectional
view through a cooling tower having suspension structure
forming a part of the present invention incorporated
therein and supporting a plurality of horizontal splash
within the tower in predetermined locations so that maxi
mum cooling of the water is obtained and with a mini
mum of supporting structure for the slats being necessary.
it is the primary object of this invention to provide sus—
pension structure for cooling tower ?ll assemblies which
comprises a plurality of horizontally spaced sections
adapted to span the distance between and be secured
to vertically spaced, horizontal frames forming a part
of the tower and which sections each include a relatively
rigid, preformed network of upright elements integrally
interconnected by cross-member means to thereby present.
a series of polygonal openings, each adapted to receive a
corresponding end of one of the splash slats to the end
that the slats are maintained in predetermined spatial re
lationship without the necessity of providing expensive,v
intricate supporting members for such slats as has been
heretofore necessary.
A further important aim or" the instant invention is to
rovide suspension structure for cooling ‘tower ?ll as
semblies which preferably are constructed of molded,
polymerized material having glass ?ber strands embedded
slats;
PEG. 2 is a fragmentary, end elevational view of the
structure shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged, fragmentary, condensed view
illustrating one of the foraminous suspension structures
for splash slats fforming a part of the ?ll assembly;
FIG. 4 is an enlarged, cross-sectional view through one
of the elements forming a part of the suspension struc
ture;
FiG. 5-is an'enlarged, condensed, elevationalview
showing a modi?ed form of foraminous slat suspension
structure;
PEG. 6 is a view similar to FIG. 3 showing another
form of foraminous slat~supporting suspension structure;
FIG. 7 is an enlarged, cross-sectional view taken on
the line 7—7 of FIG. 6;
F18. 8 is a view similar to FIGS. 3 and 6 showing a
further modi?cation of tire present suspension structure;
FIG. 9 is a cross-sectional view taken on the line
therein, whereby the structure ‘may be produced and 40 9-9 of FIG. 8;
PEG. 10 is a view similar to FIGS. 3, 6, and 8 illus
mounted in place on the tower at a minimum cost, the
suspension structure is not subject to deterioration at~
tributable to the moist conditions encountered in the
tower, and the support structure has a very high strength
trating a still further embodiment of the present sus
pension structure;
FIG. 11 is a cross-sectional view taken on the line
to-weight ratio, permitting the same to be relatively
11-11 of FIG. 10';
lightweight yet capable of supporting a large number of
FIG. 12 is a fragmentary, end elevational view of a
cooling tower illustrating a further embodiment of the
slats completely saturated with water.
instant inventionand detailingsthe relative positions of
Also an important object of this invention is to provide
?ll assembly suspension structure as referred to which,
the various suspension structures;
FiG. 13 is a fragmentary, vertical, cross-sectional view
in one form of the invention, comprises a plurality of 50
taken substantially on the line lip-33 of RE. 12 and
horizontally spaced grids each having a series of parallel,
longitudinally incined, rectilinear elements crossed by
looking in the direction of the arrows;
FIG. 14 is an enlarged, fragmentary view of a segment
and interconnected ‘ ith a plurality of rectilinear crossbars
disposed horizontally when the section is mounted in an
of the grid section shown in elevation in PEG. 13 with
operable position, whereby the splash slats supported by 55 ‘the splash slats illustrated in vertical section; and
FIG. 15 is an enlarged, fragmentary, cross-sectional
the grid are maintained in predetermined, staggered re
view through one of the joints formed by an upright ele
lationship.
ment and a crossbar of the grid sections vshown in FIG. 13.
Other important obiects of the 'nstant in 'ention relate
The ?ll assembly illustrated in the, drawings and
to the provision 0F :1 grid susi c . on section as defined
above, provided with cross-rods presenting loops at the 60 mounted within a cooling tower is particularly adapted
for use in cooling water gravitating through the till by
uppermost end thereof adapting the same to be quickly
virtue of arti?cially produced currents of air traversing
secured to a suitable supporting frame; to the provision
the ?ll assembly either in intersecting relationship to the
of a complete ?ll assembly utilizing the grid suspension
path of travel of the water or in counterflow relation
structures heretofore described and which grids are inter
locked by virtue of overlapping of proximal ends thereof, 65 ship thereto.
whereby the horizontal supports for the same pass
through aligned openings in the sections to prevent rela
tive vertical movement of the same; to the provision of a
splash decl; assembly
cooling towers wherein may be
obtained any desired spacing of the splash slats without
alteration of the supporting structure or framework of
the tower; to the provision of novel means for main
In accordance with the principles of FIGS. 1 to 4- of
the instant invention there is provided a plurality of ,iden‘
tical, foraminolus suspension structures iii, each of which
includes a pair of longitudinal, normally upright, parallel
elements 12 and 14 interconnected to present elongatel
loops, as best seen in FIG. 1 of the drawing. The ends
ofrelements 12 and Marc interconnected by cross-rods
s,cea,ess
4
3
to facilitate mounting, and elements 12 and 14 are fur
structures 10 are rendered long-lasting
ther interconnected throughout the length thereof by a
number of integral loops 17 forming a pair of cross
sistance to deterioration by the water that constantly ?ows
thereover, and the units have a relatively high strength~
to-weight ratio. However, in FIG. 5, there is illustrated
bars 16. The crossbars 16 may be formed in any de
sired manner, but in one form of the invention the ele
ments 12 and 14 are looped so as to form the bars 16 in
tegrally therewith.
Suitable frames for supporting the suspension structures
10 are shown in FIGS. 1 to 3 inclusive and include upper
most and lowermost frames 18 and 2% respectively, that
are in turn interconnected by uprights 22. Frame l3
‘seams of re
an alternate form of structure 119 in the nature of an
elongated loop having the ends thereof interconnected by
cross-rods and including a pair of parallel elements 112
and 114.
Elements 112 and 114 are interconnected by a plural
ity of crossbars 116 to form slat-receiving loops 117 and,
since structures 11%} are formed of material similar to
includes a plurality of horizontal frame members 24 and
structures 19, it can be recognized that crossbars 116 are
the frame 20 includes a number of horizontal frame mem
integral with elements 112 and 114, such joint being in
bers 26 extending oppositely to frame members 24.
dicated at 118. The suspension structures 11$ may also
A
plurality of laterally extending, horizontal pins 28 re 15 be formed of suitable, substantially non-corrodible metal
if desired and of suf?cient dimensions to provide support
ceive the lowermost ends of the foraminous structures 1d
and the opposite ends of structures ill may be secured
to frame members 24 by eyebolts 34) having nuts 32
overlying frame members 24 and serving to tighten struc
for the slats, even when the same are saturated with
water.
In the form of the invention illustrated by FIG. 5 of
tures 1t} longitudinally thereof and hold the same in a 20 the drawings, it is to be preferred that the material from
which structure 11% is constructed, if the same be metal,
taut condition.
be solid or suitably plated with a metallic coating such
Structures iii are disposed to present a plurality of
as stainless steel that is resistant to corrosion, and in this
parallel sections 34, each of which includes a number of
parallel, aligned structures 16 as shown in HG. 2, and the
pins 28 may be disposed relative to the take-up means
39—32 so as to incline structures 18 on their longi
tudinal axes. When the structures it} are so inclined,
all of the crossbars 16 are disposed horizontally and,
therefore, adapted to receive elongated splash slats 36
arranged in vertically staggered relationship as seen in
FIG. 1 of the drawing. Such arrangement of slats 36
presents a number of horizontal splash decks which may
be of equal area and which are broadly designated by the
respect, cadmium, copper, zinc or the like have been
found to be satisfactory. It is to be further noted in FIG.
5 of the drawing that the crossbars 116 may be disposed
obliquely relative to elements 112 and 114 so that the
same are disposed horizontally when structures 11% are
mounted in place on an incline in the same manner as
illustrated by PEG. 1 of the drawing.
=It is seen from the foregoing that through use of a ten
sion type suspended ?ll of the nature hereinabove set
forth, the entire assembly may be quickly and easily set
up by simply looping the structures 10 and 110, as the
numeral .38.
In the form of the invention shown by FIGS. 1 to 4 35 case may be, over pins 23 and drawing the same tight
through use of the take-up means 3tl—32. Thereupon,
inclusive, the structures it} are made from a suitable core
the respective ends of slats 36 may be placed in corre
40, such as a ?exible cord made from fabric, hemp or
sponding loops of structures ltl or 116 and positioned
strands of glass ?bers, having a coating 42 or being com
relative to each other in any desired manner.
pletely impregnated with a polymerized material such as
Furthermore, as becomes necessary from time to time,
a polyester resin. It is to be further understood that, if
the slats 36 may be replaced without the necessity of re
desired, the outer coating 42 may have suitable reinforc
moving any fastening means whatsoever since slats 36 are
ing material in the same in the nature of relatively short
simply supported by crossbars 16 or 116 and rest loosely
lengths of glass ?bers. ‘When structures 10 are formed as
thereon.
illustrated in FlG. 3 of the drawing, the elements 12 and‘
Loops of suspension structure 210 illustrated in FIG. 6
14 will remain substantially parallel and the crossbars
of the drawings may be made from a solid, moisture re
16 will be disposed in horizontal planes, while structures
10 are held taut by the supporting means 28 and 3%.
As is clear in PEG. 3, crossbars 16 are spaced so as
to receive splash slats 36 in supporting relationship there
to when corresponding ends of the latter are inserted into
respective loops 17. This manner of supporting splash
decks 38 permits disposition of slats 36 in any desired
manner, but as above indicated, it is preferred that each
slat 36 be offset vertically relative to the slat thereabove
and therebelow and also, be olfset relative to the slats
of the next adjacent sections 34-.
When the ?ll assembly is placed in use in a water cool
ing tower there is mainfestly included means for directing
hot water to be cooled over decks 38 and this may either
sistant metal as depicted in FIG. 7 or as above explained
with respect to structure 11%. In lieu of providing a pair
of crossbars, one above and below each slat respectively,
elements 212 and 214 are joined by a single crossbar 216
for each slat 236 respectively in the same manner as in
FIG. 5.
The slat supporting structure shown in FIGS. 8 and 9
is broadly designated by the numeral 310 and may be
practically produced by molding from polymerizable ma
H terial such as a polyester resin and preferably reinforced
with strands of glass ?bers. Structure 316 consists of a
single upright element 312 having a series of cross-mem
ber means 317 de?ned at the upper and lower margins
thereof by integral crossbars 316. It can be ascertained
take the form of overlying spray nozzles, perforated 60 that cross-member means or loops 317 are of suitable
basins, or other conventional arrangements. Similarly,
there is provided and not herein shown, a water collection
sump between the lowermost deck 38 for collecting cool
dimensions to receive a corresponding end of one of the
fan units or other equivalent means.
loops 317.
slats 336, with the lower major face of each slat 336 rest
ing ?atly on the lower cross-member 317.
water after the same has gravitated through the ?ll as
Loops 317 are held against tipping in order to main
sembly and been subjected to the cooling action of cur 65 tain the slats 336 transversely horizontal by substantially
rents of air directed horizontally through the ?ll from
central disposition of element 312 relative to respective
The means for
distributing the water onto the decks 38, for collecting
such water at the lower end of the tower, as well as
means for inducing the currents of air through the
tower, form no part of the instant invention and there
fore have not been illustrated.
By use of a suitable plastic such as a polyester resin for
Structure 316 is held taut between a pair of spaced sup
ports 318 and 320 consisting of a pin 328 on the latter
receiving an eye 329 integral with rod 312. Another
mounting means shown in PEG. 8 comprises the disposi
tion of the uppermost slat 336 upon support 318 and the
use of fasteners 336, if desired, attaching such slat to sup
coatings 42 which are impregnated with suitable rein
port 313 to hold the structure 310 against vertical shifting
forcing means in the nature of glass ?ber strands, 75 relative to support 318.
3,063,688
5
The modi?ed form of the present invention shown in
6
section 526 overlapping an adjacent lower end of the
FIGS. 10 and 11 may be essentially the same as that
section 524 thereabove so that supports ‘534- are received
depicted by FIGS. 8 and 9. The cross-member means
or loops 417 in FIGS. 10 and 11, however, are intercon
nected by a single, substantially upright element 410 that
within the openings in sections 526 de?ned by correspond
ing elements 528, crossbars 530 and cross-members 532,
as well as in those openings of sections 524 presented by
elements 528 and crossbars 530' and in alignment with
ing Fig. 10, it can be seen that each rod length 412 joins
supports 534. This interlocking arrangement is most
one lowermost corner of each loop 417 with an opposed,
clearly illustrated in FIG. 12. and if desired, suitable, sub
uppermost corner of the next loop therebelow. Such
stantially J-shaped hook means 540 may be attached to
construction provides a strong, yet inexpensive, way of 10 respective frame members 520 and 522 and engaging
holding the loops 417 against tipping and maintaining
proximal sections 524 and 526 for precluding relative
slats 436 transversely horizontal.
horizontal movement of the same.
In the preferred form of the invention illustrated in
Although the relative angularity of elements 528 of
consists of short, diagonally disposed lengths 412. View
FIGS. 12 to 15 inclusive, there is provided a ?ll assem
bly broadly designated by the numeral 510 supported by
framework generally numerated 512 and including upper
and lower, vertically spaced frames 514 and 516 respec
the splash slats 536 to only partially overlap the splash
tively, that are in turn interconnected by a plurality of up
rights 518. Frame 514 includes a plurality of horizontal
frame members 520 and by the same token, frame 516
has a number of horizontal frame members 522 vertically
Sections ‘524 and 526 are preferably molded of polym
erizable material under relatively high pressures to there
by present a relatively rigid, unitary structure without
spaced from members 520.
seams and which is thereby resistant to corrosion and
Suspension structure for supporting a plurality of nor
11,
each of the sections 524 and ‘526 with respect to cross
bars 530 thereof may be varied, it is particularly contem
plated that the inclination be such as to cause each of
slat 536 thereabove as well as the slat therebefore.
deterioration because of the wet conditions prevalent in
mally horizontal, transversely rectangular splash slats 536
the cooling tower. In order to increase the strength-to
within the cooling tower and presenting a ?ll assembly in 25 weight ratio of sections 524 and 526, elements 528 and
cludes a plurality of horizontally spaced sections 524, as
crossbars 530 are reinforced with strands of glass ?bers
well as such additional sections 526 spaced below each of
embedded within the polymerized material. In particular,
the sections 524 for providing support for the necessary
it has been determined that by utilization of two groups
number of splash slats 536 to produce the desired degree
542 and 544 of strands in each of the elements 528, as
of cooling. Each of the sections 524 and 526 consists of > well as two groups ‘546 and 543 of strands in crossbars
a relatively rigid, preformed network of upright, parallel,
530, maximum strength characteristics are imparted to
longitudinally inclined, substantially rectilinear, con
sections 524 and 526 with a minimum of materials being
tinuous elements 528 crossed by and interconnected with
necessary. As clearly indicated in FIG. 15‘, groups 542
a plurality of substantially rectilinear, parallel, continuous
and ‘544 are intermeshed with groups 546 and 548 and all
cross-bars 530, the latter being disposed at an angle with
of such groups are substantially impregnated and em
respect to elements 528 such that when sections 524 and
bedded
within a polymerized material 551}v which may be
526 are mounted in operable positions within the cooling
any suitable synthetic resin having a relatively high soften
tower, crossbars 530 are disposed in substantially hori
ing point and which in the most suitable application is a
zontal positions. As most clearly shown in FIG. 13, ele
conventional polyester resin. It is to be noted that the sec
ments 528 and crossbars 530 de?ne a plurality of uni
formly spaced, parallelogram con?gured openings, cer
tain of which are adapted to receive corresponding ends
of respective splash slats 536. The number of upright
elements 528 and crossbars 539 in each grid-like section
524 and 526 will depend upon the number of slats 536
necessary in the particular ?ll assembly, but it is to be
noted that in the preferred construction, pairs of the ele
ments 528 are disposed in proximal relationship substan
tially equal to the transverse width of one of the splash
slats 536 whereby the lower major faces of each of the
slats 536 rest ?atly on a corresponding lower crossbar
539 de?ning a slat-receiving opening, but horizontal
movement of such slats 536 is restricted by upright ele
ments 528 disposed on each opposed edge thereof.
In order to provide means for securing each of the sec
tions 524 and 526 to respective frames 514- or 516, a cross
rod or member 532 interconnects the uppermost extremi
ties of those elements ‘518 normally receiving a row of
slats 536 therebetween. Any suitable securing means may
be utilized to suspend sections 524- or 526 from corre
sponding frames 514 or 516, but in this respect it has
been determined that the most satisfactory arrangement
is provision of a plurality of horizontal, spaced supports
534 carried by opposed frame members 520 and 522 of
frames 514- and 516 respectively. As clearly shown in
FIG. 13, there is provided a support 534 for each of the
openings in sections 524 and 525 de?ned by correspond
ing elements 528, crossbars 536* and cross-members 532.
In this way, complete support for sections 524 and 526 is
afforded with relatively inexpensive components and
equal distribution of stresses on sections 524- and 526- is
assured.
Another important feature of the present suspension
structure is the interlocking of proximal sections 524‘ and
tions 524 and 526 are formed in a suitable mold under
high pressures and at a curing temperature of approxi
mately 220° F‘.
In order to provide maximum strength in those loops
of sections 524 and 526 suspending the same from respec
tive frames ‘514 and 516, it is to be pointed out that the
strands of glass ?bers should extend substantially uninter
ruptedly through cross-members 532 and the upper ex
tremities of elements 523 which such cross-members 532
interconnect.
‘In this manner, seams at the corners of
support 534 receiving loops of sections 524 and 526‘ are
eliminated and separation of cross-members 532 from
elements 528 is substantially precluded.
'It is now apparent that through utilization of suspen
sion structure for cooling tower ?ll assemblies as de—
scribed herein, the splash slats of such assemblies may be
placed in position in the tower in a minimum of time and
with little if any maintenance being necessary during the
useful life of the cooling equipment. Furthermore, be
cause of the novel means for securing the sections 524 and
60 525 to respective frames 514 and ‘516, the splash slats
536 are maintained in proper staggered, spaced relation
ship despite the relatively heavy weight of the same as they
become saturated with ‘water, and maximum cooling effi
ciency is obtained at a minimum of cost.
This application is a continuation-in-part of our ap
plication Serial No. 410,826, ?led February 17, 1954
and entitled, “Tension Type Suspended Fill For Cooling
Towers,” now abandoned.
Having thus described the invention what is claimed as
new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is:
1. A splash deck assembly for water cooling towers com
prising a plurality of vertically spaced, horizontal frames;
a plurality of horizontally spaced, vertical, parallel sections
52s which is effected by virtue of the upper end of each 75 spanning the distance between each pair of proximal, verti
3,963,688
8
cally spaced frames, each section including a relatively
rigid, preformed grid of corrosion resistant synthetic resin
ments being inclined with respect to the vertical in one
material and provided with a series of elongated, upright,
parallel, continuous elements disposed at an angle with re
spect to the vertical and crossed by and interconnected with
to be positioned in vertically offset relationship in said
direction and at a suliicie‘n't angle only to cause the slats
upright rows thereof and with one longitudinally extend
ing, horizontal edge of each slat overlying a centrally dis
posed, longitudinally extending zone of the upper surface
a plurality of elongated crossbars disposed horizontally
of the slat therenext below.
3. Suspension structure as set forth in claim 2 wherein
the distance between the elements of each of said pairs
thereof in said sections is approximately equal to the ef
fective Width of the slats received there-between to there
when the section is secured to said frames, said elements
and crossbars of each of the sections de?ning a plurality
of uniformly spaced, parallelogram con?gured, slat-receiv
ing openings of sutiicient size to permit the lower major
faces of the slats to lie ?atly on the normally lower cross
by preclude movement of the slats in respective horizontal
bar de?ning a respective opening, and crossrods connect
ing the upper extremities of individual, spaced pairs of
elements; and means carried by the frames adjacent the
upper end of each of the frames for suspending the sec
tions from respective frames, said means including a hori
zontal support for and received Within each series of hori
zontally aligned openings in the sections de?ned by said
planes.
4. Suspension structure as set forth in claim 2 wherein
each of said sections is provided with a plurality of hori
zontally spaced, integral loop means at the upper and
lower ends thereof respectively and adapted for securing
the sections to corresponding frames and disposed to pro
vide support for said sections along effective lines parallel
with said elements and intersecting the longitudinal axes
of said slats when the latter are positioned on respective
crossbars.
upper extremities of the elements and the uppermost cross
rods interconnecting the same, adjacent ends of proximal,
vertically spaced sections being disposed in overlapping
relationship with the openings in the lower end of each
overlapped section in alignment with respective supports
5. Suspension structure as set forth in claim 2 wherein
said elements and crossbars have strands of glass ?ber
receiving the latter to provide interlocking of said over
lapped sections.
, embedded therein and extending longitudinally of the lat
ter and substantially the full length thereof.
2. In suspension structure for the elongated, horizontal,
transversely rectangular slats of a ?ll assembly forming
a part of a cooling tower and thereby arranged in hori
6. Suspension structure as set forth in claim 5 wherein
the strands extending through said elements extend through
respective loop means integral with the elements.
zontal and upright rows, the cooling tower having a num
ber of vertically spaced, horizontal frames above and 30
below the ?ll assembly, the improvement of which com~
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
prises at least a pair of vertical, parallel, horizontally
spaced sections constructed of corrosion resistant syn
thetic resin material and adapted to be mounted on re
spective pairs of proximal, vertically spaced frames, each
of said sections comprising a relatively rigid, unitary,
generally planar grid having a plurality of horizontally
spaced, upright, elongated, parallel elements interconnect
ed and maintained in parallel relationship by a plurality
of generally horizontal, vertically spaced, elongated, paral
UNITED STATES PATENTS
544,860
821,561
133 Cl
1,820,848
2,634,959
"2,794,756
an upright space is presented between proximal pairs of
496,889
elements and devoid of slats, and there being a cross
member for each of said horizontal row of slats and sup
porting the latter in said horizontal disposition, said ele
45
20,
22,
25,
14,
1895
1906
1931
1953
Leverenz ____________ __ June 4, 1957
FOREIGN PATENTS
110
lel crossbars integral with said elements, there being a
pair of elements for each of the upright rows of slats and
receiving a respective upright row therehetween whereby
Maw ________________ __ Aug.
Wheeler et al. ________ __ May
Tatum _______________ __ Aug.
Cave _______________ __ Apr.
Great Britain __________ __ Dec. 7, 1938
585,796
Great Britain _____ _.l_____. Feb. 25, 1947
636,173
Great Britain __________ __ Apr. 26, 1950
857,376
vFrance ______________ __Apr. 15, 1940
OTHER REFERENCES
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 45, pages
1281-1286, June 1953,
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