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Патент USA US3063702

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Nov. 13, 1962
Filed Jan. 21, 1960
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
l n ventor
Nov. 13, 1962
Filed Jan. 21, 1960
.3 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Nov. 13, 1962
Filed Jan. 21, 1960
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
Attorney I
United States Patent O?ice
Patented Nov. l3, 1962
Ribbon gas ?ame burners into which gas is pumped
under pressure have also been proposed for use in drying
printed webs of paper arranged to run at speed.
In yet another prior drying apparatus, gas radiant heat
Ernest Arthur Timson, 75 Northampton Road,
Kettering, England
Filed Jan. 21, 1960, Ser. No. 3,883
Claims priority, application Great Britain Jan. 27, H59
2 Claims. ((31. 263-3)
This invention appertains to the heating of relatively
ing elements, associated with individual or common re
?ectors, give out such an intense heat as to necessitate the
provision of removable heat insulating means adapted to
screen the ?exible sheet material from the said elements
when the drying chamber is closed and from the operator
thin and ?exible materials such as paper, textile or knitted 10 when the chamber is open.
An object of the present invention is to provide, in a
fabrics, ?lm, foil and the like requiring to be dried after
drying apparatus of the kind herein referred to, a burner
having been operated upon by, or treated in, a process
capable of generating a ?ame which, being gentler and
involving the deposition of moisture or certain materials
substantially less hot than burner ?ames previously used
upon, or the application of inks, stains, dyes or other
for the same purposes, is found to provide certain advan
liquids to, surfaces of such materials.
Although primarily intended for the drying of travel
ling webs of the said materials, the invention is not limited
in this regard as it may also be employed for drying series
or successions of suitably conveyed separate sheets.
The invention, moreover, has reference to drying ap
paratus for the purposes speci?ed and of the kind com
prising a de?ned drying zone in which at least one ?uid
fuel burner is provided, and means for supporting and
tages as will be hereinafter described.
A further object is the provision, in such an apparatus,
of a burner which although designed to generate a large
volume ?at ?ame, itself remains relatively cool.
According to this invention, a ?uid fuel burner pro
vided in the drying zone of an apparatus of the kind re
ferred to is of a form adapted to produce, by admixture
therein of combustible ?uid fuel with air at atmospheric
pressure, an only moderately hot, in contradistinction to
guiding a web or webs or one or more series of conveyed
sheets in the course of being drawn through the said zone 25 a high temperature, flame which issues lazily from the
burner suchwise as to be carried along, and to ?ow to
past the burner or burners.
gether and in contact, with the travelling material to be
For instance, an apparatus of this kind is suitable for
through a printing machine and been printed upon with a
volatile ink or like medium, the purpose of the drying
By “an only moderately hot” ?ame is meant one of the
average order of from 900° C. to 1400° 0, depending
process in this instance being to expedite evaporation of
the solvent in the medium.
tensely hot ?ame of anything up to 2,200° C.
drying travelling webs of paper after they have passed
Such an apparatus is also suitable for the drying of
?lms by, for instance, penetration, polymerization, oxida
tion and other drying processes all of which are accele
rated by heat. The fusion of powders distributed on
webs, as in electronographic methods of printing, is an
other process capable of being carried out by an apparatus
of the kind concerned.
Heretofore, a drying apparatus of the kind concerned
has usually incorporated burners of a type requiring to be
supplied with fuel gas or vapour and air under substantial
pressure and adapted to produce very high temperatures
of the order of from, say, l,800° C. to 2,000° C. and
on the zone considered, in contradistinction to an in
In this regard it has to be borne in mind that a “lazy”
?ame comprises zones of various temperatures.
The longitudinal ?ow of the ?ame in the direction of
movement of, and hence in company with, the travelling
‘material is c'ompartively sluggish since, unlike burners
in prior arrangements, there is no forced draught and
blast of air through the burner directing the ?ame straight
at the said material. In other words, the ?ame issuing
from the burner spreads longitudinally as well as trans—
versely with respect to the path of travel of the material.
The travelling material is accordingly contacted by a
gentle ?ame which has a comparatively large area in
45 contact with the web.
For example, in certain prior apparatus the aim has
been to heat a web uniformly by the employment of at
least one multiple burner which extends transversely the
full width of the web and has separate, uniformly spaced
ori?ces designed to ettect uniform gas distribution. Such
burners have produced hard ?ames, by mixture of gas and
air in theoretical proportions for complete combustion.
The intention has been that the high velocities of these
hard, minimum volume/maximum temperature, ?ames,
should displace the dead occluded air ?lm carried by the
web. The e?iciency of each multiple burners, however,
has not been very high, and any apparatus embodying the
same as far as is known is only capable of drying one side
of a web at a time.
Moreover, this ?ame, being etfective over a compara
tively large. area of the travelling material, and notwith
standing the fact that the temperature of the ?ame is
only moderate, is adequate to dry, say, ink printed on
paper and avoid the necessity to concentrate-repeatedly
as necessary—a substantially more intense heat upon a
much smaller area of the material. As a consequence,
any tendency to alter the physical properties and dimen
sions of paper during drying is minimised.
In order that the invention may be more clearly un
derstood and readily carried into practical effect, a speci?c
arrangement of gas burners in a web dryer will now be
described by way of example, with reference to the ac
companying purely diagrammatic drawings, wherein,
It has also previously been proposed to provide burners 60 FIGURE 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of the said
dryer showing not only web travelling therethrough but
each comprising a plurality of thin metal strips laid against
also the longitudinal ?ow of a low temperature lazy
one another so as to form a pack.
gas ?ame beneath the said web,
Other pressure gas burners heretofore provided for the
FIGURE 2 is a sectional plan view of the dryer taken
purposes in view included radiators of refractory ma
terial heated to incandescence by the gas ?ames and
arranged to direct the ?ames and radiant heat directly
against the webs of material in a direction normal or ap
on the line l1~l1 of FIGURE 1, and with a portion of
the web torn away to show the arrangement of the gas
burners and the longitudinal as well as the transverse
proximately so thereto.
spread of the lazy ?ame issuing therefrom,
Such burners give out a heat so
FIGURE 3 is a detail plan view, partly in section, illus
intense that it is capable of raising the temperature of,
say, paper far above its scorching point, the period of the 70 trating the means whereby a mixture of gas and air, at
atmospheric pressure, is injected into a gas pipe or mani
application of such heat being, however, limited, to pre
vent burning or charring of the paper.
fold common to a plurality of burners,
‘FIGURE 4 is a detail elevational view of one of the
aerated burners provided in the drying chamber of the
web dryer, and
FIGURE 5 is a front view of the said burner.
The-speci?c web dryer shown in the drawings com
prises a drying chamber "1 in‘which two gas burners 2
are provided, and means consisting of guide rollers 3 and
‘4 and water cooled cylinders ‘5 and 6 for supporting and
vguiding a web W of paper in the ‘course of being drawn
through the vsaid chamber, past the burners 2, in the di
rection of the arrows A. The web W enters the chamber
’1 through an entrance slot or aperture"? formed in the
appropriate end wall 1a of the chamber, and leaves the
latter through an exit slot or aperture 8 formed in the
the travelling material to be dried can be reduced to a
A further feature of a gas burner of the form adopted
for the purposes of the present invention is that the mix
ture of gas and air issuing therefrom burns a little ahead
or in front of the burner. As, therefore, the widely
spread, lazy ?ame F is spaced from the burner, the body
of the latter remains relatively cool so that whenever the
supply of gas to the burner is cut off and the ?ame is
extinguished there is only a minimum emission of heat
from the burner. This small amount of heat is, in fact,
insui?cient to scorch or ?re the travelling web which tends
to slacken and touch the burners 2 during a stoppage of
the apparatus. Accordingly, any necessity to provide
‘opposite end wall 1b. The guide roller 3‘ is disposed trans 15 cover plates or shields to protect the material in these
versely'at right angles to the web W a small distance only
circumstances is obviated.
ahead‘of the entrance slot or aperture ‘7, Whereas the
Although it is primarily the intentions to supply the
gmide roller 4 is similarly disposed after the water cooled
burners with coal or Town gas, there is no limitation in
cylinders 5 and 6 which letter are arranged one above the
this respect since manifestly the burners could be sup
other adjacent to the exit slot or aperture 8-. >
In‘ the speci?c example illustrated, there is provided in
the drying chamber 1, fairly near to and below the en
plied With any other suitable ?uid fuel, such as methane
or butane, or with liquid fuel such as oil or para?in va
pour, the ?uid fuel being mixed with air at atmospheric
trance slot or aperture 8, a common gas pipe or manifold
pressure when necessary.
v9 furnished with two suitably spaced branches It) on to
It is convenient to employ for the purposes in view gas
the end of each of which is connected one of the gas 25 burners each in the form of a hollow jet having in its
burners 2. The pipe or manifold 9“ is mounted so as to
outer, mainly closed end a comparatively small outlet
extend transversely across the path of the travelling
aperture communicating with a comparatively wide recess
web W.
which has an inwardly shaped, e.g. concave, bottom de
‘Advantageously, the lazy low temperature ?ame F
signed to achieve diffusion of the combustible mixture of
issuing from each of the burners 2 has a substantial spread 30 .gas and air issuing through the said aperture and at the
of anything from about 15" to approximately 30", and
same time producing a wide, thin ?ame such as F of fan
each burner may as shown in FIGURES 1 and 2, be
or bat’s wing shape acquiring the sufficiency of air for
arranged to operate beneath the ‘web W and so as to pro
complete combustion by free turbulence.
ject its‘ volume of ?ame F in the same direction as that
As a speci?c example of a suitable aerated burner of
in which the web travels. Moreover, each such burner 35 this form may be quoted the “Hypact” burner which was
.2 may be so arranged that the volume of ?ame slopes
upwardly somewhat, thereby ensuring close intimate con
developed by the Research Laboratory of the Gas, Light
& Coke Company. This hollow cylindrical burner 2, illus
.tact with the web W. The web W preferably also slopes
trated in FIGURES 4 and 5, is in the nature of an en
upwards, as clearly shown in FIGURE 1, to assist the
larged industrial jet or nozzle, fabricated throughout in
?ame F to keep pace with the web and to limit the extent 40 metal and adapted to be connected on to the end of a
of the lateral spread of the ?ames. In this regard, the
branch 10 of the gas pipe or manifold 9. In the outer
relative heightwise dispositions of the slots or apertures
surface 2a of the comparatively thick mainly-closed end
’7 and 8, and the arrangement of the guide roller 3 in
2b of the “Hypact” burner 2 is milled a diametral, con
relation to the upper water cooled cylinder 5 are such
cave recess 12. In the bottom of this recess, centrally be
that the web travels uphill away from the burners. The
tween its ends, is a small rectangular outlet aperture 13
45 communicating with the hollow interior '14 of the cylin
angle a indicated in FIGURE 1 is one of 8°.
The persistent lazy ?ames F have adequate time for
drical burner, this aperture being produced by forming in
their heat to penetrate not only the dead occluded air
the inner surface 20 of the mainly closed end 2b a di
?lm carried by the web W but alsov the web thickness it
ametral channel extending at right angles to the milled
self. The heat from the ?ames therefore thoroughly
concave recess 12. . By virtue of the formation described
warms the entire thickness of the web W, and ink ?lms
a marked degree of aeration is obtained by turbulence.
on either or both sides of such a web are equally dried,
In FIGURE 3 is depicted an injector 15 for injecting
or substantially so.
into the common gas pipe or manifold 2a mixture of coal
or Town gas at mains pressure with air at atmospheric
Web W a row of small burners, such as that indicated in
As will be seen, the gas issues from a jet 16 into
FIGURE 1 at 11, to burn off the volatile products given 55 a ?ared end 17a of a tube 17 of smaller diameter than
It may be advisable, however, to provide above the
off from the drying ink.
Whereas hard, hot ?ames slightly too wide for the web
tend to scorch the edges of the later, soft lazy ?ames do
not do this even if they overlap such edges. .
The aerated burners 2 may be of the Bunsen type, de
pending on the characteristics of the gas used, and by
arranging for the ?ow'therethrough of a current of air,
if required, the lazy ?ames F produced are substantially
hon-luminous, or weakly luminous, so as just to avoid
the’deposition of carbon upon the surface of the paper
or other material being dried.
In accordance with an important feature of the present
invention, moreover, each of the burners provided in
the drying chamber 1 of the apparatus may advantageous
1y be of a form adapted to produce a laterally spread,
flat ?ame F which is very wide in relation to its thick
ness. Thus, such a ?ame may conveniently be of a known
fan shape ‘akin to that of 1a bat’s wing (see more espe
cially FIGURE 3). By virtue of this feature, the number
of burners required adequately to cover the full width of
the surrounding tubular portion 18:: of the injector casing
18. Air inlet apertures are formed in the tubular portion
18a, adjacent to the leading end of the jet 16, to admit air
into the interior of the tube 17, whilst similar inlet aper
tures 20 are formed in the said tubular portion to admit
air into the annular space between the injector casing 18
and the exterior of the tube 17. By virtue of this arrange
ment a thorough admixture of the gas and air is produced
for continuous supply to the burners 2.
Such an arrangement as that illustrated in the drawings
is particularly suitable for directing lazy ?ames on to the
underside of a printed web of paper for the purpose of
drying printing on either or both sides by heat.
The heightwise dimension of the entrance slot 7 may, if
desired, be adjustable to enable the opposed horizontal
edges of this slot to be set close to the respectively op
posite sides of the travelling Web W. In this way, un
desired insulating ?lms of air which would otherwise be
75 drawn into the chamber 1 by the web are disturbed and
broken by the edges of the slot to facilitate the drying
cylindrical burner, so as to produce a wide thin ?ame
action of the ?ames F. The edges of an adjustable en
trance slot may be constituted by edges of manually ad
justable plates located on the end 10 of the drying cham
which is moderately hot having zones of various tempera
tures of the average order of from 900° C. to 1400" C.,
and issues lazily from the burner so as to be carried along,
and to ?ow together and in contact with the traveling web,
the longitudinal ?ow of the ?ame being sluggish, and the
1. In a web dryer, in combination, a heating chamber
?ame spreading longitudinally as Well as transversely with
having in its opposite ends entrance an exit apertures re
respect of the aforesaid path of travel so as to have a com
spectively, means supporting and guiding a Web of paper
paratively large area in contact with the web.
or the like as it is drawn and caused to travel through said 10
2. In a Web dryer adapted to dry a travelling web of
chamber, a gas manifold which has spaced branches and
paper which has been printed upon with a volatile ink, a
is mounted in said chamber adjacent said entrance aper
combination according to claim 1, which includes a row
tLu'e so as to extend transversely across a plane projected
through said entrance and exit apertures, a plurality of
gas burners ?tted on said branches of said manifold and 15
directed at an acute angle towards said plane extended
through said entrance and exit apertures, and means sup
plying said burners via said manifold with an admixture
of gas with air at atmospheric pressure, each of said
of small gas burners arranged above said plane to burn
off the volatile products given o? from the drying ink.
References Cited in the tile of this patent
Gill ________________ __ Aug. ‘24, 1869
burners being of ‘hollow cylindrical form and having an 20
outer surface with a thick mainly closed outer end, said
Bernson ____________ __ June 25, 1901
Eberlin _____________ __'.. Nov. 16, 1937
outer end having milled therein a diametral concave recess
Gessler ______________ __ June 18, 1940
Erby ________________ __ Dec. 17, 1940
and there being provided in the bottom of said recess a
small outlet aperture centrally between the ends of said
recess and extending diametrally at right angles to said 25
recess and communicating with the hollow interior of said
Italy ________________ __ June 24, 1937
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