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Патент USA US3064114

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Nov. -13, 1962
‘
s. LAPlDUS
3,064,105
COAXIAL SWITCH
.
Filed Nov. 4; 1960
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
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BY
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Nov. 13,1962
s. LAPIDUS
3,064,105
COAXIAL SWITCH
Filed Nov. 4, 1960
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVEN TOR.
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Nov. 13, 1962
s. LAPIDUS
3,064,105
COAXIAL SWITCH
Filed Nov. 4, 1960
4 Sheets-Sheet 5
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INVENTOR.
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ATTORNEYS
Nov. 13, 1962
s. LAPIDUS
3,064,105
COAXIAL SWITCH
Filed Nov. 4, 1960
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
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United States Patent 0 ”
1
3,064,105
COAXIAL SWITCH
Solomon Lapidus, Flushing, N.Y., assignor to Bogart
Manufacturing Corporation, Brooklyn, N.Y., a corpo
ration of New York
_
3,064,105
Patented Nov. 13, 1952
6)
These branch ports 16 and 18 are equally spaced from
the common port 14. In the present case the ports have
?ange connections for use with standard 3% inch co
axial line, and the particular connections shown are male
connections, but it will be understood that one or more
of the connections may, if desired, be changed to be a
female connection, in which case the resilient male projec
tion 26 for the center conductor is replaced by a hollow
or cup-shaped seat, and a ?anged outer-conductor exten—
This invention relates to electrical switches for high 10 sion is added to the ?ange 22 to provide a similar flange
frequency power, and more particularly to a three-port
located outwardly or beyond the female seat, the said
coaxial switch.
parts then being adapted to receive a standard male con
The general object of the invention is to improve co
nection like that here shown.
Filed Nov. 4, 1960, Ser. No. 67,200
28 Claims. (Cl. 200-153)
axial switches, especially switches for handling a large
amount of high frequency power carried on coaxial line
of large dimension.
A more particular object is to provide improved con
trol mechanism for operating such a switch. A still
more particular object is to provide a manually operable
handle which turns a half revolution, and which is so
Referring to FIG. 2, the enclosed switch housing is
provided with a manually operable handle 24. In FIG.
1 the handle 24 and the cover plate 26 (FIG. 2) have
been removed to expose some of the mechanism. In
FIG. 1 attention is directed to a U bend coaxial mem
ber 30, which, in the position shown, serves to connect
port 14 to port 18, but which may be bodily moved to
a position in which it connects port 14 to port 16.
Referring now to FIGS. 15, 16 and 17 of the draw
ing, the movable member 30 is carried by a parallelogram
mounted that it points toward that branch of the switch
which has been connected to the common port.
Still another general object is to provide a switch which
handles high power efficiently over a relatively wide fre
linkage schematically indicated by links 32 and 34. The
quency range, with a small VSWR (voltage standing 25 link 32 is pivoted in a ?xed bearing at 36, and the link
wave ratio), and which provides a very high degree of
34 is pivoted in a ?xed bearing 38. At their opposite
isolation.
ends they are pivoted on the movable U bend 30, so
To accomplish the foregoing objects, and other ob
that the links act as cranks. The location of the parts
jects which will hereinafter appear, my invention resides
is indicated by broken line brackets. By turning the
in the couial switch elements and their relation one to 30 cranks 90 degrees the U bend 30 is moved away from
another, as are hereinafter more particularly described
the ports 14 and 18, as shown by the change from FIG.
in the following speci?cation. The speci?cation is ac
companied by drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a plan view of a switch embodying features
of my invention, with the cover plate and handle removed;
FIG. 2a is a view showing the movable member in a
dead center position;
' FIG. 2 is a partly sectioned front eievation looking to
15 to FIG. 16, and by continuing the rotation of the
cranks for another 90 degrees the U bend is moved to
a position connecting the ports 14 and 16, as shown in
FIG. 17, instead of connecting the ports 14 and 18, as
shown in FIG. 15.
In the particular arrangement here shown the shafts
36 and 38 are parallel shafts extending transversely of
and between the coaxial conductors on either side of the
ward the common and branch ports;
FIG. 3 is a plan view of the mechanism of the switch, 40 common port 14. There are two cranks 32 on shaft 36,
with the handle and a top bearing plate removed;
straddling the U bend 3t), and two additional cranks 34
FIG. 4 is a section taken approximately in the plane
on shaft 38 also straddling the U bend. The free ends
of the line 4—-4 of FIG. 3;
of all four shafts are pivotally connected to the U bend,
FIG. 5 is a longitudinal section through one of the
and thus by rotation of the shafts the U bend is bodily
stationary ports;
moved between positions connecting the common port
FIG. 6 is a front elevation of the movable U-shaped
14 with either branch port 16 or 13.
movable coaxial switch member, for brevity called a
In the present case the shafts 36 and 38 carry gears
U bend;
49 and 42 of equal diameter. An intermediate gear 44
FIG. 7 is a section therethrough taken approximate
meshes with both gears 40 and 42, and insures equal
ly in the plane of the line 7—7 of FIG. 6;
50 rotation of the same. A suitable drive means may be
FIG. 8 is a transverse section taken approximately in
applied to any of the shafts or gears, and in the present
the plane of the line 8-8 of FIG. 6;
case the manual handle 24, previously referred to, is
FIG. 9 is a fragmentary section drawn to enlarged
applied to the shaft 46 of intermediate gear 44. In pre
scale and taken in the plane of the line 9—9 of FIG. 6;
ferred form the gear 44 has the same diameter as the
FIG. 10 is a fragmentary section drawn to enlarged 55 gears 49 and 42, so that the handle turns through a half
scale and explanatory of the operation of a spring con
revolution, and as an additional re?nement the handle is
tact ring used for the outer conductor;
so mounted or oriented on shaft 46 that it points toward
FIG. 11 is a fragmentary section explanatory of a
that branch port to which the common port has been
support element for the U bend;
connected.
FIG. 12 is a fragmentary view showing a part of 60
The switch mechanism is preferably provided with
the operating handle;
over-the-center springs to put the mechanism in one end
FIG. 13 shows the detent plate of the handle, and
position or the other. In the present case there are two
is taken on the line 13-—13 of FIG. 12;
relatively powerful pull springs 50 and 52 (FIG. 15).
FIG. 14 is a fragmentary section at the outer end of
These are stationarily anchored at 54 and 56, and are con
one of the over-the-center pull springs; and
65 nected to the gears 40 and 42 at points 69 and 62, which
FIGS. 15, 16 and 17 are schematic views explanatory
are located diametrically away from the cranks 32 and 34.
of the operation of the switch.
Thus in FIG. 15 the pull springs urge the U bend 30
Referring to the drawing, and more particularly to
toward the ports 14 and 18. In FIG. 16 the pull springs
FiGS. l and 2, the switch comprises a housing 12 hav
are on dead center, and the mechanism is in a highly un
ing a common coaxial port 14, a branch coaxial port 16 70 stable condition. In FIG. 17 the pull springs urge the
on one side of the common port, and another branch
U bend 30" toward the ports 14 and 16.
coaxial port 13 on the other side of the common port.
The parts referred to in FIGS. 15, 16 and 17 are also
3,064,105
4
3
of which normally assumes the broken line position 96’.
shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, where they have the same refer
The mating seat 110 formed at the inner end of a switch
ence numbers and will be readily recognizable.
port is stepped to provide a rigid contact part 112 and a
To further assure good electrical contact between the
rigid base part 114. These parts are so relatively stepped
movable U bend 30 and the mating seats formed at the
that the iunslotted periphery of contact spring 94 is tightly
inner ends of the ports, I provide resilient contact elements
clamped between its seat 98 and the base part 114 at the
which may be described with initial reference to FIG. 7
same time that the contact part 112. bears against and de
of the drawing. The U bend 30 comprises an inner con
?eets the slotted part from the broken line position 96’
ductor 64 and outer conductor 66. The inner conductor
to the solid line position 96. The tight clamping of the
is tubular or hollow in order to conserve weight and metal,
for we deal here with a sizable coaxial line, speci?cally a 10 contact spring between the parts 98 and 114 eliminates
the need for a better or more rigid mounting of the spring
3%" line. The inner conductor 64 is coaxially located
contact ring.
within the outer conductor 66 by means of insulation
The relation of the seat of a port to the exposed con
spacer discs or so-called “beads” ‘68 and 70, and by two
nector of the port will be seen with reference to FIG. 5,
additional spacer rods at 72. The rods 72 and beads 68
are made of a suitable insulation, preferably “Te?on” 15 in which the seat for the inner conductor is shown at 120,
while the seat for the outer conductor is shown at 112, 114.
(tetra?uoroethylene resin) .
On examination of the seat 1261, it will be seen that it is
The detailed construction of spacer rod 72 is better
hollowed at the center to clear the mounting screw of the
shown in FIG. 8. The inner conductor 64 has diametrical
holes receiving the stepped inner ends of the spacers, while
spring contact disc (90 in FIGS. 6 and 7), and that it too
is stepped to clamp and hold the unslotted base portion of
the correspondingly stepped outer ends are received in
threaded locating plugs 74 received in bosses 76 and 78
formed integrally with the cast outer conductor 66. The
boss 76 is elliptical, rather than circular as in the case
of boss 7-8, it extending upward to receive a grooved stud
89, the purpose of which is described later.
Reverting to FIG. 7, the inner conductor 64 is closed
at its ends by metal plugs 82 which pass through the
beads 68, 70 and which threadedly receive metal seats 84.
They also receive screws 86 which hold contact springs
the contact spring while bearing against the slotted pea
ripheral portion of the contact spring. While not visible
in FIG. 5, the annular seat 114 is radially notched at four
90.
This inner conductor assembly is centered within the
These are thin resilient metal discs made of beryl- '
points on its periphery to clear the inner ends of the four
pins 108 shown in FIGS. ‘6 and 9.
Other details shown in FIG. 5 are the assembly of hol
low inner conductor 122 with end plugs 124. These
parts are held assembled with the seat 120‘ and the bullet
2%} by means of a center screw 126 acting as a tie rod.
lium copper, preferably silver plated with a rhodium flash
on top of the silver. The periphery is radially slotted, as
shown at 92 in FIG. 6, and is bent away from its seat 84
flanged outer conductor 128 by means of insulation beads
13%).
as shown in FIG. 7. Thus the resilient disc 90 serves as
a contact spring for the inner conductor 64.
grooved stud 80 shown in FIGS. 6 and 8. This is
mounted near the outermost part of the U bend, and re
ferring to FIG. 1, it cooperates with one or another of
There is also a contact spring for the outer conductor
66, and this is a ring 94 of thin resilient sheet metal, the
inner periphery of which is radially slotted, as shown at
96 in FIG. 6, and which is bent away from its seat 98 as
Reference has previously been made to the deeply
two spaced support plates 132 and 134. Referring to
FIG. 2, plate 134 is secured to a boss 136 cast integrally
with the wall 138 of the switch housing. The plates 132
shown in FIG. 7. The material and plating are the same 40 and 134 are so located that they receive the grooved stud
80 in the manner shown in FIG. 11, it being understood
as for the disc 88. The outer periphery or base of the
that plate 134 is used when the U bend 30 is in the posi
ring 94 is secured to the seat, and in the present case this
is done in simple fashion by merely tucking the outer pe
riphery beneath the inner ends of a few retainer pins.
tion shown in FIG. 1, and plate 132 is used when the
U bend is in the opposite position. This construction
In this case there are four retainer pins, shown at 100 in
holds the U bend against lateral movement at its outer
or curved portion, which portion is somewhat remote
FIG. 6. One of these pins is shown to much larger scale
in FIG. 9, in which it will be seen that a pin 100 driven
through a hole 182 has its inner end 104 overlying the
outer or base portion of the ring 94, while the slotted inner
portion 96 is bent away from the solid metal seat 98.
With this method of retaining the contact ring it is readily
from the cranks carrying the inner portion of the bend.
Referring now to FIG. 12 of the drawing, the handle
24 is preferably provided with a locking means. Speci?
cally there is a pilot pin 140 moved by a thumb button
142 connected to a lever 144 pivoted at 146 and con‘
removable and replaceable, it being simply warped or
nected at 148 to pilot 140. The button is normally
sprung out of or into position beneath the pins.
moved outward by a compression spring 151). The pilot
Ready changeability of the contact springs is desirable
because mishandling of the switch may cause arcing and
consequent burning of the contact springs. Power is sup
140 is received in either of two diametrically related holes
152 or 154 in a detent plate 156. This plate is mounted
directly on the cover plate 26 of the switch. The handle
is secured to the shaft 46 of the intermediate gear, as
posed to be shut off before operating a switch of this
character, but an operator may forget and change the
switch without cutting off the power, in which case severe
arcing may result, with possible damage to the contact
springs.
,
Such casual mounting of the outer‘ spring might be
by means of a locking pin or screw 158.
The particular handle here shown is one which is com
mercially available, it being made by Barkelew Electric
Manufacturing Co. of Middletown, Ohio.
Referring to FIG. 13, the pilot plate 156 differs from
the usual practice in that the pilot holes 152 and 154 are
thought to provide poor, instead of good electrical con
tact, by reason'of failure to ?xedly secure the base of the
not truly diametrical.
ring to resist cantilever movement of the inner or slotted
side, and speci?cally to that side which increases the travel
They are offset slightly to one
of the operating handle so that it is somewhat more than
However this is taken care of in
180°. The holes are tapered to facilitate entry of the
the present switch by giving the opposed seat not only
pilot, and the effect is to insure tight seating of the U
rigid contact parts which bear against the slotted parts of
bend.
the contact springs, but also rigid base parts which bear
Referring to FIG. 3, the pull exerted by the springs 5i)
against the uns‘lotted base parts of the contact springs, 70
and 52 creates friction at the books at the ends of the
with the rigid contact parts and the rigid base parts being
springs. To minimize this friction I line the grooves
so relatively stepped that the slotted spring parts are de
receiving the books with nylon rings, shown at 160 in
?ected, while the unslotted spring parts are supported.
FIGS. 3 and 4. One of the rings 160 also is shown in
This will be clear from inspection of FIG. 10, in which
FIG. 14. I have found that a very simple way to apply
the seat 98 carries contact spring 94, the slotted portion
periphery of the spring.
5
such nylon rings is to employ rings which are large
enough to slip over the posts 54, 56 or studs 60, 62 re
ceiving the same. In such case the ring is substantially
larger in diameter than the groove intended to receive the
same, but I have found that the hook of the spring simply
deforms the ring to elliptical con?guration, with the ex
cess part of the ellipse idle, as shown in FIGS. 3 and 14,
and that the resulting assembly functions just as well as
with the nylon ring ?tted to the bottom of the groove.
6
db minimum. In actual practice the switch greatly ex
ceeds these requirements. It operates ef?ciently over
the entire frequency range of the transmission line.
The switch so far has been described as a single-pole
double-throw switch, but the same construction may be
used for a double-pole double-throw switch, or a triple
pole double throw switch, and so on. This is done by
placing the ports and the U bends side by side, and length
ening the shafts to provide linkage for simultaneously
Reverting to FIG. 1, the mechanism is mounted on a 10 moving all of the U bends. This is schematically illus
subframe comprising a rectangular mounting plate 164
trated in FIG. 2a, in which there are two U bends 30
which is secured to the cast housing by means of a row of
and 239, disposed side by side for simultaneous move
four screws shown at 166. This plate 164 provides upper
bearings for the gear shafts 36 and 38, as is best shown
in FIGS. 3 and 4, where the mounting plate 164 and as
sociated mechanism has been removed from the switch
housing. The lower ends of shafts 36 and 38 are re
ceived in bearings cast integrally with the bottom wall
138 of the housing, such bearings being shown in broken
lines at 168 in FIG. 4, and in solid lines in FIG. 2.
Reverting to FIG. 1, the subassembly further includes
a top plate 170 which is mounted above the mounting
plate 164 by means of three spacers and bolts. In FIG.
14 it will be seen that spacer 54 and its associated bolt
55 act also to anchor the stationary hook of spring 50.
Reverting to FIG. 1, the top plate 170 is triangular at its
forward end, which is held by a single spacer and bolt
172. In FIG. 3 the top plate has been removed to better
expose the mechanism, but the three spacers and bolts
are indicated at 54, 56 and 57, it being understood that
the nuts shown are actually located above, rather than
below the top plate.
The top plate 170 acts as an additional bearing for the
intermediate gear shaft 46 which carries the operating
handle.
Referring to FIG. 4, the cranks 32, 33, 34, and 35
each has a hub portion 180 which is secured to its operat
ing shaft. It further has a crank pin portion 182. These
parts may be made integral or may be brazed or welded
together. The inner ends of the crank pins 182 are re
ceived in bushings or bearings 184 set into the cast U
bend 30.
ment.
The shaft 236 corresponds to the shaft'36 pre
viously described; the gear 240 corresponds to the gear
40; the cranks 232 and 233 correspond to the cranks
32 and 33; and an extra double crank 232' is disposed
between the two U bends.
In FIG. 2a the cranks are
shown in dead center position, with the over-the-center
spring 259 extended, so that the linkage is in unstable
position. This has been done to more clearly show the
cranks. It will be understood that there are two such
shafts and sets of cranks, with gears and springs, all as
previously described, that is, a view such as FIG. 3 could
remain unchanged. It will also be understood that ‘by
rigidly connecting the U bend 30 to the U bend 230 the
intermediate crank 232' could be omitted.
It is believed that the construction, operation, and
method of use of my improved coaxial switch, as well
as the advantages thereof, will be apparent from the
foregoing detailed description. It will also be apparent
‘that, while I have shown and described the switch in
preferred form, changes may be ‘made in the structure
shown without departing from the scope of the invention
as sought ‘to be de?ned in the following claims.
I claim:
1. A switch for microwave energy comprising a com
mon port, a branch port on one side of the common port,
a branch port on the opposite side of the common port,
said branch ports being equally spaced from said com
mon port, a U bend dimensioned to join the common
port and either branch port, parallel shafts extending trans
versely of the aforesaid ports on either side of the com
FIG. 4 also shows bearings 186 in mounting plate 164
mon port, a crank on each shaft adjacent the U bend with
for the gear shafts, and it shows the upper ends of spacers
the free ends of the cranks pivotally carrying the U
54 and 56 with their grooves and nylon liners 160 for re 45 bend to form a parallelogram linkage, and means to rotate
ceiving the hooks of the pull springs. For clarity the pull
said shafts in order to bodily move the U bend on an
springs themselves have been omitted in FIG. 4. Al
arcuate path between positions connecting the common
though the spacers 54 and 56 are aligned with the shafts
port with either branch port.
36 and 38, it will be understood that they are far apart,
2. A coaxial switch comprising a common coaxial port,
as shown in FIG. 3, and that the gears 40 and 42 are over
a branch coaxial port on one side of the com-mon port,
hung secured at the very ends of their shafts. This is
a branch coaxial port on the opposite side of the common
necessary because the pull springs move past the ends
port, said branch ports being equally spaced from said
of the shafts when the gears turn 180 degrees, as was
common port, a U bend coaxial connector dimensioned
explained in connection with FIGS. 15, 16, and 17, and
the dead center position in which the springs pass the ends
to join the common port and either branch port, parallel
of the shafts is shown in FIG. 16.
It may be mentioned that when the cover plate 26 is
shafts extending transversely of the coaxial conductors
on either side of the common port, two cranks on each
shaft straddling the U bend with their free ends pivotally
carrying the U bend to form a parallelogram linkage,
applied to the housing, a rectangular gasket 190 (FIG.
12) is preferably interposed, and the parts are drawn
and means to rotate said shafts in order to bodily move
together by a large number of closely spaced screws (3&2 60 the U bend on an arcuate path between positions con
in FIG. 2), the holes for which are indicated at 194 in
necting the common port with either branch port.
FIG. 1. Thus the unit may be made gas-tight, which
3. A coaxial switch comprising a com-mon coaxial port,
is desirable when the system is to be pressurized. In such
a branch coaxial port on one side of the common port,
case appropriate gaskets are also employed at the ?anges
a branch coaxial port on the opposite side of the com
22, and an O ring is used on handle shaft 46 as shown 65 mon port, said branch ports being equally spaced from
.at 194 in FIGS. 2 and 12.
The present switch is dimensioned to be received di
rectly in a 3% inch coaxial line with standard E.I.A.
sioned to join the common port and either branch port;
parallel shafts extending transversely of the coaxial con
?ange connections. However, other connections may be
ductors on either side of the com-mon port, two cranks
said common port, a U bend coaxial connector dimen
used, for example, the Marmann quick disconnect ?ange. 70 on each shaft straddling the U bend with their free ends
The switch was designed to operate over a frequency
pivo-tally carrying the U bend to form parallelogram
range of from 755 to 985 mc., and to handle up to 10 kw.
linkage, and means to rotate said shafts in order to bodily
average power.
move the U bend on an arcuate path between positions
The VSWR was not to exceed 1.1 max
imum; the insertion loss was not to exceed 0.15 db; and
the isolation between branches 16 and 18 was to be 70
connecting the common port with either branch port, said
means including gears of equal diameter on said shafts,
7
an intermediate gear for driving said shaft gears, and a
means for turning one of the gears.
4. A coaxial switch comprising a common coaxial port,
8
over-the-center springs to urge the U bend toward the
ports connected thereby.
sioned to join the common port and either branch port,
10. A coaxial switch as de?ned in claim 2 in which the
ports lead to seats, and in which the ends of the U bend
provide mating seats, and in which the seats are pro
vided with contact springs to insure good electrical con
tact between the ports and the ‘U bend, said contact springs
including a disc for the inner conductor, said disc being a
parallel shafts extending transversely of the coaxial con
relatively thin resilient metal disc the contact periphery
a branch coaxial port on one side of the common port,
a branch coaxial port on the opposite side of the com
mon port, said ‘branch ports being equally spaced from
said common port, a U bend coaxial connector dimen
ductors on either side of the common port, two cranks 10 of which is radially slotted and dished away from its seat
on each shaft straddling the U bend with their free ends
and the center base of which is secured to its seat.
pivotally carrying the U bend to form parallelogram link
11. A coaxial switch as de?ned in claim 2 in which the
age, and means to rotate said shafts in order to bodily
ports lead to seats, and in which the ends of the U bend
move the U bend on an arcuate path between positions
provide mating seats, and in which the seats are pro
connecting the common port with either branch port, said 15 vided with contact springs to insure good electrical con
means including gears of equal diameter on said shafts,
an intermediate gear for driving said shaft gears, and
a ‘handle for turning said intermediate gear.
5. A coaxial switch comprising a common coaxial port,
a branch coaxial port on one side of the common port,
tact between the ports and the U bend, said contact springs
including a disc for the inner conductor, said disc being a
relatively thin resilient metal disc the contact periphery
of which is radially slotted and dished away from its seat
and the center base of which is secured to its seat, the
a branch co-axial port on the opposite side of the common
opposed seat having a rigid contact part which bears
against the slotted contact part of said contact spring, and
common port, a U bend coaxial connector dimensioned to
having a rigid base part which bears against the base
join the common port and either branch port, parallel
part of said contact spring, the said rigid contact part
shafts extending transversely of the coaxial conductors 25 and rigid base part being so stepped that the slotted con
port, said branch ports being equally spaced from said
on either side of the common port, two cranks on each
tact parts of said spring contact are de?ected while the
shaft straddling the U bend with their free ends pivot
ally carrying the U bend to form parallelogram linkage,
base part of said spring contact is ?xedly supported.
12. A switch as de?ned in claim 1 in which the ports
and means to rotate said shafts in order to bodily move
lead to seats, and in which the ends of the U bend pro
the U bend on an arcuate path between positions con 30 vide mating seats, and in which the seats are provided
necting the common port with either branch port, said
means including gears of equal diameter on said shafts,
an intermediate gear for driving said shaft gears, and a
with contact springs to insure good electrical contact be
tween the ports and the U bend, said contact springs in
cluding a ring for the outer conductor, said ring being
- handle for turning one of the gears, said inter-mediate
a ring of thin resilient sheet metal the contact periphery
gear having the same diameter as the shaft gears, whereby 35 of which is radially slotted and bent away from its seat
a half-turn of the handle changes the switch from one
and the base periphery of which is secured to its seat.
position to the other.
13. A switch as de?ned in claim 1 in which the ports
6. A coaxial switch comprising a common coaxial port,
lead to seats, and in which the ends of the U bend pro
a branch coaxial port on one side of the common port,
vide mating seats, and in which the seats are provided
a branch coaxial port on the opposite side of the com 40 with contact springs to insure good electrical contact be
mon port, said branch ports being equally spaced from
tween the ports and the ‘U bend, said contact springs in
said common port, a U bend coaxial connector dimen
cluding a ring for the outer conductor, said ring being
sioned to joint the common port and either branch port,
parallel shafts extending transversely of the coaxial con
a ring of thin resilient sheet metal the contact periphery
of which is radially slotted and bent away from its seat
and the base periphery of which is secured to its seat,
the opposed seat having a rigid contact part which bears
against the slotted contact part of said contact spring,
and having a rigid base part which bears against the base
part of said contact spring, the said rigid contact part
and rigid base part being so stepped that the slotted con
tact parts of said spring contact are deflected while the
ductors on either side of the common port, two cranks
on each shaft straddling the U bend with their free ends
pivotally carrying the U bend to form parallelogram link
age, and means to rotate said shafts in order to bodily
move the U bend on an arcuate path between positions
connecting the common port with either branch port, said
means including gears of equal diameter on said shafts,
an intermediate gear for driving said shaft gears, and a
handle for turning said intermediate gear, said-intermedi
ate gear having the same diameter as the shaft gears,
whereby a half-turn of the handle changes the switch from
one position to the other, said handle being so oriented
on said gear that it points to the branch port to which
the common port has been connected.
7. A switch as de?ned in claim 1 in which the linkage
is provided with relatively powerful over-the-center pull
springs which urge the U bend toward the ports connected
thereby.
8. A coaxial switch as de?ned in claim 2 in which rela
tively powerful pull springs are so connected to said shafts
base part of said spring contact is ?xedly supported.
14. A coaxial switch as de?ned in claim 2 in which the
ports lead to seats, and in which the ends of the U bend
provide mating seats, and in which the seats are provided
with contact springs to insure good electrical contact be
tween the ports and the U bend, said contact springs in
cluding a disc for the inner conductor and a ring for the
outer conductor, said disc being a relatively thin resilient
60 metal disc the contact periphery of which is radially
slotted and dished away from its seat and the center base
of which is secured to its seat, and said ring being a
ring of thin resilient sheet metal the contact periphery
of which is radially slotted and bent away from its seat
and the base periphery of which is secured to its seat.
15. A coaxial switch as de?ned in claim 2 in which the
ports lead to seats, and in which the ends of the U bend
provide mating seats, and in which the seats are provided
connected thereby.
with contact springs to insure good electrical contact be
9. A coaxial switch as de?ned in claim 4 in which the 70 tween the ports and the U bend, said contact springs in
shaft gears are overhung at the ends of their shafts and
cluding a disc for the inner conductor and a ring for the
have crank pins, and in which relatively powerful pull
outer conductor, said disc being a relatively thin resilient
at points located diametrically away from the cranks of
the parallelogram linkage that the pull springs act as over
the-center springs to urge the 1U bend toward the ports
springs are connected to said crank pins, said crank pins
being located diametrically away from the cranks of the
metal disc the contact periphery of which is radially
slotted and dished away from its seat and the center base
parallelogram linkage, whereby the pull springs act as 75 of which is secured to its seat, and said ring being a
10
ring of thin resilient sheet metal the contact periphery
a branch port on the opposite side of the common port,
of which is radially slotted and bent away from its seat
and the base periphery of which is secured to its seat,
said branch ports being equally spaced from said com
the opposed seat having rigid contact parts which bear
against the slotted contact parts of said contact springs,
and having rigid base parts which bear against the base
parts of said contact springs, the said rigid contact parts
and rigid base parts being so stepped that the slotted
and either branch port, a parallelogram linkage movably
mon port, a U bend dimensioned to join the common port
carrying said U bend for bodily movement on an arcuate
path between positions joining the common port with
either branch port, said ports leading to seats, the ends of
the U bend providing mating seats, and said seats being
contact parts of said spring contacts are de?ected while
provided with contact springs to insure good electrical
the base parts of said spring contacts are ?xedly supported. 10 contact between the ports and the U bend, said contact
16. A switch as de?ned in claim 1, in which the switch
springs including a ring for the outer conductor, said ring
has a stationary frame, and in which the outer part of
being a ring of thin resilient sheet metal the contact pe
the U bend includes a deeply grooved stud, and in which
riphery of which is radially slotted and bent away from
the frame of the switch has locating plates which receive
its seat and the base periphery of which is secured to its
the grooved stud to locate the outer part of the U bend.
15 seat.
17. A coaxial switch as de?ned in claim 2 in which
the switch has a stationary frame, and in which the outer
26. A switch for microwave energy comprising a com
mon port, a branch port on one side of the common port,
part of the U bend includes a deeply grooved stud, and
in which the frame of the switch has locating plates which
a branch port on the opposite side of the common port,
pin, and pilot holes to receive the pilot pin, said pilot
holes having tapered mouths.
either branch port, said ports leading to seats, the ends
of the U bend providing mating seats, said seats being
provided with contact springs to insure good electrical
said branch ports being equally spaced from said common
receive the grooved stud to locate the outer part of the 20 port, a U bend dimensioned to join the common port and
U bend.
either branch port, a parallelogram linkage movably car
18. A coaxial switch as de?ned in claim 4 in which the
rying said U bend for bodily movement on an arcuate
handle has a pilot pin, a push button to release said pilot
path between positions joining the common port with
19. A coaxial switch as de?ned in claim 5 in which the
handle has a pilot pin, a push button to release said pilot
contact between the ports and the U bend, said contact
pin, and pilot holes to receive the pilot pin, said pilot holes
having tapered mouths and being located slightly offset
springs including a ring for the outer conductor, said ring
from a diametrical relation, such as to cause a little more 30
than 180° travel of the operating handle.
20. A switch as de?ned in claim 1 in which the linkage
is provided with relatively powerful over-the-center pull
being a ring of thin resilient sheet metal the contact pe—
ripheiy of which is radially slotted and bent away from
its seat and the base periphery of which is secured to its
seat, the opposed seat having a rigid contact part which
bears against the slotted contact part of said contact
springs which urge the U bend toward the ports con
spring, and having a rigid base part which bears against
nected thereby, and in which the ends of the over-the 35 the base part of said contact spring, the said rigid con
center pull springs have hooks received in grooves, and
tact part and rigid base part being so stepped that the
in which the grooves are lined by nylon rings to reduce
slotted contact parts of said spring contact are de?ected
friction.
while the base part of said spring contact is ?xedly sup
21. A coaxial switch as de?ned in claim 2 in which rel
ported.
atively powerful pull springs are so connected to said 40
27. A switch for microwave energy comprising a com
shafts at points located diametrically away from the cranks
mon port, a branch port on one side of the common port,
of the parallelogram linkage that the pull springs act as
a branch port on the opposite side of the common port,
over-the-center springs to urge the U bend toward the
said branch ports being equally spaced from said com
ports connected thereby, and in which the ends of the
mon port, a U bend dimensioned to join the common port
over-the-center pull springs have hooks received in
and either branch port, a parallelogram linkage movably
grooves, and in which the grooves are lined by nylon rings
carrying said U bend for bodily movement on an arcuate
to reduce friction.
path between positions joining the common port with
22. A coaxial switch as de?ned in claim 2 in which rel
either branch port, a'stationary frame carrying the afore
atively powerful pull springs are so connected to said
said ports, the outer part of the U bend including a deeply
50
shafts at points located diametrically away from the
grooved stud, and the frame having locating plates which
cranks of the parallelogram linkage that the pull springs
receive the grooved stud to locate the outer part of the
act as over-the-center springs to urge the U bend toward
U bend.
28. A switch for microwave energy comprising a com
over-the-center pull springs have hooks received in
prising
a common port, a branch port on one side of the
grooves, and in which the grooves are lined by nylon rings 55 common port, a branch port on the opposite side of the
to reduce friction, and in which the rings have a diam
common port, said branch ports being equally spaced from
eter large enough to be received over the pins to reach
said common port, a U bend dimensioned to join the
the grooves, and in which the hooks deform the rings
common port and either branch port, a parallelogram
the ports connected thereby, and in which the ends of the
from circular to elliptical con?guration.
linkage movably carrying said U bend for bodily move
23. A switch as de?ned in claim 1 in which there are 60 ment on an arcuate path between positions joining the
two collateral branch ports on each side of two collateral
common port with either branch port, said linkage being
common ports, and two collateral U bends, and in which
provided with relatively powerful over-the-center pull
the parallelogram linkage bodily moves both U bends
simultaneously, thereby providing a double-pole double
throw switch.
24. A switch as de?ned in claim 2 in which there are
two collateral branch ports on each side of two collateral
common ports, and two collateral U bends, and in which
the parallelogram linkage bodily moves both U bends si
springs which urge the U bend toward the ports connected
65
thereby, and the ends of the over-the-center pull springs
having hooks received in grooves, and the said grooves
being lined by nylon rings to reduce friction.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
multaneously, thereby providing a double-pole double 70
UNITED STATES PATENTS
throw switch.
25. A switch for microwave energy comprising a com~
1,893,046
Austin ________________ __ Ian. 3, 1933
2,709,725
Bieber et al. _________ _._ May 31, 1955
mon port, a branch port on one side of the common port,
2,825,775
Constantine et al. ..,_....__.._ Mar. 4, 1958
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