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Патент USA US3064164

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Nov. 13, 1962
Filed Feb. 19, 1960
pgavoe AET
Patented Nov. 13, 1982
arrangements in which the control signal lies non-sym
metrical to the zero position of the oscillator. Accordingly
these structures likewise fail.
Edgar Schiininger, Aliach, near Munich, Germany, as
signor to Siemens é’; Haiske Akticngesellschait Berlin
and Munich, a corporation of Germany
Filed Feb. 19, 1960, Ser. No. 9,927
Claims priority, application Germany Sept. 17, W59
5 tllaims. (Cl. 310-36)
In order to avoid these drawbacks, it has been proposed
to construct an arrangement for the operation of mechani
cal oscillators, especially balances of time pieces, provided
with at least one coil adapted to execute oscillations rela
tive to electromagnetic ?elds generated preferably by
permanent magnets, so that at least parts of the magneti
This invention is concerned with an arrangement for 10 cally effective coil legs do not extend radially to the rota
driving mechanical oscillators, especially balances in time
tion axis of the mechanical oscillator, and wherein the
elements (preferably permanent magnets) which generate
It is generally known that the drive impulses for main
taining the de?ection stroke of balances or pendulums
should be given as far as possible incident to the motion of
the electromagnetic ?elds are so arranged that the voltage
induced in the coil exhibits substantially the same peak
the balance or pendulum through its zero position. It
can also be demonstrated that the drive impulse may in
some circumstances consist of a plurality of very short
impulses for each half-oscillation provided that these im
pulses are e?ected symmetrical to the zero position of the
oscillator. In the case of electronically operated time
pieces, great di?iculties are usually experienced in meet
ing the above noted requirement which is for reasons of
values independent of the number of coil legs respectively
permeated by the electromagnetic ?eld in the course of the
oscillation operation.
The present invention avoids the above explained dis-.
advantages by arranging the elements for producing the
electromagnetic ?elds so that the average distance of the
field generating elements is greater or smaller than the
average distance of the magnetically e?'ective coil parts,
so that the voltage induced during the oscillation operation
exhibits the same or nearly the same peak values regard
same time all other technical requirements, such as obtain 25 less of the number of elements generating the electromag
regulation technique indispensible, and to satisfy at the
ing a suitable control signal, proper form of the induction
voltage, etc. Balance or pendulum motors known from
contact-controlled time pieces can be directly used in
netic ?elds and coils or the operativeiy effective parts
thereof. It is accordingly possible to produce by means
of one coil with radially extending legs, a signal which is
symmetrical with respect to the voltage maxima, provided
transistor controlled time pieces only in few instances.
Depending upon the control principle employed, they are 30 that the magnets are not disposed in the same mutual
in practice even found unsuitable.
The balance motors at present generally known employ
spacing as the legs of the coil. It was until now with the
use of permanent magnets of the customary kind, for ex?
ample, with circular cylindrical shape and with the use of
as a rule one or more circular cylindrical permanent mag
nets for producing a constant electromagnetic ?eld with 35 customary coils, impossible to obtain in the diagram ac
cording to FIG. 1 peaks 1, 3 and 5 of the same magnitude.
respect to which a circular, triangular or elliptical coil
For better understanding, there will be ?rst explained the
can execute relative motions. With moving oscillator, a
manner in which the signal according to FIG. 1 is pro
voltage is induced in the coil incident to passage through
duced with a normal two-leg ?at coil cooperating with two
the electromagnetic?eld. In the case of time pieces con
taining transistors, this voltage can be utilized for the 40 circular cylindrical magnets.
If the coil Sp which is assumed to be rotatable about
control of the drive impulses. However, the voltage sig
point 0 is moved from left to right, in the plane of the
nals delivered in known balance motors are in practice
drawing, perpendicular to the ?elds of the magnets A and
found to be more or less unsuitable for the intended
B, above the two magnets, the peak 1 Will be induced by
The various objects and features of the invention will 45 the leg H2 upon sweeping over the magnet A (north pole).
Shortly thereafter, the two legs H1 and H2 will stand
appear from the description which will be rendered below
aligned over the magnets A and B, thereby inducing the
with reference to the accompanying drawing, wherein
peak 2 which naturally is twice as great as the peak 1 since
FIG. 1 is a diagram showing signals delivered in known
the magnetic flux through the coil is twice as great. The
FIG. 2 shows a structure for producing the signals ac 50 coil continues to move and the leg H1 passes over the
magnet B (south pole), thereby inducing the peak 3.
cording to FIG. 1;
When the coil moves in opposite direction, that is, in
FIG. 3 illustrates a structure according to the invention;
the plane of the drawing from right to left, the signal will
be due to change of direction of opposite polarity, exhibit
FIG. 4 is a diagram showing the signals obtained in an
ing the peaks 4, 5 and 6.
arrangement according to FIG. 3.
The present invention will now be explained with refer
The invention proceeds from recognition of the fact
ence to FIG. 3.
that, for example, the known triangular coil fastened upon
The triangle-like ?at coil Sp is fastened to a balance Ur
a balance delivers in cooperation with two cylindrical
which is in known manner adapted to execute rotary
permanent magnets a signal which is from the standpoint
of regulation technique favorable but the shape of which 60 motions about point 0. Letters A and B indicate two
transversely magnetized permanent magnets, the “magnetic
is unsatisfactory. This will be realized upon examining
centers of gravity” are symbolized by letters In and m’.
FIG. 1 which represents the induced voltage U in de
The points M and M’ of the two coil legs represent the
pendence upon the time t, showing that the peaks 1 and
centers of the electrically effective coil parts, that is, the
3 (or 4 and 6) are with respect to the peak 2 (or 5) in
a ratio of 1 to 2. Since the control mechanism for the 65 “electrical center of gravity” of the coil legs. The width
of the legs is indicated by s. Upon rotation of the balance
balance motor is operatively actuated in response to the
by the amount of the angle a, about the rotation axis 0,
peaks 1, 3 and 5, depending upon the polarity of the
a coil leg will be positioned approximately in alignment
induction voltage, the drive impulse will always occur
with one of the magnets A or B.
under different electrical conditions. As has been Shown
Upon assuming a de?ection of the balance by more
by investigations underlying the invention, this situation 70 than
90° (rotation to the left) from the position shown,
is very detrimental for the operating stability of such time
will occur in the coil during the successive oscillation
pieces. Similar di?iculties occur in connection with other
period the following electrical actions. Upon return rota
tion (to the right) the magnet B will be passed over by the
leg H1. Based upon Faraday’s induction law, a voltage is
now induced into this leg corresponding to the peak I
shown in the diagram FIG. 4, the maximum value of
which is determined by the magnetic ?ux, number of
turns of the coil and the angular velocity. Upon, further
rotation of the balance, H1 will leave the ?eld of B and
the leg H2 will after a brief interval cut the ?eld lines
extending from B. The arrangement of the coil-magnet
is such that the leg H1 reaches the ?eld of magnet A only 10
when the number of ?eld lines of the magnet B extending
In the described arrangement, the coil is in no position
permeated by the total ?ux of all magnet elements. In
order to obtain in the coil as high a voltage as possible,
relatively large preferably elongated or oval magnets are
used so as to embrace substantially the entire electrically
effective coil area.
through H2 decreases. Therefore, leg H2 moves with re
spect to magnet B to alignment therewith. Immediately
thereafter, leg H1 will enter the ?eld of magnet A. When
Changes may be made within the scope and spirit of the
appended claims which de?ne what is believed to be new
and desired to have protected by Letters Patent.
I claim:
1. In an electron transistor drive arrangement for the
mechanical oscillator of an electrically operated time
piece, the combination of an oscillatable drive balance, a
coil operatively connected to a control transistor and oscil
H1 is aligned with A, H2 has just left the ?eld ofB. 15 latable with said drive balance, a plurality of permanent
magnets cooperably disposed with respect to said coil,
Shortly thereafter, leg H1 will also be in a position prac
relative movement of said coil with respect to the ?elds of
tically free of a magnetic ?eld.
During the above described-operations, there will appear I
at the terminals of the coil the voltage according to the
central peak II with a magnitude approximately of that
of the peak I. The duration of peak 11 is however twice
as long since both magnets are in point of time affected
saidrnagnets being operative to produce control and drive
voltage impulses for maintaining oscillation of said drive
balance, the average spacing between said permanent mag
nets being different than the average spacing between the
magnetically eifective coil parts, the number of turns of
successively by the coil. H2 will ?nally reach the ?eld A i the coil'and the speed thereof which, with the relative
spacing of said magnets and said coil parts, determines the
and induce the peak III. Upon swinging back of the
balance, the signal will have the same shape but opposite 25 magnitude of the produced impulse voltage, being such
that said voltage is independent of the number of the coil
polarity, and there will be produced the'peaks IV, V
legs which are'respectively traversed by ?ux so that the
and VI.
drive impulses exhibit substantially identical peak values
The arrangement of the magnets is such that the spacing
of the induced voltage.
of the magnetic centers of gravity m and m' is by about
2. An arrangement according to claim 1, wherein the
the width s of a coil leg greater than the spacing of the
spacing between said permanent magnets di?ers
center points M and M’ of the legs H1 and H2.
Anarrangement would also be feasible in which the
spacing of the points m and m’ would be smaller by the
amount s than the spacing M and M’. The peak values
of the induced voltage will then remain of equal magni
‘by the width of a magnetically e?ective part of said coil.
3. An' arrangement according to claim 2, wherein the
average spacing between said permanent magnets is greater
35 by an amount corresponding to the width of a magnetically
tude, the structure of the coil will however be more un
favorable. The spacing W' could also exceed EITlF-l-s.
A corresponding arrangement would however supply a
signal expanded too much as to time, resulting in more
unfavorable regulation conditions.
The signal receives for lflT-l-sr-"r??’ the shape illus
trated in FIG. 4, containing only peaks with the desired
values of identical magnitude. The duration of the cen
eifective part of said coil.
shape, and the center points of said magnets lie upon the
circumference of a circle extending about the axis of rota
tion of the drive balance. '
sponds operatively only to one polarity of the peaks and,
I '
5. An'arrangement according to claim 4, wherein said
_coil is of generally triangular shape.
tral peak II (and V) is twice the duration of peaks I and 45 j
III (or IV and VI). This effect is desirable. As is known,
a transistor ampli?er employed for driving a balance re—
.4, An arrangement according to claim 1, wherein said
permanent magnets have an elongated cross-sectional
References Cited in‘the ?le of this patent
' 2,888,797
" Killman et al __________ .._ Jan. 10, 1939
Von Horn et a1 _________ __ June 2, 1959
‘ 2,924,797
‘ Held ...__' ______________ __ Dec. 8, 1959
Biemiller ..__Q __________ _._ Feb. 9, 1960
preceding and succeeding peaks, the power delivered by
.Biemiller et a1 _________ .._ May 17, 1960
thetransistor ampli?er to the balance will be of the same
Reese et'al _________ __'___ Sept. 13, 1960
therefore, in parts to the balance in accordance with the
voltage course shown in FIG. 4, a drive impulse during 50
one half oscillation and during the successive half period.
Since the duration of the central peak is twice that of the
magnitude during the two half oscillations.
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