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Nov. 13, 1962 E. SCHONINGER 3,064,146 ARRANGEMENT FOR DRIVING THE OSCILLATOR OF A TIMEPIECE Filed Feb. 19, 1960 U Fig.1 5 pgavoe AET Staes atent 3,@64,146 Patented Nov. 13, 1982 1 2 3,064,146 arrangements in which the control signal lies non-sym metrical to the zero position of the oscillator. Accordingly these structures likewise fail. ARRANGEMENT FQR DRIVING THE @SCELLATGR (DE A TIMEPIECE - Edgar Schiininger, Aliach, near Munich, Germany, as signor to Siemens é’; Haiske Akticngesellschait Berlin and Munich, a corporation of Germany Filed Feb. 19, 1960, Ser. No. 9,927 Claims priority, application Germany Sept. 17, W59 5 tllaims. (Cl. 310-36) In order to avoid these drawbacks, it has been proposed to construct an arrangement for the operation of mechani cal oscillators, especially balances of time pieces, provided with at least one coil adapted to execute oscillations rela tive to electromagnetic ?elds generated preferably by permanent magnets, so that at least parts of the magneti This invention is concerned with an arrangement for 10 cally effective coil legs do not extend radially to the rota driving mechanical oscillators, especially balances in time pieces. tion axis of the mechanical oscillator, and wherein the elements (preferably permanent magnets) which generate It is generally known that the drive impulses for main taining the de?ection stroke of balances or pendulums should be given as far as possible incident to the motion of the electromagnetic ?elds are so arranged that the voltage induced in the coil exhibits substantially the same peak the balance or pendulum through its zero position. It can also be demonstrated that the drive impulse may in some circumstances consist of a plurality of very short impulses for each half-oscillation provided that these im pulses are e?ected symmetrical to the zero position of the oscillator. In the case of electronically operated time pieces, great di?iculties are usually experienced in meet ing the above noted requirement which is for reasons of values independent of the number of coil legs respectively permeated by the electromagnetic ?eld in the course of the oscillation operation. The present invention avoids the above explained dis-. advantages by arranging the elements for producing the electromagnetic ?elds so that the average distance of the field generating elements is greater or smaller than the average distance of the magnetically e?'ective coil parts, so that the voltage induced during the oscillation operation exhibits the same or nearly the same peak values regard same time all other technical requirements, such as obtain 25 less of the number of elements generating the electromag regulation technique indispensible, and to satisfy at the ing a suitable control signal, proper form of the induction voltage, etc. Balance or pendulum motors known from contact-controlled time pieces can be directly used in netic ?elds and coils or the operativeiy effective parts thereof. It is accordingly possible to produce by means of one coil with radially extending legs, a signal which is symmetrical with respect to the voltage maxima, provided transistor controlled time pieces only in few instances. Depending upon the control principle employed, they are 30 that the magnets are not disposed in the same mutual in practice even found unsuitable. The balance motors at present generally known employ spacing as the legs of the coil. It was until now with the use of permanent magnets of the customary kind, for ex? ample, with circular cylindrical shape and with the use of as a rule one or more circular cylindrical permanent mag nets for producing a constant electromagnetic ?eld with 35 customary coils, impossible to obtain in the diagram ac cording to FIG. 1 peaks 1, 3 and 5 of the same magnitude. respect to which a circular, triangular or elliptical coil For better understanding, there will be ?rst explained the can execute relative motions. With moving oscillator, a manner in which the signal according to FIG. 1 is pro voltage is induced in the coil incident to passage through duced with a normal two-leg ?at coil cooperating with two the electromagnetic?eld. In the case of time pieces con taining transistors, this voltage can be utilized for the 40 circular cylindrical magnets. If the coil Sp which is assumed to be rotatable about control of the drive impulses. However, the voltage sig point 0 is moved from left to right, in the plane of the nals delivered in known balance motors are in practice drawing, perpendicular to the ?elds of the magnets A and found to be more or less unsuitable for the intended operation. B, above the two magnets, the peak 1 Will be induced by The various objects and features of the invention will 45 the leg H2 upon sweeping over the magnet A (north pole). Shortly thereafter, the two legs H1 and H2 will stand appear from the description which will be rendered below aligned over the magnets A and B, thereby inducing the with reference to the accompanying drawing, wherein peak 2 which naturally is twice as great as the peak 1 since FIG. 1 is a diagram showing signals delivered in known the magnetic flux through the coil is twice as great. The structures; FIG. 2 shows a structure for producing the signals ac 50 coil continues to move and the leg H1 passes over the magnet B (south pole), thereby inducing the peak 3. cording to FIG. 1; When the coil moves in opposite direction, that is, in FIG. 3 illustrates a structure according to the invention; and the plane of the drawing from right to left, the signal will be due to change of direction of opposite polarity, exhibit FIG. 4 is a diagram showing the signals obtained in an ing the peaks 4, 5 and 6. arrangement according to FIG. 3. The present invention will now be explained with refer The invention proceeds from recognition of the fact ence to FIG. 3. that, for example, the known triangular coil fastened upon The triangle-like ?at coil Sp is fastened to a balance Ur a balance delivers in cooperation with two cylindrical which is in known manner adapted to execute rotary permanent magnets a signal which is from the standpoint of regulation technique favorable but the shape of which 60 motions about point 0. Letters A and B indicate two transversely magnetized permanent magnets, the “magnetic is unsatisfactory. This will be realized upon examining centers of gravity” are symbolized by letters In and m’. FIG. 1 which represents the induced voltage U in de The points M and M’ of the two coil legs represent the pendence upon the time t, showing that the peaks 1 and centers of the electrically effective coil parts, that is, the 3 (or 4 and 6) are with respect to the peak 2 (or 5) in a ratio of 1 to 2. Since the control mechanism for the 65 “electrical center of gravity” of the coil legs. The width of the legs is indicated by s. Upon rotation of the balance balance motor is operatively actuated in response to the by the amount of the angle a, about the rotation axis 0, peaks 1, 3 and 5, depending upon the polarity of the a coil leg will be positioned approximately in alignment induction voltage, the drive impulse will always occur with one of the magnets A or B. under different electrical conditions. As has been Shown Upon assuming a de?ection of the balance by more by investigations underlying the invention, this situation 70 than 90° (rotation to the left) from the position shown, is very detrimental for the operating stability of such time there will occur in the coil during the successive oscillation pieces. Similar di?iculties occur in connection with other period the following electrical actions. Upon return rota 3,064,146 3 tion (to the right) the magnet B will be passed over by the leg H1. Based upon Faraday’s induction law, a voltage is now induced into this leg corresponding to the peak I shown in the diagram FIG. 4, the maximum value of which is determined by the magnetic ?ux, number of turns of the coil and the angular velocity. Upon, further rotation of the balance, H1 will leave the ?eld of B and the leg H2 will after a brief interval cut the ?eld lines extending from B. The arrangement of the coil-magnet is such that the leg H1 reaches the ?eld of magnet A only 10 when the number of ?eld lines of the magnet B extending 4 In the described arrangement, the coil is in no position permeated by the total ?ux of all magnet elements. In order to obtain in the coil as high a voltage as possible, relatively large preferably elongated or oval magnets are used so as to embrace substantially the entire electrically effective coil area. through H2 decreases. Therefore, leg H2 moves with re spect to magnet B to alignment therewith. Immediately thereafter, leg H1 will enter the ?eld of magnet A. When ‘ ' Changes may be made within the scope and spirit of the appended claims which de?ne what is believed to be new and desired to have protected by Letters Patent. I claim: 1. In an electron transistor drive arrangement for the mechanical oscillator of an electrically operated time piece, the combination of an oscillatable drive balance, a coil operatively connected to a control transistor and oscil H1 is aligned with A, H2 has just left the ?eld ofB. 15 latable with said drive balance, a plurality of permanent magnets cooperably disposed with respect to said coil, Shortly thereafter, leg H1 will also be in a position prac relative movement of said coil with respect to the ?elds of tically free of a magnetic ?eld. During the above described-operations, there will appear I at the terminals of the coil the voltage according to the central peak II with a magnitude approximately of that of the peak I. The duration of peak 11 is however twice as long since both magnets are in point of time affected saidrnagnets being operative to produce control and drive voltage impulses for maintaining oscillation of said drive balance, the average spacing between said permanent mag nets being different than the average spacing between the magnetically eifective coil parts, the number of turns of successively by the coil. H2 will ?nally reach the ?eld A i the coil'and the speed thereof which, with the relative spacing of said magnets and said coil parts, determines the and induce the peak III. Upon swinging back of the balance, the signal will have the same shape but opposite 25 magnitude of the produced impulse voltage, being such that said voltage is independent of the number of the coil polarity, and there will be produced the'peaks IV, V legs which are'respectively traversed by ?ux so that the and VI. drive impulses exhibit substantially identical peak values The arrangement of the magnets is such that the spacing of the induced voltage. of the magnetic centers of gravity m and m' is by about 2. An arrangement according to claim 1, wherein the the width s of a coil leg greater than the spacing of the average spacing between said permanent magnets di?ers center points M and M’ of the legs H1 and H2. Anarrangement would also be feasible in which the spacing of the points m and m’ would be smaller by the amount s than the spacing M and M’. The peak values of the induced voltage will then remain of equal magni ‘by the width of a magnetically e?ective part of said coil. 3. An' arrangement according to claim 2, wherein the average spacing between said permanent magnets is greater 35 by an amount corresponding to the width of a magnetically tude, the structure of the coil will however be more un favorable. The spacing W' could also exceed EITlF-l-s. A corresponding arrangement would however supply a signal expanded too much as to time, resulting in more unfavorable regulation conditions. The signal receives for lflT-l-sr-"r??’ the shape illus trated in FIG. 4, containing only peaks with the desired values of identical magnitude. The duration of the cen eifective part of said coil. shape, and the center points of said magnets lie upon the circumference of a circle extending about the axis of rota tion of the drive balance. ' sponds operatively only to one polarity of the peaks and, a I ' 5. An'arrangement according to claim 4, wherein said _coil is of generally triangular shape. tral peak II (and V) is twice the duration of peaks I and 45 j III (or IV and VI). This effect is desirable. As is known, a transistor ampli?er employed for driving a balance re— . .4, An arrangement according to claim 1, wherein said permanent magnets have an elongated cross-sectional References Cited in‘the ?le of this patent V UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,143,074 ' 2,888,797 " Killman et al __________ .._ Jan. 10, 1939 Von Horn et a1 _________ __ June 2, 1959 2,916,641 ‘ 2,924,797 ‘ Held ...__' ______________ __ Dec. 8, 1959 Biemiller ..__Q __________ _._ Feb. 9, 1960 preceding and succeeding peaks, the power delivered by 2,936,572 .Biemiller et a1 _________ .._ May 17, 1960 thetransistor ampli?er to the balance will be of the same 2,952,117 Reese et'al _________ __'___ Sept. 13, 1960 therefore, in parts to the balance in accordance with the voltage course shown in FIG. 4, a drive impulse during 50 one half oscillation and during the successive half period. Since the duration of the central peak is twice that of the magnitude during the two half oscillations.