# Патент USA US3064263

код для вставкиNov. 113., 1962 F. R. DICKEY, JR ' - , 3,064,254 MONOPULSE RADAR WITH LINEAR ERRORv VOLTAGE Filed Oct. 16, 1956 “1/ MA F|G.| PRIOR _ - . ART 0 \fa ' " MB \ RA - ' RB F" _______________ u “1 I + l ADDER . I CIRCUIT /' I I ~ |0 4' 12 | SUBTRACT I cmcun’ ' , I ' | ATTENUATOR A4 I‘ l i ' l : PHASE SHIFTER ‘ I . I I ‘N . * ADDER _ cmcurr ""5 /_SUBTRAOT l6 omcurr I - | I I l_.'__._ _, ____________ _.__ ._.____l ' V v R A Ra INVENTOR. ‘ FRANK R. DIOKEY JR. dww? A TTORA/E)’ United States Patent U” EQQ 1 3,@64,Z54 Patented Nov. 13, 1962 2 3,064,254 MONOPULSE RADAR WITH LINEAR ERROR VOLTAGE Frank R. Dickey, Jr., Dewitt, N.Y., assignor to the United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army Filed Oct. 16, 1956, Ser. No. 616,357 4 Claims. (Cl. 343-113) menopause system wherein the discrete outputs from the two antennas A and B are heterodyned by the output from a common oscillator O. The output from the respective mixers MA and MB are applied to respective IF ampli ?ers RA and RB and the outputs of the IF ampli?ers are compared in a linear phase detector D to produce a voltage proportional to the phase difference between the output of the two receivers. The phase relationship exist ing between the respective input and output voltages of This invention relates to searching and tracking radar 10 antennas A and B may be readily shown by means of systems and more particularly to a monopulse type radar FIG. 2 which represents the equivalent circuit of the two system. 'similar antennas having mutual coupling therebetween The monopulse technique in radar consists in deriving designated by ZM and respective input impedances ZA sufficient information from a single pulse by multiple, and 23. The respective induced antenna voltages VA and simultaneously acting receiving channels to determine completely both the angular position and range of the 15 VB are assumed to be equal except for the phase dif ference 95, that is target. In one well- known system employing two antenna feeds and two receivers, the azimuth error correction sig nal is obtained by comparing the phase difference between the’ outputs of the two receivers. The phase difference 20 In terms of the antenna load impedance Z1“. the antenna between the voltages induced in the two antennas will loop impedance Z and the mutual impedance ZM, the two vary linearly with the target angle but, due to the cross antenna output voltages EA and EB may be derived by coupling between the antennas, the voltage signals derived .simple circuit analysis and shown to be from the output of the antenna feeds and detected in the receivers will not have this linear relationship. Due to 25 (2) this factor, inaccuracies in the error correction signal derived from the phase comparison of the two received signals will result in erroneous target indications. and It is therefore an object of the present invention to ‘pro vide an improved phase-comparison monopulse radar 30 system having a linear error correction voltage. It is another object of the present invention to provide an improved phase-comparison monopulse radar system wherein the phase errors due to the mutual coupling be 35 tween the antenna feeds are effectively eliminated. The factors shown in the brackets ‘of Equations 2 and 3 It is another object of the present invention to provide are functions of the phase difference ¢ due to the effect an improved phase-comparison monopulse radar system of the mutual coupling ZM which causes undesirable wherein greater accuracy of the angular location of a phase errors. > target with respect to the bore sight axis is achieved. In FIG. 3 there is shown the improvement comprising Briefly, the present invention is directed to a mono the present invention which compensates and corrects for pulse phase-comparison system wherein the error cor the effects of the coupling between the antenna feeds A rection signal is a function of the phase difference between and B. Referring now to FIG. 3, the voltage outputs the signal voltages induced in two antennas having a pre EA and EB from respective mixers MA and MB are com “[7] scribed mutual impedance ZM therebetween and each bined in a ?rst adder or sum circuit 10 and a ?rst sub having a loop impedance Z. Means are provided for 45 tractor or difference circuit 12 to provide the respective maintaining the error voltage proportional to the phase sum and difference voltage signals E=EA+EB and difference between the signals derived from the respective A=EA—EB. Such adder and subtractor circuits are well outputs of the antennas. Such means include means for known in the art and no further description thereof is producing respective sum’ and difference signals of the believed necessary. The sum signal output from adder antenna output signals and means for altering the ampli 50 circuit 11} is applied to an attenuating and phase shifting tude and phase of the sum signal by the factor circuit 14 which is adapted to alter or, in effect, multiply the amplitude and phase of the sum signal Z=EA+EB by a factor Z Also included are discrete means for producing respective voltage signals equal to the sum of the altered signal and the difference signal, and equal to the difference of the altered signal and the difference signal. For a better understanding of the invention together with other and further objects thereof, reference is had to the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings in which: FIG. 1 is a block schematic diagram of a prior art monopulse phase-comparison system; FIG. 2 illustrates schematically the equivalent antenna feed circuit of the prior art system shown in FIG. 1; and FIG. 3 is a block schematic diagram illustrating the 60 where this factor is a complex number having an absolute value which expresses the required amplitude ratio and having an angle which expresses the required phase shift and where, as explained above, ZM is the value of the ‘mutual impedance between the two antennnas and Z is the respective loop impedance of the two antennas. The values ZM and Z, of course, may be measured or derived in any conventional manner well known in the art. As shown, the altered sum signal is respectively combined with the diiference signal A=EA~EB in a second adder 70 circuit 16 and in a second subtractor circuit 18. The present invention. ' outputs of second adder circuit 16 and second subtractor ,FIG. 1 illustrates a conventional’ phase-comparison circuit 18 are respectively applied to IF ampli?ers RA 3,064,254 4.; 3 changed in amplitude and phase by the factor and RB, and the output of the IF ampli?ers are compared in linear phase detector D as shown. The network 14 may consist of an attenuator and a phase shifter connected in cascade or it may consist of and the difference A-=EA—EB should be changed in amplitude and phase by the factor ZM a single network designed to provide both the desired change in amplitude and the desired value of phase shift. Furthermore, if the absolute value of the factor discussed above, is greater than one, it may be necessary to place 1‘ 2 the network in the output of subtractor 12 instead of in Since only the phase, not the amplitude, of the output the output of adder 10. For convenience in making ad 10 is of interest, the actual requirement is that the gain and justments it may be desirable to place a network in each phase shifts of the sum and difference channel differ in of the two locations. accordance with the factor The theory of operation of the present invention is based on the fact that the voltage VA and VB induced in antennas A and B, respectively, are derived from EA and 15 EB by linear transformation independent of the phase angle q). This can be shown by utilizing the relationship set forth in Equations 1, 2, and 3. Let S represent the quantity 20 52 Z _Z_M>” 1—— Z As shown in FIG. 3, the sum and difference signals E=EA+EB and A=EA—EB are derived respectively from adder circuit 10 and subtractor circuit 12. The desired output signals are obtained by sending the sum (EA+EB) through the network 14 having a transfer function given by the factor V and let U represent the quantity 25 Z “7M in Now, by adding and subtracting Equations 2 and 3 we have Z 30 and then deriving another sum and difference signal by means of second adder circuit 16 and second subtractor (4) circuit 18. By such addition and subtraction, the signals applied to phase detector D from the IF ampli?ers RA and RB will be in phase with VA and VB, respectively. (5) 35 The same result is achieved if the ?rst sum and difference VA , ’ VB signals are sent through networks having transfer func . tions given respectively by VB 6 vA these values may be substituted in Equations 4 and 5 for e-i" and eat”, and as a result we have 1+gZiI and 1—ZZAI 40 and before being applied to adder circuit 16 and subtractor circuit 18. Although the linearizing circuits shown in FIG. 3 are added after the mixer stages MA and MB, that is, at the From Equation 6 the value of VB in terms of VA may be IF level, it is to be understood of course that the lineari 45 zation circuits described hereinabove may be added at readily derived as follows: the RF level before the mixer stages. Well known mi EA+EB _ VB _ crowave hybrid circuits such as magic-tees would be ~s ( 1 _ U) VA (8) used in this case. Substituting this value for VB in Equation 7 and solving While there has been described what is at present con for VA we arrive at the following equation: > 1 50 ‘, VA=W[(EA+EB) (1+ U) T (EA-EB) (1- UN (9) Inasmuch as without departing from the invention, and it is, there 55 _z_L Z S=1~ U2 where 60 d LEM UZ phase difference between the respective signal voltages induced in two antennas having a prescribed mutual im dance Z, means for maintaining the error voltage propor VA—§—Z—L[:(EA+EB)(1+7)+(EA—EB)(1—7>] (10) ZM ZM tional to the phase difference between the signals derived 65 ‘from the respective outputs of said antennas comprising: means for producing respective sum and difference sig nals of said output antenna signals, means for multiply In a similar manner it can be shown that Z fore, aimed in the appended claims to cover all such changes and modi?cations as fall within the true spirit and scope of the invention. What is claimed is: 1. In a monopulse phase-comparison system wherein the error correction signal voltage is a function of the pedance ZM therebetween and each having a loop impe we have __ Z \sidered to be the preferred embodiments of this inven tion, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that various changes and modi?cations may be made therein Z z Z VB=§Z[(EA+EB>(1+—M —<EA-EB>(1——Z“-‘):| (11) 70 It is apparent from Equations 10 and 11 that to ob tairi the results desired, the sum 2=EA+EB should be 75 ing the amplitude and phase of said sum signal by the factor in and discrete means for producing respective voltage sig 3,064,254 5 nals equal to the sum of said multiplied signal and said dilference signal, and equal to the difference of said 6 plying the amplitude and phase of said sum and difference signals by the factors multiplied signal and said di?erence signal. 2. In a monopulse system wherein the relative phase of respective signals induced in two similar antennas varies linearly with the target angle relative to the bore sight axis, means in circuit with the output Signals of said antenna for maintaining the linearity of said induced signals comprising: a ?rst adder circuit for producing 1-l—Z7M and 1-—€ZM respectively, and means for respectively adding and sub tracting said multiplied sum and said multiplied dif ference signal. ' 4. In a monopulse phase-comparison system wherein the error correction signal voltage is a vfunction of the the sum signal of the antenna output signals, a ?rst sub 10 phase difference between the signal voltages induced in tractor circuit for producing the difference signal of the two antennas having a prescribed mutual impedance antenna output signals, a network responsive to the sum ZM therebetween and each having a loop impedance Z, signal and having a transfer function given by the factor means for maintaining the error voltage proportional to the phase difference between the signals derived from 15 the respective outputs of said antenna comprising: means for producing respective ‘sum and difference signals of said output antenna signals, a ?rst network responsive to said sum signal and having a transfer function given by the factor where ZM is the mutual impedance between both anten 20 nas and Z is the loop impedance of each antenna, a a second network responsive to said diiference signal and second adder circuit ‘for producing the sum signal of the having a transfer function given by the factor output of said network and said difference signals, and a second subtractor circuit for producing the difference .214 signal of the output of said network and said difference 25 2 signal. 3. In a monopulse phase-comparison system wherein the error correction signal voltage is a function of the phase diiference between the signal voltages induced in 30 two antennas having a prescribed mutual impedance ZM therebetween and each having a loop impedance Z, means ‘for maintaining the error voltage proportional to the phase difference between the signals derived from the respective outputs of said antennas, said means compris~ means for producing the sum signal of the outputs of said ?rst and second networks, and means ‘for producing the difference signal of the outputs of said ?rst and sec ond networks. . References Cited in the ?le of this patent‘ UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,147,810 Alford _____________ __ Feb. 21, 1939 ing: means for producing respective sum and difference 2,687,520 Fox ____ __v _________ __ Aug. 24, 1954 signals of said output antenna signals, means for multi 2,713,164 Baum :_..____,,__.._____v___ July 12g 195‘

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