Патент USA US3064604код для вставки
Nov. -20, 1962 - R. P. HEUER REFRACTORY ROOF Filed April à15,> 1959 3,064,594 rates 3,064,594 „. ECC Patented Nov. 20, Yl 962 2 l In a particular case, the amount of refractory wasted 3,064,594 Y n ~ _ REFRACTORY ROOF Russell Pearce Heuer, Bryn Mawr, Pa., assignor to Gen eral Refraîcto'ries Company, a corporation of Pennsyl vania Y Y , Filed Apr. 15, 1959, Ser. No. 806,550 3 Claims. (Cl. 11G-99) in these triangular portions is of the order of 14 percent so that the eliiciency of utilization of the refractory is only of the order of about 86 percent. It Will be appreciated that the waste of money involved is very considerable when it is understood that the basic refractory roof for a single open hearth furnace will cost $25,000 or more. The present invention relates to refractory roofs. By the present invention, this diûìculty is overcome. A purpose of` the invention is -to obtain more eflicient 10 The major axis of each brick is positioned at right angles utilization of refractory brick in refractory roofs. to the working face. Each brick is hung from a tab Y A further purpose is to hang the brick of a refractory which is located’ at and beyond the cold end at the side roof by a .tabV hanger with the major axis of the brick of the brick adjoining the center of the concave roof. displaced from the vertical and transverse to the working The bricks are hung in pairs, the hanger for one brick face of the roof without the use of skewbacks. being vertical and the hanger for the next brick being A further purpose is to provide »for hanging refractory diverged away from the vertical, so that there is a slight brick in pairs, _one of the hangers extending vertically lateral component of the weight of the brick which is ex and the other hanger diverging from the vertical in the erted toward the center of the concave roof to keep t-he direction remote from the center of the arch. roof tight during assembly, since the hangers and bricks A further purpose, in the’ hanger arrangement under 20 swing freely. discussion, is to utilize key brick in the middle and rec No skewbacks arev used, the support of the brick be tangular brick Vforming ramps at the sides of the roof. A further purpose is to place the‘ hanger tab at the side of the brick nearest to the center of the roof and protruding beyond the cold end. Further purposes appear in the `specification and in the claims. y YIn the drawings I have chosen to illustrate one only of ing entirely from above. The front and back walls are sim-ply brought into a position adjacent to the roof without supporting the roof. Considering first the form of FIGUREv 1, I there illus trate a roof for an open hearth furnace, made up of basic refractory brick 20. At the sides are ramps 21 each made up of straight or rectangular basic refractory brick the numerous embodiments in which .the invention may and inV the center there> is a curved arch 22 made up of appear, selecting the form shown from the standpoints 30 key brick 23. It will be understood that the key brick of convenience in illustration, satisfactory operation and clear demonstration of the principles involved. "FIGURE l is a central vertical section through the plane of the curve of a roof according to the invention. The illustration is largely diagrammatic. FIGURE la is an enlarged diagrammatic elevation of one of the ramp brick in FIGURE l. FIGURE 2 is a perspective of a brick employed in the roof of the present invention. FIGURE 3 is a perspective of a U-shaped oxidizable 40 metallic plate employed in making the brick of FIG URE 2. FIGURE 4 is a perspective of an alternate' top plate are of wedge shape ou` the sides 24 and 25. g The hot ends 26 conform to the general shape of the working face of the roof and there are no wasted tri angular portions of the brick. At the cold ends 27 ad joining that minor surface of the brick which is nearest to the center and protruding out beyond the cold end there is a metallic hanger tabl 28 which has an opening 30 which receives one of the hook ends 31 of theV metal lic hangers. The hangers may be arranged in pairs, consisting of an integral U-shap'ed piece of steel bar, one hanger 32 of theA pair on the side nearest the center of the roof extending down generally vertically and supporting one assembly for `forming the brick of FIGURE 2. FIGURE 5 is a fragmentary vertical section of a prior brick and the other hanger 33 of the pair which is more remote from the center diverging from the vertical away art roof. Describing in illustration but not in limitation and from the center at the lower end. Thus there is a lateral component of the weight of the brick toward the center produced by the hanger 33 which tends to referring to the drawings: keep the brick of the roof close together in suspended Extensive use has been made of suspended basic re fractory roofs for open hearth steel making furnaces and 50 position. The hangers rest on longitudinal beam-s 29 o-f an overhead structure. other metallic furnaces. Among the successful roofs of Each ramp brick 20’ as shown in FIGURE la has a this character, are the ramp type constructions, which center of gravity 34 which, `as the brick hangs, is im employ straight ramps at the sides and a flat section in mediately below the hanger tab 28 at the upper corner the center. ` The eñiciency of utilization of the refractory in such 55 on the minor surface of the brick, on the vertical line 34', so that the brick' hangs stably with its major longi construction has in many cases, however, left much to tudinal »axis 342 directed generally toward the interior or be desired. The bricks have been suspended with their middle of the furnace. major axes vertical, and since the Working face is of arch vOne desirable set of dimensions for the brick is formation, the bricks as initially set are exposed at the hot ends in echelon or saw tooth formation, each brick 60 3 x 41/2 x l2 inches, the hanger tab 28 being at the from the outside to the center of the arch being posi upper corner of the 3 x l2 inch minor lateral face. At the front wall there is desirably placed a water tioned slightly higher than the next brick. lFIGURE 5 cooled metallic support 35 above the door 36 which shows prior art brick 10 hanging in an arch Whose top holds a seal block 37 which is adjacent to but .not actu line of curvature is 11 and whose bottom line of curva ture is 12, the effective thickness of the roof being 13, 65 ally supporting the edge of the roof. At the rear Wall there is a sealing extension 38 which again is adjacent to and triangular portions 1‘4 at the bottom and 15 at the top protruding beyond the lines of curvature and not but does not support the roof. Each brick 20 will suitably be provided with oxidizable contributing to the roof thickness. metallic plates on all lateral faces. I illustrate this in As a consequence these triangular portions 14 and 15 FIGURES 2 and 3 for the straight brick yand it will be exposed at the hot ends and the cold ends are of no use, evident that the same will also be true of the key brick. since the elfective thickness of the roof is actually less I preferably provide a U-shaped oxidizable metallic plate than the length of any one brick. 3,064,594 3 40 which covers substantially all of two minor and one major lateral faces. The plate 40 has a base 41 of the U and arms 42 and 43. The arms of lthe U are preferably provided with tab extensions 44 lanc'ed from the plate and extending into and comolded into engagement with the basic’refractory 45 of the brick. In accordance with the present inven tion, the arm 42 of the U Which‘adjoins one minor lateral face has at the cold end 27 Isuitably welded thereon a 4 working faces of the bricks contributing regularity of line to the interior of the roof and the bricks on each side of the middle of the roof hanging with their major longi tudinal axes displaced in directions toward the space un der the middle of the roof, there being a hanger tab on each brick adjoining one lateral face of the brick at the cold end of the brick, said one lateral face of the brick being the most inward lateral face of the corresponding brick along the width of the roof, a plurality of supports hanger tab 28, which, as the brick is made, is of L 10 above the-roof running in the direction- parallel to the length of the roof and hangers extending from said sup shape, with the t-ab ’extension portion lying against the ports to the tabs in pairs, one hanger extending generally cold end of the brick. vertically and freely engaging the tab of one brick, and I also desirably place on `the other major lateral surface the other hanger diverging from the vertical in the out of the brick an oxidizable metallic plate 46 having tabs 47 which are comolded and united with the refractory. 15 ward direction along the width of the roof and freely engaging the hanger tab of the next brick outward along The plate material is desirably steel, suitably plain the width of the roof, said next brick thus exerting a carbon steel such as AISI 1010 or 1030 or alloy steel lateral pressure component toward the middle of the roof »such as AISi 4130 or 8620. The plates may be of a against said one brick to eliminate need for support and thickness varying between 1%;4’.’ and 1A” depending upon stabilization of the roof on skewbacks. the size of the brick. 2. A refractory roof of claim 1, having a curved arch FIGURE 4 shows two parallel spaced oxidizable metal l-io internal plates 57 secured las by welding to the top of key brick at the middle and side ramps of rectangular pl-ate 46, and embedded by comolding in the refrac brick at each side. t tory of the brick. These plates 57 extend for the pre 3. A refractory roof of claim 1, having a curved arch ponderance of the length of the brick parallel to the 25 of key brick at the middle and having at each side a ramp 3 x l2 inch minor lateral face of the brick in the example of rectangular brick, the center of gravity of each rec given. . tangular brick in the ramps being beneath the point of engagement of the hanger tab. The choice of the extent of the ramps and the extent of the curved arch in the roof of FIGURE 1 will vary, References Cited in the tile of this patent but it is usually preferable to make the curved arch por 30 tion about .ï/?, ofthe total width of the roof. UNITED STATES PATENTS In view of my invention and disclosure, variations and 2,163,435 Pollen ______________ __ June 20, 1939 modifications to meet individual whim or particular need 2,187,669 Stewart _` _____________ __ Jan. 16, 1940 will doubtless become evident to others skilled in the art, Heuer ______________ __ Nov. 14, 1950 to obtain all or part of the beneñts of my invention with 35 2,529,607 out copying the structure shown, and I, therefore, claim 2,600,460 Antill _______________ __ June 17, 1952 all such insofar as they fall within the reasonable spirit 2,652,793 Heuer etfal ___________ .__ Sept. 22, 1953 and scope of my claims. Having thus described my invention what I claim as 40 new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is: 2,673,373 2,786,235 2,880,462 2,902,721 Heuer ______________ __ Mar. 30, Schieferstein __~_ _____ __. Mar. 26, Lehman _____________ __ Apr. 7, Heuer _______________ __ Sept. 8, 2,932,265 Heuer ______________ -__ Apr. 12, 1960 1. A basic refractory roof which widthwise is higher in the middle and lower at the sides, comprising a plu rality of basic refractory brick in contact side by side, each brick having lateral faces, having a working face exposed at the interior of the roof and having a major longitudinal axis transverse to the Working face, the 1954 1957 1959 1959 OTHER REFERENCES Heuer, R. P. and Fay, M. A.: “The All Basic Open Hearth Furnace,” publication by General Refractor-ies Company, pages 5 to 8.