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Патент USA US3064604

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Nov. -20, 1962
- R. P. HEUER
REFRACTORY ROOF
Filed April à15,> 1959
3,064,594
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3,064,594
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Patented Nov. 20, Yl 962
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In a particular case, the amount of refractory wasted
3,064,594
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REFRACTORY ROOF
Russell Pearce Heuer, Bryn Mawr, Pa., assignor to Gen
eral Refraîcto'ries Company, a corporation of Pennsyl
vania
Y
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,
Filed Apr. 15, 1959, Ser. No. 806,550
3 Claims. (Cl. 11G-99)
in these triangular portions is of the order of 14 percent
so that the eliiciency of utilization of the refractory is
only of the order of about 86 percent.
It Will be appreciated that the waste of money involved
is very considerable when it is understood that the basic
refractory roof for a single open hearth furnace will cost
$25,000 or more.
The present invention relates to refractory roofs.
By the present invention, this diûìculty is overcome.
A purpose of` the invention is -to obtain more eflicient 10 The major axis of each brick is positioned at right angles
utilization of refractory brick in refractory roofs.
to the working face. Each brick is hung from a tab
Y A further purpose is to hang the brick of a refractory
which is located’ at and beyond the cold end at the side
roof by a .tabV hanger with the major axis of the brick
of the brick adjoining the center of the concave roof.
displaced from the vertical and transverse to the working
The bricks are hung in pairs, the hanger for one brick
face of the roof without the use of skewbacks.
being vertical and the hanger for the next brick being
A further purpose is to provide »for hanging refractory
diverged away from the vertical, so that there is a slight
brick in pairs, _one of the hangers extending vertically
lateral component of the weight of the brick which is ex
and the other hanger diverging from the vertical in the
erted toward the center of the concave roof to keep t-he
direction remote from the center of the arch.
roof tight during assembly, since the hangers and bricks
A further purpose, in the’ hanger arrangement under 20 swing freely.
discussion, is to utilize key brick in the middle and rec
No skewbacks arev used, the support of the brick be
tangular brick Vforming ramps at the sides of the roof.
A further purpose is to place the‘ hanger tab at the
side of the brick nearest to the center of the roof and
protruding beyond the cold end.
Further purposes appear in the `specification and in the
claims.
y YIn the drawings I have chosen to illustrate one only of
ing entirely from above. The front and back walls are
sim-ply brought into a position adjacent to the roof
without supporting the roof.
Considering first the form of FIGUREv 1, I there illus
trate a roof for an open hearth furnace, made up of basic
refractory brick 20. At the sides are ramps 21 each
made up of straight or rectangular basic refractory brick
the numerous embodiments in which .the invention may
and inV the center there> is a curved arch 22 made up of
appear, selecting the form shown from the standpoints 30 key brick 23. It will be understood that the key brick
of convenience in illustration, satisfactory operation and
clear demonstration of the principles involved.
"FIGURE l is a central vertical section through the
plane of the curve of a roof according to the invention.
The illustration is largely diagrammatic.
FIGURE la is an enlarged diagrammatic elevation of
one of the ramp brick in FIGURE l.
FIGURE 2 is a perspective of a brick employed in the
roof of the present invention.
FIGURE 3 is a perspective of a U-shaped oxidizable 40
metallic plate employed in making the brick of FIG
URE 2.
FIGURE 4 is a perspective of an alternate' top plate
are of wedge shape ou` the sides 24 and 25.
g
The hot ends 26 conform to the general shape of the
working face of the roof and there are no wasted tri
angular portions of the brick. At the cold ends 27 ad
joining that minor surface of the brick which is nearest
to the center and protruding out beyond the cold end
there is a metallic hanger tabl 28 which has an opening
30 which receives one of the hook ends 31 of theV metal
lic hangers.
The hangers may be arranged in pairs, consisting of
an integral U-shap'ed piece of steel bar, one hanger 32
of theA pair on the side nearest the center of the roof
extending down generally vertically and supporting one
assembly for `forming the brick of FIGURE 2.
FIGURE 5 is a fragmentary vertical section of a prior
brick and the other hanger 33 of the pair which is more
remote from the center diverging from the vertical away
art roof.
Describing in illustration but not in limitation and
from the center at the lower end.
Thus there is a
lateral component of the weight of the brick toward
the center produced by the hanger 33 which tends to
referring to the drawings:
keep the brick of the roof close together in suspended
Extensive use has been made of suspended basic re
fractory roofs for open hearth steel making furnaces and 50 position. The hangers rest on longitudinal beam-s 29 o-f
an overhead structure.
other metallic furnaces. Among the successful roofs of
Each ramp brick 20’ as shown in FIGURE la has a
this character, are the ramp type constructions, which
center of gravity 34 which, `as the brick hangs, is im
employ straight ramps at the sides and a flat section in
mediately below the hanger tab 28 at the upper corner
the center.
`
The eñiciency of utilization of the refractory in such 55 on the minor surface of the brick, on the vertical line
34', so that the brick' hangs stably with its major longi
construction has in many cases, however, left much to
tudinal »axis 342 directed generally toward the interior or
be desired. The bricks have been suspended with their
middle of the furnace.
major axes vertical, and since the Working face is of arch
vOne desirable set of dimensions for the brick is
formation, the bricks as initially set are exposed at the
hot ends in echelon or saw tooth formation, each brick 60 3 x 41/2 x l2 inches, the hanger tab 28 being at the
from the outside to the center of the arch being posi
upper corner of the 3 x l2 inch minor lateral face.
At the front wall there is desirably placed a water
tioned slightly higher than the next brick. lFIGURE 5
cooled metallic support 35 above the door 36 which
shows prior art brick 10 hanging in an arch Whose top
holds a seal block 37 which is adjacent to but .not actu
line of curvature is 11 and whose bottom line of curva
ture is 12, the effective thickness of the roof being 13, 65 ally supporting the edge of the roof. At the rear Wall
there is a sealing extension 38 which again is adjacent to
and triangular portions 1‘4 at the bottom and 15 at the
top protruding beyond the lines of curvature and not
but does not support the roof.
Each brick 20 will suitably be provided with oxidizable
contributing to the roof thickness.
metallic plates on all lateral faces. I illustrate this in
As a consequence these triangular portions 14 and 15
FIGURES 2 and 3 for the straight brick yand it will be
exposed at the hot ends and the cold ends are of no use,
evident that the same will also be true of the key brick.
since the elfective thickness of the roof is actually less
I preferably provide a U-shaped oxidizable metallic plate
than the length of any one brick.
3,064,594
3
40 which covers substantially all of two minor and one
major lateral faces. The plate 40 has a base 41 of the
U and arms 42 and 43.
The arms of lthe U are preferably provided with tab
extensions 44 lanc'ed from the plate and extending into
and comolded into engagement with the basic’refractory
45 of the brick. In accordance with the present inven
tion, the arm 42 of the U Which‘adjoins one minor lateral
face has at the cold end 27 Isuitably welded thereon a
4
working faces of the bricks contributing regularity of
line to the interior of the roof and the bricks on each side
of the middle of the roof hanging with their major longi
tudinal axes displaced in directions toward the space un
der the middle of the roof, there being a hanger tab on
each brick adjoining one lateral face of the brick at the
cold end of the brick, said one lateral face of the brick
being the most inward lateral face of the corresponding
brick along the width of the roof, a plurality of supports
hanger tab 28, which, as the brick is made, is of L 10 above the-roof running in the direction- parallel to the
length of the roof and hangers extending from said sup
shape, with the t-ab ’extension portion lying against the
ports to the tabs in pairs, one hanger extending generally
cold end of the brick.
vertically and freely engaging the tab of one brick, and
I also desirably place on `the other major lateral surface
the other hanger diverging from the vertical in the out
of the brick an oxidizable metallic plate 46 having tabs
47 which are comolded and united with the refractory. 15 ward direction along the width of the roof and freely
engaging the hanger tab of the next brick outward along
The plate material is desirably steel, suitably plain
the width of the roof, said next brick thus exerting a
carbon steel such as AISI 1010 or 1030 or alloy steel
lateral pressure component toward the middle of the roof
»such as AISi 4130 or 8620. The plates may be of a
against said one brick to eliminate need for support and
thickness varying between 1%;4’.’ and 1A” depending upon
stabilization of the roof on skewbacks.
the size of the brick.
2. A refractory roof of claim 1, having a curved arch
FIGURE 4 shows two parallel spaced oxidizable metal
l-io internal plates 57 secured las by welding to the top
of key brick at the middle and side ramps of rectangular
pl-ate 46, and embedded by comolding in the refrac
brick at each side.
t
tory of the brick. These plates 57 extend for the pre
3. A refractory roof of claim 1, having a curved arch
ponderance of the length of the brick parallel to the 25 of key brick at the middle and having at each side a ramp
3 x l2 inch minor lateral face of the brick in the example
of rectangular brick, the center of gravity of each rec
given.
.
tangular brick in the ramps being beneath the point of
engagement of the hanger tab.
The choice of the extent of the ramps and the extent
of the curved arch in the roof of FIGURE 1 will vary,
References Cited in the tile of this patent
but it is usually preferable to make the curved arch por 30
tion about .ï/?, ofthe total width of the roof.
UNITED STATES PATENTS
In view of my invention and disclosure, variations and
2,163,435
Pollen ______________ __ June 20, 1939
modifications to meet individual whim or particular need
2,187,669
Stewart _` _____________ __ Jan. 16, 1940
will doubtless become evident to others skilled in the art,
Heuer ______________ __ Nov. 14, 1950
to obtain all or part of the beneñts of my invention with 35 2,529,607
out copying the structure shown, and I, therefore, claim
2,600,460
Antill _______________ __ June 17, 1952
all such insofar as they fall within the reasonable spirit
2,652,793
Heuer etfal ___________ .__ Sept. 22, 1953
and scope of my claims.
Having thus described my invention what I claim as
40
new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
2,673,373
2,786,235
2,880,462
2,902,721
Heuer ______________ __ Mar. 30,
Schieferstein __~_ _____ __. Mar. 26,
Lehman _____________ __ Apr. 7,
Heuer _______________ __ Sept. 8,
2,932,265
Heuer ______________ -__ Apr. 12, 1960
1. A basic refractory roof which widthwise is higher
in the middle and lower at the sides, comprising a plu
rality of basic refractory brick in contact side by side,
each brick having lateral faces, having a working face
exposed at the interior of the roof and having a major
longitudinal axis transverse to the Working face, the
1954
1957
1959
1959
OTHER REFERENCES
Heuer, R. P. and Fay, M. A.: “The All Basic Open
Hearth Furnace,” publication by General Refractor-ies
Company, pages 5 to 8.
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