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Патент USA US3064789

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Nov. 20, 1962'
H. w; CHRI'STENS‘ON
3,064,779
TRANSMISSION
Original Filed Aug)‘. 15, 1956
INVHVTORv
ATTORNEY
United States Patent 0
3,054,779
Patented Nov. 20, 1962
1
2
3,064,779
These and other objects of the invention will be more
apparent to those skilled in the art from the following
TRANSMISSION
Howard W. ?hristensou, Indianapolis, Ind., assignor to
General Motors Corporation, Detroit, Mich., a corpo
ration of Delaware
Continuation of appiication Ser. No. 603,519, Aug. 13,
1956. This application Feb. 24, 1960, Ser. No. 10,803
17 Claims. (Cl. 192—85)
This invention relates to a transmission and more par
ticularly to a control system having a ?uid pressure control
valve to control the ?uid pressure supplied to a ?uid
motor employed to engage a friction device to effect a
drive. This application is a continuation of S. N. 603,519,
?led August 13, 1956 ‘by Howard W. Christenson, now
abandoned.
The ?uid pressure control or trimmer valve is illustrated
in a ?nal drive transmission having a cross shaft which
may be connected to either or ‘both of the driving wheels
description of the preferred embodiment of the invention
illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:
A schematic view of the transmission and the control
system is shown.
The ?nal drive transmission 10, which is shown sche
matically, is driven ‘by the output shaft 11 of any suitable
multi-ratio transmission (not shown). The shaft 11 is
10 connected by bevel gear set 13 to the cross shaft 14 which
is connected at the right side of the driving and steering
?uid-operated clutch 16 to drive the wheel shaft 17. The
?uid and mechanically operated brake 18 is connected to
the wheel shaft 17. At the left side of the vehicle, the
cross shaft 14 is connected by the driving and steering
?uid-operated clutch 20 to the Wheel shaft 21 Which is
also connected to the ?uid operated brake 24. The speci?c
construction of the clutches and brakes will be described
below.
The trimmer valve may be employed to control the pres
The right-hand steering control unit consisting of
clutch 16 and brake 18 is controlled by the right-hand
sure rise during drive engagement of any ?uid motor em
ployed to engage a friction device to engage the drive
control valve 25 and the left-hand steering control unit
consisting of clutch 20 and brake 24 is controlled ‘by the
mechanism in a transmission device such as a direct drive
left-hand control valve 26.
clutch or a multi-ratio transmission having drive ratios
established by the engagement of suitable clutches or
hands. The trimmer valve is connected to the ?uid supply
may be moved independently or in unison to control one
by the right and left-hand driving and steering clutches.
These control valves are ac
tuated by independent manually controlled levers which
or both of the control units. The valves 25 and 26 may
also be controlled by a single lever having a linkage ar
ranged‘ so that the valves may be operated in unison or
initial application of ?uid to the motor, the trimmer valve
permits exhaust at a low pressure to initially limit the pres 30 independently. Since the steering control valves are
identical, the following detailed description of the struc
sure supplied to the ?uid motor. At the same time, the
ture and operation of these valves is made in relation to
?uid pressure delivered to the ?uid motor is also conducted
line connected directly to the ?uid motor . During the
through a restricted ori?ce to act on a piston which in
creases the biasing force acting on the trimmer valve.
Thus, the line pressure is increased. Since the rate of
flow of ?uid through the restricted passage increases with
the increased line pressure, the line pressure is increased
at an increasing rate until full line pressure is obtained.
Thus, the pressure supplied for clutch engagement is reg
ulated by the trimmer valve to gradually supply an in
creasing pressure to the clutch in accordance with the pres
sure supplied by the control valve and the time this pres
sure is supplied in order to avoid sudden and jarring clutch
engagement of the clutch.
the right-hand steering control valve which also applied to
the left-hand valve 26 where like parts are identi?ed with
the same reference numerals.
The valve 25 consists of an actuating plunger 28, a cup
' member 29, and a valve element 30 located in a bore 31.
The valve is actuated by a linkage connected to stem 32
of the plunger 28 which engages the spring 33 located in
a hollow portion 34 of the plunger. Plunger has a vent
opening 35 to exhaust the space between the plunger and
cup and a shoulder 36 which engages the stop 37 to limit
upward movement of the plunger. The plunger 28 and
cup 29 are located in a bore portion 39 of large diameter.
An object of the invention is to provide in a ?uid con 45 The spring 33 ?ts in a recess 41 in cup 29 and normally
holds the stem 43 of the cup in engagement with the
trol system for establishing a drive in a transmission me—
valve element 30. With the valve in the normal position
chanism, a ?uid pressure control mechanism for initially
engaging the clutch as shown the brake apply port 4-5 lo
supplying a low pressure to initially engage the drive and
cated at the lower end of the bore 39 and the exhaust
thereafter supplying a high pressure for ?nal engagement
50 port 46 located adjacent the cup 29 are open connecting
of the drive.
brake line 63 to exhaust to release the brake.
Another object of the invention is to provide in a hy
Valve element 30 has a small diameter land a and a
draulic control system for establishing a drive in a trans
large diameter land b located respectively in the bore
mission mechanism, a ?uid pressure control device for
portions 48 and 49. With the valve in the clutch en
initially establishing a low pressure to engage the drive
mechanism and thereafter during engagement increasing
gaged position shown, the main line port 52 is connected
adjacent land a through the space between the lands a
the ?uid pressure at an increasing rate until full line
> and b to the clutch port 53 located adjacent land b and
pressure is obtained to hold the drive mechanism engaged.
the exhaust 55 is blocked by land b. The distance be
Another object of the invention is to provde in a trans
tween lands a and b is equal to the distance between line
mission mechanism having a ?uid~operated motor e?ec
tive to engage a drive, a control valve to control the pres 60 port 52 and exhaust port 53. A spring 57 seated in
the closed end of the spring chamber portion 58 of the
sure rise in the ?uid motor in accordance with the pres
bore 31 engages a washer 59 on land b to urge valve 30
sure supplied to the ?uid motor and the duration of time
upwardly until the upper end of land 11 engages the
the pressure is supplied to the ?uid motor.
shoulder 61 between stepped bores 48 and 49.
_
Another object of the invention is to provide in a trans
The right-hand steer valve 25 has a brake port 45
mission mechanism having a ?uid motor operable to en
connected by brake line 63 to the servo motor 64 of the
gage a drive mechanism, a pressure control valve which,
right-hand brake 18, ‘a main line port 52 connected by
during the initial stage of operation of the ?uid motor,
main line 65 to the ?uid supply 66 and a clutch. port
provides a low pressure and which, in response to the pres
53 connected by the right-hand clutch line 67 to the
sure supplied to the ?uid motor and the duration of time
this pressure is supplied, increases the spring force act 70 ?uid motor 68 for the right-hand clutch 16. Similarly
the left-hand steer control valve 26 has a brake port
ing on the valve to increase the pressure supplied to the
45 connected by the brake line 71 to the brake motor
?uid motor to line pressure.
8,064,779
3
72, a main line port 52 connected by main line 65 to the
?uid supply 66, and a clutch port 53 connected by the
left-hand clutch line 74 to the left-hand clutch motor
75.
I The right and left-hand clutch lines 67 and 74 are
connected respectively to the right-hand trimmer valve
80 and left-hand trimmer valve 81. Since these valves
are identical, like reference numerals are used on each
valve. The trimmer valve element 82 is located in a
small diameter bore portion 83 and the piston 84 is
located in the larger diameter bore portion 85. The
piston 84 and the valve element 82 are urged by a
‘spring 88 toward opposite ends of the closed bore 83—
4
pressure drop in the main line 66 of the control system
and to control the pressure rise in the clutch motor 68.
As will be explained below, the pressure rise in the steer
clutch servo motor ‘68 is also controlled by the trimmer
or pressure regulating valve 80. With the valve in this
initial position, the right-hand brake line 63 is connected
by port 45 between the space between the land a and
the cup 29 to exhaust 46 to release the brake.
In order to release the clutch and apply the brake,
the valve 25 is actuated by moving the plunger 28 into
the bore to reduce the clutch pressure and in an inter
mediate position exhausts the clutch and brake, and then
to increase the brake pressure.
85. The steer clutch line 67 is connected to the port
When the valve is moved from the normal position
90 at the lower end of the bore 83 and acts on the free 15 shown in which ?uid from the supply 66 is connected
end of valve 82. With the valve in the closed position
between the lands a and b to the clutch line 67, the
shown, the valve 82 blocks exhaust 91 which may be
plunger 28 applies an additional force through spring
connected by line 93 to the clutch controlled by the
33 to the valve element 30 so that the land a may close
trimmer valve to supply cooling and lubricating oil to
inlet port 52, and the clutch line 67 may be connected
the clutch during engagement. Exhaust 92 is contin 20 between the lands q and b to the exhaust port 55 to dis
uously opened to vent the space between the valve 82
engage the clutch 16. During further movement of
and piston 84. The steer clutch line 67 is also con
the valve, the clutch remains disengaged. Brake engage
nected through the ori?ce 95 to supply ?uid to the end
ment is initiated when the land a moves ‘below the main
of the bore 85 to move the piston 84 toward the valve
line inlet port 52 and admits ?uid to the space between
element 83 since one-way check valve 94 is closed when 25 the land a' of valve element 30 and the cup 29 to the
the clutch is applied. The one-way check valve 94 ex
brake port 45. It will be noted that when land a moves
hausts ?uid from the end of bore 85 on clutch release.
below exhaust inlet port 52 that the exhaust port 46 is
The details of the right and left-hand driving and
steering clutches 16 and 20 and the right and left-hand
brakes 18 and 24 are shown in a co-pending application
of Howard W. Christensen and Ulysses A. Breting,
Serial No. 581,654, ?led April 30, 1956 now Patent No.
2,941,639, granted June 21, 1960.
Operation
When the engine is started a ?uid supply 66, such
as the engine driven or input driven pump of the trans
mission used with this ?nal drive transmission supplies
?uid under pressure to the main line 65 and ports 52
of both- the right-hand control valve '25 and the left,
hand control valve 26. The valves in their normal
position supply oil to both of the driving and steering
clutches, the right-hand one 16 and the left-hand 20
to connect the ?nal drive transmission to drive the vehi
cIe.‘ The valves 25 and 26 may be moved together or
independently to provide either a straight drive or a
steering drive. For example, in order to make a right
turn a right-hand steering and driving valve 25 is de-v
pressed to ?rst decrease the degree of engagement‘ of
the driving clutch 16 to lessen the power transmitted to
the right wheel. This will effect a moderate turn under
light load conditions and a sharpen turn‘ under heavier
load conditions.
If a more severe turn is necessary, the
valve 25- is further depressed to completely disengage
the clutch 16. ‘For extremely sharp turns or turns un
der downhill coasting conditions, the brake 18 is applied
by- further movement of the valve. Thus this valve
arrangement provides a very sensitive and‘ controllable
steering arrangement for the vehicle providing a wide
range of steering controlled to meet all situations en
countered in vehicle operation. The vehicle is braked
.to stop the vehicle during normal operation by moving
both valves in unison to the brake-on position.
Since both the right and left-hand‘ valves operate in
the same manner, the details of operation of the right:
hand valve described below apply to both valves.
With the valve 25 in the released position shown with
the actuating plunger 28 in its uppermost position where
simultaneously‘ closed.
It will also be noted that the valve element 30 is biased
between springs 57 and 33 in order to provide during this
movement of‘ the valve a gradual decrease of the clutch
pressure and a gradual increase of the brake~ pressure.
This aspect of the operation of the valve and a complete
explanation of the forces required to move the valve
35 which provide‘ operator feel are more fully explained in
the above-mentioned co~pending application Serial No.
581,654.
When a steering clutch is applied by the steering valves
25. and 26, the ?uid ?owing through the line 67 is also
40 connected to a trimmer or pressure regulating valve 80
or 81. These valves work in exactly the same manner and
thus the operation of only the right clutch valve 80 is
described herein. When pressure is initially supplied to
the clutch motor 68 via line 67, it is also connected at
port 90 to the trimmer valve 80.. As the ?uid is initially
supplied, the pressure is very low due tov the ?ow restric
tion of ?uid ?owing to the motor, but quickly increases to
a low regulated value controlled by a spring 88 when
abutting the piston 84 in the end position shown. At the
low regulated pressure the spring permits movement of
valve 82 to exhaust the excess ?uid through exhaust port
91. Exhaust '91 may be connected by line 93 to exhaust
at the clutch. Thus; this excess ?uid may be supplied to,
the clutch for cooling. and lubrication. Since the volume
of excess ?uid is large during initial clutch application
and is gradually reduced during engagement and is cut
o? when engagement is completed, this ?uid supply is
_ ideal for clutch cooling and lubrication. This low regu
lated pressure value which is built up in line 67 is also
connected through ori?ce 95 to the other end of the valve
80. The volume of ?ow through ori?ce 95 is propor
tional to the pressure in line 67 and the time during which
the pressure is present. The ?uid ?ow through the ori?ce
95 creates a pressure in the bore 85 acting on the piston
84 to move the piston inwardly to increase the force of’
spring 88 acting on the valve 83‘ and thus increase the
pressure in line 67. As the pressure in line 67 is increased,
the volume of ?ow per unit of time or'rate of ?ow through
the shoulder 36 engages the stop 37, the ?uid supply
ori?ce 95' is increased, so that the rate of increase of the
667. is connected’ by port 52 between the lands at and b 70 pressure. is progressively or continuously increased until
of'valve element 30 to the port 53 which is connected to
mainline pressure is attained. Thus, the initial portion
the right-hand steer clutch line ,67. The stem of valve
of clutch, engagement occurring at a lower regulated pres
30 between lands a and b is large so that the?uid ?ow
sure which is increasing at a slow'rate is slow for soft
space |between the stem and the surrounding bore 48 is’
clutch engagement and the ?nal portion ‘of the clutch en
SW11. and. acts. as, an Qti?ge, to. prevent; an. excessive. 75 gagement occurring at a higher regulated pressure which
3,064,779
6
vent means to initially regulate the ?uid pressure in said
supply line and said device at a loW initial positive pressure
value, and means responsive to a ?uid pressure propor
is increasing at a fast rate is ?rm and fast to prevent
slipping.
When the clutch motor 64 is exhausted via line 67 and
port 55, the ?uid in the bore 85 of the trimmer valve 80
tional to said regulated ?uid pressure regulated by said
regulator valve operatively connected to said biasing means
to provide a continuous, gradual slope increase of said
is expelled by the spring 83 and quickly passes through
the one-way check valve 94 to the clutch line 67 and
then through the steer valve 25 to exhaust 55 so that on
biasing force at a controlled slow rate of change over an
extended period of time to increase said biasing force from
said normal biasing force to a maximum biasing force to
increase the ?uid pressure in said supply line means and
said device from said low initial value at a gradual slope
rate of pressure increase to said high regulated pressure
of said source over said extended period of time to gradu
each exhaust of the brake ?uid motor, trimmer valve 88
is conditioned for another clutch application.
The trimmer valves described above may be connected
to the ?uid motor supply line between the ?uid motor and
a manually or automatically controlled control valve in
a transmission system where the ?uid motor is employed
to engage either a clutch of the direct drive or ground
type or a band to eifect a direct drive or a ratio engage
ment in a transmission device. In applications of this
nature, the trimmer valve will operate in the same way to
provide an initial low pressure for soft initial clutch en
gagement to prevent shock and a high ?nal pressure to
ally and softly engage said drive engaging device.
15
3. in a transmission, a ?uid operated drive engaging
device, a source of ?uid under a high regulated pressure,
supply line means connecting said source to said device
having a pressure value the same under static conditions
and proportional under ?ow conditions to the pressure
value in said device, control valve means to control the
prevent slip during drive.
20
supply of ?uid from said ‘source through said supply line
The above-described preferred embodiment is illustra
means to said device, a pressure regulating valve having
tive of the invention and as Will be appreciated by those
a movable elemnet, means to connect said supply line
skilled in the art is subject to modi?cation within the
means to said pressure regulating valve to supply ?uid
scope of the appended claims.
to
urge said movable element to move in one direction,
I claim:
25
biasing means providing a normal biasing force to urge
1. In a transmission, a ?uid operated drive engaging
said movable element to move in the opposite direction,
device, a source of ?uid under a high regulated pressure,
said regulating valve having vent means connected to
supply line means connecting said source to said device
said supply line means both upstream and downstream
having a pressure value the same under static conditions
and proportional under ?ow conditions to the pressure 30 of said regulator valve operative in response to movement
of said movable element in said one direction by said
value in said device, control valve means to control the
?uid from said supply line means to vent said supply
supply of ?uid from said source through said supply line
line means both upstream and downstream of said regu
means to said device, a pressure regulating valve having
lator valve and to movement in said opposite direction
a movable element, means to connect said supply line
means to said pressure regulating valve to supply ?uid 35 by said normal biasing force to close said vent means
to urge said movable element to move in one direction,
biasing means providing a normal biasing force to urge
said movable element to move in the opposite direction,
said regulating valve having vent means operative in
response to movement of said movable element in said
one direction by said ?uid from said supply line means to
vent said supply line means and to movement in said oppo
site direction by said normal biasing force to close said
vent means to initially regulate the ?uid pressure in said
supply line and said device at one positive pressure value,
and means responsive to a ?uid pressure proportional to
said regulated ?uid pressure regulated by said regulator
valve operatively connected to said biasing means to pro
to initially regulate the ?uid pressure in said entire sup
ply line and said device at a one initial positive pressure
value, ‘and means ‘responsive to a ?uid pressure pro
portional to said regulated ?uid pressure regulated by
said regulator valve operatively connected to said biasing
means to provide a continuous, gradual slope ‘change
of said biasing force throughout the entire change of
said biasing force at a controlled slow ‘rate of change
over an extended period of time to change the ?uid
pressure in said supply line means and said device from
said one initial value at a gradual slope rate of pressure
increase to another regulated pressure over said extended
period of time to gradually and softly engage said drive
vide a continuous, gradual slope change of said biasing
engaging device.
force at a controlled slow rate of change over an extended 50
4. In a transmission, a ?uid operated drive engaging
device, a source of ?uid under a high regulated pressure,
supply line means connecting said source to said device
period of time to change said biasing force from said nor
mal biasing force to another biasing force to change the
?uid pressure in said supply line means and said device
from said one value at a gradual slope rate of pressure
change to another regulated pressure over said extended
period of time to gradually and softly engage said drive
engaging device.
_
2. In a transmission, a ?uid operated drive engaging
device, a source of ?uid under a high regulated pressure,
supply line means connecting said source to said device
having a pressure value the same under static conditions
and proportional under ?ow conditions to the pressure
value in said device, control valve means to control the
supply of ?uid from said source through said supply line
means to said device, a pressure regulating valve having
a movable element, means to connect said supply line
means to said pressure regulating valve to supply ?uid
to urge said movable element to move in one direction,
having a pressure value the same under static conditions
and proportional under ?ow conditions to the pressure
value in said device, control valve means to control
the supply of ?uid from said source through said supply
line means to said device, a pressure regulating valve
having a movable element, means to connect said supply’
line means to said pressure regulating valve to supply
?uid to urge said movable element to move in one direc
tion, biasing means providing a normal biasing force
to urge said movable element to move in the opposite
direction, said regulating valve having vent means con- .
nected to said supply line means both upstream and
downstream of said regulator valve operative in re
sponse to movement of said movable element in said one
direction by said ?uid from said supply line means to
vent said supply line means both upstream and down
stream of said regulator valve and to movement in said
biasing means providing a normal biasing force to urge
said movable element to move in the opposite direction, 70 opposite direction by said normal biasing force to close
said vent means to initially regulate the ?uid pressure
said regulating valve having vent means operative in
in
said entire supply line and said device at a loW initial
response to movement of said movable element in said
positive pressure value, and means responsive to a ?uid
one direction by said ?uid from said supply line means to
pressure proportional to said regulated ?uid pressure
vent said supply line means and to movement in said oppo
site direction by said normal biasing force to close said
regulated by said regulator valve operatively connected
3,064,779
7
to said biasing means to provide a_ continuous, gradual
slope increase of said biasing force at a controlled slow
rate of change ‘throughout the entire change of said
biasing force over an extended period of time to increase
the ?uid pressure in said supply line means and said
device from said 10W initial value at a gradual slope
rate of pressure increase to said high regulated pressure
of said source over said extended period of time to
gradually and softly engage said drive engaging device.
5. The invention de?ned in claim 1 and one-way by
pass means by~passing said ori?ce to provide rapid return
?ow around said ori?ce from said motor means to said
8
ori?ce connecting a ?uid pressure proportional to said
regulated ?uid pressure regulated by said regulator valve
in said supply line means and device for ?ow to said
motor means, and said motor means being operatively
connected to said biasing means to provide, during flow
through said ori?ce to said motor means, a continuous
gradual slope increase of said biasing force at a con
trolled slow rate of change over an extended period of
time to increase the ?uid pressure in said supply line
means and said device ‘from said low positive pressure
value at a gradual slope rate of pressure increase to said
high regulated pressure of said source over said extended
supply line means and device to quickly re-establish said
period of time to gradually and softly engage said drive
normal biasing force.
engaging device.
67. The invention de?ned in claim 3, said ?uid operated 15
9. In a transmission; a ?uid operated drive engaging de
drive engaging device having friction means, and cooling
vice; a source of ?uid under a high regulated pressure; sup
ply line means connecting said source to said device hav
ing a pressure value the same under static conditions and
proportional under ?ow conditions to the pressure value
7. In a transmission; a ?uid operated drive engaging
device; a, source of ?uid under a high regulated pressure;
in said device; control valve means to control the supply
supply line means connecting said source to said device
of ?uid from said source through said supply line means
having a pressure value the same under static conditions
to said device; a pressure regulating valve, having a mov
and proportional under ?ow conditions to the pressure
able element; means to connect said supply line means
to said pressure regulating valve to supply ?uid to urge
value in said device; control valve means to control the
supply of ?uid from said source through said supply 25 said movable element to move in one direction; biasing
means providing a normal biasing force to urge said
line means to said device; a pressure regulating valve
'having a movable element; means to connect said supply
movable element to move in the opposite direction; said
regulating valve having vent means operative in response
line means to said pressure regulating valve to supply
?uid to urge said movable element to move in one direc
to movement of said movable element in said one direc
tion; biasing means providing a normal biasing force 30 tion by said ?uid from said supply line means to vent
to urge said movable element to move in the opposite
said supply line means and to movement in said opposite
direction by said normal biasing force to close said vent
direction; said regulating. valve having vent means opera
means to initially regulate the ?uid pressure in said sup‘
tive in response to movement of said movable element
in said one direction by said ?uid from said supply line
ply line and said device at a low positive pressure value;
passage means connecting said vent means to said fric
tion means to supply ?uid to cool said friction means.
means to vent said supply line means and to movement
and control means having motor means with a movable
in said opposite direction by said normal biasing force
wall mounted for movement through a limited distance
to close said vent means to initially regulate the ?uid
pressure in said supply line and said device at one posi
tive pressure value; and- control means having motor
portional to said regulated ?uid pressure regulated by
means and a ?xed area ori?ce connecting a ?uid pressure
for ?ow to said motor means to continuously move said
proportional to said regulated ?uid pressure regulated by
said regulator valve in said supply line means and device
through said limited distance during the entire period of
for ?ow to said motor means, and said motor means
being operatively connected to said biasing means to
provide, during ?ow through said ori?ce to said motor
means, a continuous gradual slope change of said biasing
force at a controlled slow, rate of change over an ex
tended‘ period of time to change the ?uid pressure in
said supply line means and said device from said one
positive pressure value at a gradual slope rate of pressure .
and a ?xed area ori?ce connecting a ?uid pressure pro
said regulator valve in said supply line means and device
movable Wall at a substantially uniform rate completely
?ow through said ori?ce, and said motor means being
operatively connected to said biasing means to provide,
during movement through said limited distance, a continu
ous uniform rate of increase of said biasing froce from
said normal biasing force to a maximum biasing force
at a uniform rate of change over an extended period
of time coextensive with-movement of said movable wall
to increase the ?uid pressure in said supply line means
change to another positive pressure value over said
and said device from said low initial value at a continuous
extended period‘ of time to‘ gradually and softly engage
said’ drive engaging device, and one of said pressure
gradual slope rate of pressure increase to said high
regulated pressure of said source over said extended period
of time to gradually and softly engage said drive engag
values being the regulated pressure of said source.
8. In a transmission; a ?uid operated drive engaging
device; a source of ?uid under a high regulated pressure;
supply line means connecting said source to said device
having a pressure value the same under static conditions
and proportional under ?ow conditions to the pressure
value in said device; control valve means to control the
ing device.
10. In a transmission; a ?uid operated drive engaging
device; a source of ?uid under a high regulated pressure;
supply line means connecting said source to said device
having a pressure value the same under static conditions
and proportional under ?ow conditions to the pressurev
value in said device; control valve means to control the
supply of ?uid from said source through- said supply line
means to said device; a pressure regulating valve having
means to said device; a pressure regulating valve having
a movable element; means to connect said supply line
a movable element; means to connect said supply line
means to said pressure regulating valve to supply ?uid to
means to said pressure regulating valve to supply ?uid
urge said movable element to move in‘one direction; bias
ing means providing a normal biasing force to urge said
to urge said movable element to move in one direction;
movable element to move in the opposite direction; said
biasing means providing a normal biasing force to urge
regulating, valve having vent means operative in response
said movable element to move in the opposite direction;
said regulating valve having vent means operative in re
to movement of said movable element in said one direc
tion by said ?uid from said supply line means to vent 70 sponse to movement of said movable element in said one
said‘ supply linev means and to movement in said opposite
direction by said ?uid, from said supply line means to
vent said supply line means and to movement in said
direction by said normal biasing force to close said vent
opposite direction by said normal biasing force to close
means to initially regulate the ?uid pressure in said sup
said vent means to initially regulate the ?uid pressure
ply line and said device at a low positive pressure value;
and control means having motor means and a, ?xed area
in said supply line and said device at alow positive Pres?
supply of' ?uid from said source through said supply line
3,064,779
a
10
sure value; and control means having an expansible
chamber motor means expansible from a fully contracted
position to a fully expanded position and a ?xed area
ori?ce means connecting a ?uid pressure proportional
line means to control the supply of ?uid from said source
through said supply line means to said device to cause, on
the initiation of the supply of pressure ?uid from said
source to said device, a pressure drop in a portion of said
to said regulated ?uid pressure regulated by said regulator
valve in said supply line means and devicefor ?ow to
said motor means to continuously expand said motor
supply line means to a pressure value at least as low as
to urge said movable element to move in one direction;
ing device.
a predetermined low positive pressure value; a pressure
regulating valve having a movable element; means to
connect said supply line means to said pressure regulating
means at a substantially uniform rate completely from
valve to supply ?uid to urge said movable element to
said fully contracted to said fully expanded position dur
ing the entire period of ?ow through said ori?ce and to 10 move in one direction; biasing means providing a biasing
force to urge said movable element to move in the
maintain said motor means ?lled regardless of the pres
opposite direction; said regulating valve having vent
sure in said supply line means, and said motor means
means operative in response to movement of said
being operatively connected to said biasing means to pro
vide, during ?ow through said ori?ce to said motor means ' movable element in said one direction by said ?uid from
moving said movable Wall, a continuous uniform rate of 15 said supply line means to vent said supply line means and
to movement in said opposite direction by said biasing
increase of said biasing force at a controlled slow rate
force to close said vent means to regulate the ?uid pressure
of change over an extended period of time coextensive
in said supply line and said device; and means responsive
with expansion of said motor means to increase the ?uid
to the ?uid pressure in said portion of said supply line
pressure in said supply line means and said device from
said low initial value at a gradual slope rate of pressure 20 means proportional to said regulated ?uid pressure regu
lated by said regulator valve operatively connected to
increase to said high regulated pressure of said source
said biasing means to provide, in response to said pres
over said extended period of time to gradually and softly
sure at least as low as said predetermined low positive
engage said drive engaging device.
pressure value, a predetermined low biasing force and
11. In a transmission; a ?uid operated drive engaging
device; a source of ?uid under a high regulated pressure; 25 then a continuous gradual slope increase of said biasing
force at a controlled slow rate of change over an extended
supply line means connecting said source to said device
period of time to control said regulator valve to provide
having a pressure value the same under static conditions
initially said predetermined positive low pressure value
and proportional under ?ow conditions to the pressure
and then to increase the ?uid pressure in said supply line
value in said device; control valve means to control the
means and said device from said low initial value at a
supply of ?uid from said source through said supply line
gradual slope rate of pressure increase to said high regu
means to said device; and a pressure regulating valve hav~
lated pressure of said source over said extended period
ing a movable element; means to connect said supply line
of time to gradually and softly engage said drive engag
means to said pressure regulating valve to supply ?uid
biasing means providing a normal biasing force to urge
said movable element to move in the opposite direction;
said regulating valve having vent means connected to
said supply line means both upstream and downstream
of said regulator valve operative in response to move
ment of said movable element in said one direction by
said ?uid from said supply line means to vent said sup
ply line means both upstream and downstream of said
iregulator valve and to movement in said opposite direc
tion by said normal biasing force to close said vent means
to initially regulate the ?uid pressure in said supply line
and said device at a low positive pressure value; and con
.
15. In a transmission; a ?uid operated drive engaging
device; a source of ?uid under a high regulated pres
sure; supply line means connecting said source to said
device having a pressure value the same under static
conditions and‘ proportional under ?ow conditions to the
'pressure value in said device; control valve means in said
supply line means to control the supply of ?uid from said
source through said supply line means to said device to
cause on the initiation of the supply of pressure ?uid from
said source to said device, a pressure drop in a portion of
said supply line means to a pressure value at least as low
as a predetermined low positive pressure value, a pressure
regulating valve having a movable element, means to
connect said supply line means to said pressure regulating
valve to supply ?uid to urge said movable element to
line means and device for ?ow to said motor means, and 50 move in one direction, biasing means providing a biasing
force to urge said movable element to move in the oppo
being operatively connected to said biasing means to pro
‘site direction, said regulating valve having vent means
vide, during ?ow through said ori?ce to said motor means,
connected to said supply line means both upstream and
‘a continuous gradual slope increase of said biasing force
:trol means having motor means and a ?xed area ori?ce
connecting a pressure proportional to said regulated ?uid
pressure regulated by said regulator valve in said supply
at a controlled slow rate of change over an extended
downstream of said regulator valve operative in response
period of time to increase the ?uid pressure in said supply
to movement of said movable element in said one direc
tion by said ?uid from said supply line means to vent
line means and said device from said low inital value at
a gradual slope rate of pressure increase to said high regu
lated pressure of said source over said extended period of
said supply line means both upstream and downstream
of said regulator valve and to movement in said opposite
direction by said biasing force to close said vent means to
time to gradually and softly engage said drive engaging
regulate the ?uid pressure in said entire supply line and
device.
60
said device, and means responsive to the ?uid pressure in
12. The invention de?ned in claim 7 and one-Way
said portion of said supply line means proportional to said
by-pass means by-passing said ori?ce to provide rapid
‘regulated ?uid pressure regulated by said regulator valve
return ?ow around said ori?ce from said motor means to
operatively connected to said biasing means to provide,
said supply line means and device to quickly re-establish
in response to said pressure drop to said pressure at least
said normal biasing force.
as low as said predetermined low positive pressure
13. The invention de?ned in claim 11, said ?uid operat
value, a predetermined low biasing force and then
ed drive engaging device having friction means, and cool
a continuous, gradual slope increase of said biasing force
ing passage means connecting said vent means to said
at a controlled slow rate of change over an extended
friction means to supply ?uid to cool said friction means.
14. In a transmission; a ?uid operated drive engaging 70 period of time to control said regulator valve to provide
initially said predetermined positive low pressure value
device; a source of ?uid under a high regulated pressure;
and then to increase the ?uid pressure in said supply line
supply line means connecting said source to said device
having a pressure value the same under static conditions
means and said device from said low initial value at a
gradual slope rate of pressure increase to said high regu
and proportional under ?ow conditions to the pressure
value in said device; control valve means in said supply 75 lated pressure of said source over said extended period
3,064,779
12
11
pressure value in said device; control valve means in said
supply line means to control the supply of ?uid from
said, source through said supply line means to said device
of time to gradually and softly engage said drive engaging
device.
' 16. In a transmission; a ?uid operated drive engaging
device; a source of ?uid under a high regulated pressure;
supply line means connecting said source to said device
having a pressure Value the same under static conditions
and proportional under ?ow conditions to the pressure
value in said device; control valve means in said supply
line means to control the supply of ?uid from said source
through said supply line means to said device to cause
on the initiation of the supply of pressure ?uid from said
source to said device, a pressure drop in a portion of
to cause on the initiation of the supply of pressure ?uid
from said source to said device, a pressure drop in a por
‘ tion of said supply line means to a pressure value at
least as low as a predetermined low positive pressure
value, a pressure regulating valve having a movable ele
ment, means to connect said supply line means to said
pressure regulating valve to supply ?uid to urge said
movable element to move in one direction, biasinglmeans
providing a normal biasing force to urge said movable
element to move in the‘ opposite direction,'said regulat
said supply line means to a pressure value at least as
ing valve having vent means connected to said supply
low as a predetermined low positive pressure value, a
pressure regulating valve having a movable element, 15 line means both upstream and downstream of said
regulator valve'operative in response to movement of said
means to connect said supply line means to said pressure
movable element in said one direction by said ?uid from
regulating valve to supply ?uid to urge said movable
said supply line means to vent said supply line means
element to move in one direction, biasing means provid
both upstream and downstream‘ of said regulator valve ing a normal biasing force to urge said movable element
and to movement in saidv opposite direction by said bias
to move in the opposite direction, said regulating valve
ing force‘ to close said vent means to regulate the ?uid
having vent means connected to said supply line means
pressure in-said entire supply line and said device at said‘v
both upstream and downstream of said regulator valve
predetermined low pressure, and means including an ex
operative in response to movement of said movable ele
pansible chamber motor expansible from a fully collapsed
ment in said one direction by said ?uid from said supply
1,0
position to a fully expanded position, and uniform ori?ce
line means to vent said.'supply line means both upstream
and downstream of said regulator valve and to move
“ supply means connecting said portion of said supply line
ment in said oppositev direction by said biasing‘force to
means to said motor to maintain said motor means ?lled
regardless of the pressure in said supply line means and
to actuate said motor means by the ?uid pressure in said.
said entire supply line and said device at said predeter
mined‘ low pressure, and means including an expansible 3.0, portion of said supply line means proportional to said.
regulated ?uid pressure regulated by said regulator valve
chamber motor and ori?ce supply means connecting said
in- response to said pressure drop to said pressure at least
portion of said supply line'means to, said motor to actuate
as low as said predetermined low positive pressure value.
saidv motor means by the ?uid pressure in said portion of
to collapse said motor means and to gradually expand
said supply line means proportional to said regulated‘
said motor means throughout the period of ?ow'through
?uid pressure regulated by said regulator valve in re
said‘ uniform ori?ce supply means, said motor means;
sponsev‘to said pressure drop to said pressure at least as
‘being, operatively connected to'said biasing means to pro
low as said predetermined low positive pressure value to
vide. said predetermined low biasing force and then a
collapse said motor means and to gradually expand said
close said vent means to regulate the ?uid pressure in
motor means, said motor means being operatively con
continuous, gradual slope‘ increase of said biasing force.
nected to said biasing means to provide‘ said predeter-r
minedlow‘ biasing force and then a continuous, gradual
slope increase of said biasing force at a controlled slowv
rate of change over an‘ extended period‘ of time, and said
, rat a controlled slow rate of change over a'n'extended/
period of time, and said biasing force being operatively
connected to control said regulator valve to provide
initially said predetermined positive low pressure value
and then to increase the ?uid‘ pressure in said supply line;
biasing force being operatively connected to control said
regulator valve to provide initially said predetermined 45 means and said device from said low initial value at a
gradual slope rate of pressure increase to said high.
positive low pressure value and then to increase the ?uid
regulated pressure of said source over saidv extended
pressure in said supply ‘line means and said device from
period of time to, gradually and softly‘ engage said drive
said low initial value at a gradual slope rate of pressure
increase to said‘ high regulated pressure of said source
engaging device.
over said extended period of time to gradually and softly 50
References Cited in the ?le of this‘ patent
engage said drive engaging device.
17’. In a transmission; a ?uid operated drive engag
UNITED STATES PATENTS
ing device; a source of ?uid under a high regulated pres
sure; supply line means connecting said source to said
device having a pressure value the same under static
conditions and proportional under ?ow conditions to the
2,935,999
2,939,557
2,941,639
Hock et: al.. __________ __ Mar. 10, 1960
' Dabich et a1. __________ __ June 7, 1960'
Christensen et a1. _._______ June 2-1, 1960‘
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