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Патент USA US3065136

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United States Patent Office
3,@55,l27
Patented Nov. 20, 1962
1
2
3,065,127
of either said monochloride or said nitrile, and analyses
by both physical and chemical methods show the pres
ence in said reaction product of the elements chlorine and
sulfur and of the cyano (-CN) radical. We have found,
PESTICAL ACRYLONETRILE REACTEUN
PRQDUCTS
Samuel Ailen Heininger, §t. Louis, Mo., and Gail H.
Birum, Dayton, ()hio, assignors to Monsanto Chemical
Company, St. Louis, Mo, a corporation of Delaware
N0 Drawing. @riginai application Oct. to, 1%7, Ser
No. 690,423, now Patent No. 2,993,037, dated Juiy
18, 1961. Divided and this application Dec. 22, 1960,
tier. No. 77,486
5 Claims. (Cl. 167—-22)
This invention provides novel compositions of matter
on the other hand, that when one mole of‘ sulfur mono
chloride is treated under the same conditions with only
one mole—rather than two moles—-of acrylonitrile, most
of said monochloride is recovered unchanged, and the
very small amount of higher boiling product which is
obtained decomposes upon standing for a short time un
, der atmospheric conditions.
Since formation of the present complex mixture of
obtained by reaction of acrylonitrile with sulfur monochlo
sulfur~containing nitriles consumes approximately two
ride. The invention also provides biological toxicants in
moles of acrylonitrile per mole of the sulfur monochlo
which said compositions are employed as the essential 15 ride, these reactants are advantageously present in stoichi
toxicant ingredients.
ometric proportions. However, an excess of the acrylo
According to the invention, the presently provided novel
reaction products are prepared by simply contacting sul~
nitrile may be used if desired to serve, e.g., as a reaction
fur monochloride with at least two molar equivalents of
wise be employed. Such suitable materials include, e.g.,
diluent.
acrylonitrile, and allowing the resulting mixture to stand
Extraneous inert solvents or diluents may like—
carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, ethylene dichloride, di
at ordinary or increased temperatures until reaction is
completed. This can be readily ascertained, e.g., by not
oxane, ether, etc. While the reaction will take place
Without application of external heat, it is accelerated by
moderate heating. Temperatures of, say, 25° C. to 180°
ing cessation in change of color and/ or viscosity and/or
refractive index of the reaction mixture. The present re
C., and preferably of from 40° C. to 100° C., are em
action products are believed to be mixtures of organic, 25 ployed. The use of catalysts is generally not necesesary,
sulfur-containing chloro-nitriles and diverse decomposi~
tion products thereof. The reaction mixture components
although acid catalysts and acidic reaction media may be
employed. Since acrylonitrile is readily polymerizable,
are dii?c‘ult to separate, but the presently provided com
plex reaction products are of intrinsic utility, e.g., as
an inhibitor of polymerization may be included in the
reaction mixture, particularly when operating at the high
microbiological toxicants, etc.
It is believed that the reaction of sulfur monochloride
with two molar equivalents of acrylonitrile probably pro
ceeds with the primary formation of isometric chloro
cyano disul?des, thus:
er temperatures.
The reaction may also be facilitated
by conducting it under superatmospheric pressure.
The time required to complete the reaction will de
pend, of course, on other operational conditions, e.g., tem
perature, pressure, presence or absence of diluent and/or
35
catalyst, reactant quantities, details of apparatus, etc. The
reaction may be conducted batch-wise or by continuous
procedures.
Conveniently, the course of the reaction may be fol
lowed by observing the change in color of the reaction
mixture.
As the reaction proceeds, the color of the re
action mixture gradually darkens, usually changing from
a clear yellow to a deep or brownish red by‘ the time all
of the sulfur monochloride is reacted. On completion of
45 the reaction, the 2:1 acrylonitrile-sulfur monochloride re_
action product may be isolated by conventional methods,
e.g., by evaporation of any solvents, by washing and/or
decantation to remove unreacted acrylonitrile, etc.
Some of the product of (I) and/or (11) may decom
pose as reaction proceeds to give a chloro cyano mono
sul?de, thus:
(III)
cicnzclin-crv
S
OICHzICHON
l
CICH2CH—CN
CICHQCHGN
To the best of our knowledge, the presently provided
50 reaction products of sulfur monochloride with acryloni_
trile are complex mixtures of isomeric saturated and un
saturated sulfur-and chlorine-containing cyano com
pounds. The constituents are di?‘icultly separable, and the
composition of the present mixture of reaction products
55 has not been precisely established. The presently ob
tained reaction products have bacteriostat and fungistat
properties and are useful as the active constituents of
Either the chloro cyano disul?des or the chloro cyano
microbiological toxicant compositions. As will be shown
monosul?des may undergo some dehydrochlorination.
The identity of any one of the possible isomeric chloro
cyano disul‘?des or sul?des or their dehydrohalogenation
hereinafter, at concentrations of as low as, say, 10 ppm.
products has proved impossible to establish; hence, we
do not wish to be bound by the above speculative struc
tures.
‘
That the present products result from the reaction of 65
one mole of the sulfur monochloride with two moles of
acrylonitrile is evident from consumption of these reac
tants in the 1:2 ratio. Thus, the ‘reaction product ob
they entirely prevent growth of a variety of bacteria and
fungi. The reaction product of this invention can be used
as a preservative, e.g., in leather, paper and fabrics, or
in paints and varnishes to render them proof against
mildew or fungus attack.
The present reaction products may further be used as
nematocides, insecticides, herbicides, etc. They are also
of utility as chemical intermediates whereby the cyano
radical thereof is converted to the carboxylic --COOH
radical. the chlorine radical replaced by other radicals,
tained by heating, at, say, 50° C. to 60° C. a mixture of
e.g., alkoxy, amino, phosphinyl, or phosphate radicals,
one mole of sulfur monochloride and two moles of acrylo 70 and the sul?de or disul?de radicals converted by oxida
nitrile has a bOiling point and refractive index above that
tion into sulfoxides or sulfones.
3,065,127
3
Trichoderma sp. T-l ATCC 9645 ______ __ No growth
The present invention is further illustrated, but not lim—
Chaetomium globosum USDA l032.4_____. No growth
ited, by the following examples:
Example 1
Aspergillus oryzae ATCC 10196 ________ __ No growth
The lowest concentration at which no growth occurred
was 1:l00,000 for the following organisms:
Into a 500 ml. ?ask, there was placed 138 g. (1.0 mole)
of sulfur monochloride (S2Cl2), 150 ml. of carbon tetra
chloride and 106 g. (2.0 moles) of acrylonitrile. The
Micr0c0ccus pyogenes var. aareus ATCC
whole was heated with stirring, at a temperature of
6538 _____________________________ __ No growth
ture under partial vacuum to remove solvent and ma
terial boiling up to 34° C./0.2 mm., gave as residue
126 g. of a very viscous liquid which was converted to a
Fo‘mes annosus FPL 517 ______________ __ No growth
Mycobacterium plzlci—St. Louis ________ __ No growth
60° C. for three hours, allowed to stand overnight at
room temperature, and then heated again at 55—60° C. 10 Proteus vulgaris-Lambert _____________ __ No growth
Penicilliam expansam IPC 126 _________ __ N0 growth
for one hour. Distillation of the resulting reaction mix
TrichophytOn mentagrophytes ATCC 9129-- No growth
Hormisciam gelatinosum FPL 595 ______ __
Ceratostomclla pilz'fera ATCC 8713 ____ __
red, resinous product upon cooling.
15 Claa'osporium lzerbaram ATCC 6506 ____ __
A portion of the resinous product was extracted with
Alternaria tenuis ATCC 11612 _________ __
a benezeneehexane mixture and the resulting solution
Myrothecium verracaria ATCC'9095 ____ __
evaporated to dryness to give a benzene extract (A) and
No
No
No
N0
No
growth
growth
growth
growth
growth
Bacillus subtilis-Lambert _____________ __ No growth
a benzene-insoluble portion (8). infra-red analysis of
(A) and (B) after evaporation of all solvents showed 20 Stemphylium sarcinaeforme-——U. of lll_____ No growth
Monolinia fracticola-U. of I11 _________ __ No growth
CEN absorption at 2360 cm.—1 for both (A) and (B).
Pscudomonas phaseolic0la—USDA ______ __ No growth
Also, for both (A) and (B) the -—C—Cl linkage was in~
dicated at about 720 cmfl. Elemental analyses showed
It will be readily seen from the above that the present
the presence of chlorine and sulfur in both (A) and (B).
acrylonitrile-sulfur monochloride reaction product is effec
25 tive in suppressing the growth of both gram negative and
Example 2
gram positive bacteria as well as that of various fungi and
To a mixture consisting of 138 g. (1.0 mole) of sulfur
molds. At concentrations which are somewhat higher than
monochloride and 150 ml. of carbon tetrachloride, there
those required for the prevention of microbiological
was gradually added 106 g. (2.0 moles) of acrylonitrile.
growth, the present 2:1 acrylonitrile-sulfur monochloride
The whole was brought to a temperature of 55° C. and 30 reaction products possess herbicidal and insecticidal ac
maintained at this temperature for 10 minutes. It was
then allowed to stand overnight at room temperature and
then heated again to 60-70“ C. until evolution of some
hydrogen chloride was noted. The reaction mixture was
tivity.
secticides or herbicides, the present reaction products
are advantageously employed in the form of suspensions
then cooled and the carbon tetrachloride stripped there
or emulsions.
from in vacuo to 50° C./13 mm. The residue was taken
up with benzene and acetone and all solvents and unre
acted sulfur monochloride were stripped o? by distilling
acrylonitrile-sulfur monochloride reaction product, solu
on the total weight of the emulsion are useful.
ble in benzene and insoluble in acetone and analyzing
as follows:
H _____ ___. ________________________ __
1.51
The word
“oil” is here used to designate any organic liquid which
is insoluble in water. Emulsifying agents which may
be employed are those used in the art for the preparation
Percent C ________________________________ __ 20.49
Percent Cl ________________________________ __ 26.12
Since the reaction products are effective
bacteriostats and fungistats when employed in very small
concentrations, commercial toxicants comprising the re
action products may contain only minor proportions there
of. Oil-in-water emulsions containing, say, from 0.001%
to 0.1% by weight of the present reaction products based
up to a pot temperature of 70° C./0.5—1.0‘ mm. There
was thus obtained as residue 143 g. of the red, glassy 2:1
Percent
'
When used either as microbiological toxicants or as in
45
of oil-in-water emulsions, e.g., long-chained alkylbenzene
sulfonates, polyalkylene glycols, long-chain alkyl sulfo
succinates, etc. For these and related biological toxi~
cant purposes, the reaction products may be incorporated
into inert carriers generally. Thus they may be mixed
Example 3
50 with solid carriers such as clay, talc, pumice and ben
This example describes microbiological evaluation of
tonite to give toxicants dusts. We have found, however,
the 2:1 acrylonitrile-sulfur monochloride reaction prod
that the emulsions possess an improved tendency to adhere
not of Example 2.
to the treated surfaces so that less of the active ingredient,
A 1.0% solution of said reaction product was prepared
i.e., the acrylonitrile-sulfur monochloride reaction prod
in acetone and added to sterile melted nutrient agar to give
uct, is required when applied in the emulsion form.
an 0.1% (1 part of reaction product per 1,000 parts of
This application is a division of our copending applica
agar) concentration of the test compound. This was
tion, Serial No. 690,423, ?led October 16, 1957, now
further diluted with additional melted agar to give
US. Patent No. 2,993,037.
1:10,000 and 1:100,000 dilutions of said reaction product
What we claim is:
in the agar. The various solutions were then respectively 60
l. A composition effective against bacteria and fungi
poured into Petri dishes and allowed to harden. Plates
comprising an oil-in-water emulsion of a complex mix
thus prepared were inoculated with the test organisms
ture of compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, sulfur,
shown below and the inoculated plants were incubated
chlorine and cyano radicals, said mixture having been
for 48 hours at a temperature of 25° C. Inspection of
obtained by the reaction of one mole of sulfur monochlo
the inoculated plates at the end of that time showed the
ride with two moles of acrylonitrile at a temperature of
Percent N ________________________________ __
7.24
Percent S _________________________________ __ 4563
lowest concentration at which no growth occurred to be
1: 10,000 for the following organisms:
25° C. to 100° C.
2. A composition effective against bacteria compris
Streptococcus faecalz's ATCC 9790 ______ __ No growth
ing an oil-in-water emulsion of a bacteriostatic quantity
Bacillus cereus var. mycoides IPC 509_____ N0 growth
of a complex mixture of compounds containing carbon,
hydrogen, sulfur, chlorine and cyano radicals, said mix
Cornyebactcriam diphtcriae ATCC 296____ No growth
Bacterium ammoniagenes ATCC 6871____ No growth
Erwinia atroseptica ATCC 7404 ________ __
Salmonella typhosa-Hopkins Strain ____ __
Aspergillus niger IPC 144 _____________ __
Memnoniella echinata ATCC 9597 ______ __
No
No
No
No
growth
growth
growth
growth
ture having been obtained by the reaction of one mole
of sulfur monochloride with two moles of acrylonitrile
at a temperature of 25° C. to 100° C.
3. A composition effective against fungi comprising
an oil-in~water emulsion of a fungistatic quantity of a
5
3,065,127
complex mixture of compounds containing carbon, hydro
gen, sulfur, chlorine and cyano radicals, said mixture
having been obtained by the reaction of one mole of
sulfur monochloride with two moles of acrylonitrile at
a temperature of 25° C. to 100° C.
4. The method of inhibiting the growth of fungi and
bacteria which comprises exposing them to a growth-in
hibiting quantity of a composition comprising as the es
sential effective ingredient a complex mixture of com
pounds containing carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, chlorine and
cyano radicals, said mixture having been obtained by the
reaction of one mole of sulfur monochloride with two
moles of acrylonitrile at a temperature of 25° C. to
100° C.
5. The method of inhibiting the growth of fungi which 15
comprises exposing them to a growth-inhibiting quan
6
'ty of a composition comprising as the essential effective
ingredient a complex mixture of compounds containing
carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, chlorine and cyano radicals,
said mixture having been obtained by the reaction of one
mole of sulfur monochloride with two moles of acrylo
nitrile at a temperature of 25° C. to 160° C.
6‘. The method of inhibiting the growth of bacteria
which comprises exposing them to a growth-inhibiting
quantity of a composition comprising as the essential ef
fective ingredient a complex mixture of compounds con
taining carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, chlorine and cyano radi
cals, said mixture having been obtained by the reaction
of one mole of sulfur monochloride with two moles of
acrylonitrile at a temperature of 25° C. to 100° C.
No references cited.
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