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Патент USA US3065797

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Nov. 27, 1962
Filed July 13, 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
H6. 7
/ _/'
Nov. 27, 1962
, Filed July 13, 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented Nov. 27, 1962
tion of the ?bres.
moderate one, the level of the material fluctuating be
tween the two end faces of the cylinder box, according
to the size of the set of plates and their speed. The pref
erential direction of the ?bres as determined by the cylin
Karl Rescheneder, ‘Voeirlahruck, Austria, assignor to
Eternit-Werke Ludwig Hatschek, Vocklahruclr, Aus
der motion can be in?uenced only to a minor extent.
Filed July 13, 1960, Ser. No. 42,723
Claims priority, application Austria July 14, 1959
10 Claims. (Cl. 162—-327)
The invention relates to an apparatus for the produc
The movement can only remain a
tion of ‘webs of ?bre material, especially asbestos cement
webs, using a cylinder mould machine or other web
forming machines in which an alignment of ?bres in the
direction of motion of the Web carrier is effected by the 15
motion of said web carrier.
It is a well known fact that webs of ?bre material are
usually produced on cylinder mould machines or other
web-forming machines such, for example, as those in
which the pulp is drawn by a suction chest, over which 20
a felt slides. This processing of ?bre material entails
various disadvantages however.
Thus the reinforcing ?bres are combed out by the ro
tating cylinder or a moving felt serving as a web carrier
and are laid parallel to the direction of motion. The 25
higher the angular velocity and hence the working speed,
the more the ?bres are straightened. This combed-out
layer of ?bres, which are straightened at one end, results
Moreover, during the change of the stroke a neutral zone
forms in which the direction of the ?bres is again deter
mined practically only by the direction of motion of the
cylinder, even if only for a short time. The reciprocat
ing motion and the resulting continual change of level
also make it di?’icult to keep the ?ow uniform over the
entire Working width.
The attempt has therefore also already ‘been made to
influence the ?bre direction by means of rotating agi—
tators. According to a known proposal in this direction,
numerous agitators disposed in parallel relationship to
the cylinder mould axis are provided approximately in
the centre ‘between the cylinder and the stock ‘box wall.
Although this produces a regular loop motion of the stock
with its branches situated between the agitators and the
cylinder or the container ‘wall, the de?ection from the
tangential ?bre direction that can be obtained with it is
very small. It is also obvious that the effect of the
large number of agitators in this arrangement is not
very considerable. A slow agitator movement gives very
little result and a rapid movement would completely de
stroy the desired looping motion of the material. Apart
from the complex nature of the apparatus, which renders
in relatively considerable strength differences in a posi
tion normal and parallel to the direction of production, 30 necessary a large number of journals which are taken out
and this is undesirable especially in the ‘case of sheets of
of the cylinder box and Which have to be sealed, it can
?bre material. In order therefore to improve the ?exural
be used only with very light substances which do not tend
tensile strength which is considerably lower in the direc
to sink, such as occur in the paper industry. Such an
tion parallel to the direction of the Web of material, it
arrangement could not be used in the, ?bre cement in
was hitherto necessary to use an increased ?bre chargea. 35 dustry, since the heavy suspended matter is not whirled
and‘ this means an increase in the costs of raw material.
There has been no lack of attempt to obviate this
The above disadvantages are obviated in the apparatus
drawback by bringing the ?bres in a crossed position in
equipped with rotary agitators according to the invention,
relation to one another. There has not, however, hith
by the fact that the agitators, which are combined to
erto ‘been any satisfactory technical solution to this prob— 40 form at least one insert, are disposed preferably close
lem. Methods known heretofore, ‘for example, comprise
together and rotatably about axes which are approxi
the use of various means in the stock of cylinder ‘box to
produce a flow extending in the direction of the cylinder
axis. The results obtained are, however, very modest
and the ?exural tensile strengths obtained in the parallel
direction to the web hardly approach the strength values?
that can 'be obtained in the position normal (transversely)
to the ?bre, because the entire box ?lling is set in motion
and the necessary speed of ?ow of the stock circulation
can be obtained only with di?iculty, especially in the 50
case of high-speed machines. Another considerable dis- {'
advantage of these processes is the destruction of the
mately tangential, especially perpendicular, to the cylin
der mould and are situated advantageously in the ab
sorptive zone of the web carrier, for example near the
cylinder mould or the moving felt.
The rotation of agitators disposed in this manner gives
a horizontal alignment of the ?bres, the individual ?bres
coming on to the mould at a greater or lesser angle in
dependence on the agitator speed which is, for example
The apparatus according to the invention
has the effect that only the material situated directly at
the absorptive region of the web carrier is subjected to
freeness of the stock, as is very important for good pro- '
any in?uencing. Moreover, an absorption-promoting
duction, because the pulp, which is constantly kept in
effect is achieved by centrifugal force, which throws the
circulation in its entirety, whether by pumps or other de 55 material against the cylinder mould or the moving felt.
vices, becomes greasy through an excess of preparation,
consequently drains badly, interferes with the operation of
the clarifying devices, and has a very adverse effect on
manufacturing conditions. For this reason, none of
these processes has become established on an industrial
It has also already been proposed that a set of plates,’
consisting of approximately vertical plates disposed side
Practical tests on the apparatus according to the in
vention have shown a hitherto unattainable increase of
the ?exural tensile strength of the resulting ?bre web par
allel to its direction of motion without any appreciable
drop in the strength transversely to the direction of mo
tion. This is due on the one hand to the ?bre arrange
ment achieved and on the other hand to the fact that
the twirling motion produced directly by the web carrier
by side at small distances from one another should be
precludes any “nest” formation in the ?bre material.
made to reciprocate in the direction of the cylinder axis 65
It has proved advantageous to make the insert movable
in the cylinder box and thus prevent the alignment of
transversely to the direction of motion of the web car
the ?bres in a preferential direction. This known ar
rier, for example in the direction of the longitudinal axis
rangement has the particular disadvantage that it sets all
of the cylinder mould, since a reciprocating motion of
the material in the cylinder box into a swabbing motion.
the insert, preferably by about half the width of the
Moreover, an increase of the reciprocating motion is lim~ 70 agitators, prevents any striation at the neutral regions of
ited by the inertia of the pulp to be moved, ‘because an
the ?eece during the production process.
unduly rapid stroke does not permit any change of direc
In order to restrict the twirling motion of the ?bres to
example, S-shaped blades.
of the agitators in the successive boxes-as illustrated in
FIG. 5—may be opposed to one another so that a cross
ing of the ?bres is obtained.
In FIG. 5 such a device with three series-connected cyl
inder boxes is illustrated.
The speeds of the individual agitators of one and the
The blade spindles of the
agitators may be extended in the downward direction
and carry at their lower ends propeller-like or screw-like
devices which drive the pulp upwards and hence prevent
the material from sinking in the case of a particularly
thick consistency.
example multi-cylinder machines, the direction of rotation
the immediate region in front of the web carrier, the
individual agitators of the insert may be disposed in cham
bers which are open towards the web carrier. The agita
tors are advantageously equipped with straight or, for
same insert may be made different in order to achieve
diiferent strength zones in the webs of ?bre material. This
10 can be attained, as shown in FIG. 6 of the drawing, by
means of in?nitely variable gears 16 known per se which
The drawing illustrates one exempli?ed embodiment of
the ‘apparatus according to the invention.
are interpositioned between the shaft 9 and each individual
agitator 6.
What I claim is:_
1. In an apparatus for producing ?bre webs, particularly
the invention, and FIG. 2 is a side view of a single agitator. 15
FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic view of a part of a cylinder
mould machine equipped with the apparatus according to
asbestos cement webs, a container for ?ber material, cylin
FIGS. 3, 4, 5 and 6 show further embodiments and de
tails, respectively, of the apparatus according to the in
drical web forming means mounted in the container, mov
able web carrier means cooperable with said cylindrical
web forming means so that movement of the web carrier
receive the ?bre material and in which is situated the 20 means effects an alignment of the ?bres in the direction
of movement of the web carrier means and means for
cylinder mould 2, from which the ?bre web formed is
avoiding unilateral alignment of the ?bres, said last-named
removed by means of the couch roll 3 and the conveyor
means including a plurality of rotatable agitating means,
felt 4. The insert 5 is disposed near the cylinder mould
means mounting said rotatable agitating means in said
and comprises a plurality of individual agitators 6. The
level of liquid outside the cylinder mould is denoted by 25 container in closely spaced apart relationship in a direc
tion transverse to said cylindrical web-forming means for
reference a and the level inside the said mould is denoted
Reference 1 denotes the cylinder box which serves to
by b.
The absorption of the pulp by the cylinder mould is
eifected immediately after the empty mould dips into the
rotation about axes substantially tangential to said cylin
drical Web-forming means, and drive means for rotating
2. An apparatus as claimed in claim 1, further including
means for reciprocating said agitating means transversely
with respect to the direction of movement of the web
carrier means while said drive means rotates said agitating
said ‘agitating means.
As soon as the meshes of the mould have been 30
closed by a layer of pulp the absorption of the cylinder
is practically completed.
According to the invention,
therefore, the direction of the ?bres is in?uenced at this
point without the flow of the remaining ?lling of the cyl
inder box being in any way effected.
3. An apparatus as claimed in claim 1, including means
The abovementioned horizontal ?bre alignment is
formed by the said agitators which have, for example,
for regulating the speed of rotation of the agitating means.
perpendicular rotating blades.
for regulating the speed of reciprocation of said agitating
The agitators are equipped with rectangular straight
4. An apparatus as claimed in claim 2, including means
common driving shaft 9. Semi-cylindrical guard plates
5. An apparatus as claimed in claim 3, including in
?nitely variable gear means for rotating the agitating
are illustrated in front of some of the agitators on the
blades 7 or S-shaped blades 8, which are driven by a
6. An apparatus as claimed in claim 1, further includ
ing wall means de?ning a chamber for each agitating
of the agitators is restricted to the region directly in front
of the cylinder mould. The complete insert 5 is capable 45 means with each chamber being open in a direction facing
of reciprocating in the direction of the longitudinal axis
the web carrier means.
7. An apparatus as claimed in claim 1, in which each
of the cylinder mould 3. The speed of this motion may
agitating means includes a ?at blade-like body.
be controllable.
The agitator 6 shown in FIG. 2 carries not only the
8. An apparatus as claimed in claim 1, in which each
blades 7 but also, on downwardly extended spindle, a 60 agitating means includes an S-shaped blade-like body.
9. An apparatus as claimed in claim 1, in which each
propeller 19 which prevents the ?bre materials from
side remote from cylinder mould 2, so that the action
agitating means includes a blade-like ‘body, a spindle for
the body extending beyond the lower end of the body, and
A plurality of inserts may be provided at the periphery
a propeller-like component on the extended portion of
of the cylinder mould. The construction illustrated, how
ever, has the advantage that the driving mechanism 11 65 the spindle.
10. An apparatus as claimed in claim 1, including in
of the agitators can be disposed outside the pulp.
The blades may also run in the cylinder box without
?nitely variable gear means for each agitating means for
rotating the agitating means at different speeds whereby
any screening.
FIG. 3 shows an arrangement including electric motor
the in?uencing of the ?bre deposit is variable in the zones
M as the driving means and an in?nitely variable gear 60 wf the various agitating means.
12 for regulating the rotational speed of the agitators 6
by means of the shaft 9.
According to FIG. 4 an eccentric 13 is provided which
is actuated by a drive 14 over a belt or a chain 15.
eccentric permits the in?nitely variable gear .12 ‘as well 65
as the insert 5 cooperating therewith the reciprocating
motion above mentioned.
When a plurality of web-forming means are used, for
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
Yoder _______________ __ July 29,
Millspaugh ____________ __ June 2,
Kutter ________________ __ Oct. 8,
Leeson ____________ __v____ Dec. 8,
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