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Патент USA US3065815

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Nov. 27, 1962
3,065,805
L. A. MARTINI
APPARATUS FOR DRILLING WELLS
Filed Dec. 15, 1958
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
4..
5/
INVENTOR
Leo A. Martini
BY
MKM
ATTORNEY
’ Nov. 27, 1962
L. A. MARTINI
3,065,805
APPARATUS FOR DRILLING WELLS
Filed Dec. 15, 1958
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
51
\\\Tf/Z vé,
INVENTOR
Leo A. Martin i
Fig.3-A
BY
@KW
ATTORNEY
ited tats ae
ice
3,%5,8?5
- Patented Nov. 27,1962
1
3,965,805
APPARATUS FOR DRILLING ‘WELLS
Leo A. Martini, 5322 Cedar Springs Road, Dallas, Tex.
Filed Dec. 15, 1953, Ser. No. ‘780,354
4 Claims. (Cl. 175-56)
This invention relates to apparatus for drilling Wells,
and it concerns more particularly hydraulic means, oper
2
passage for introducing a drilling ?uid into the well bore‘
1 adjacent the bottom thereof.
The apparatus of ths invention includes a cylindrical
casing, as hereinafter described, which is connected be
tween the drill pipe 2 and the drilling bit 3 and provides
a fluid passage therebetween. The casing has a ?rst section 4, which is connected to the drill pipe 2, and a sec
ond section 5, which is connected to the drilling bit 3.
able by pressure and inertia of a drilling ?uid, for impart
As shown in FIGURES 2 and 2A, the second casing
ing a vibratory movement to a drilling bit, and has refer 10 section 5 is connected to the drilling bit 3 by threads,
ence to the disclosures set forth in an application ?led
and is received telescopically in the ?rst casing section 4,
by me on February 6, 1957, and bearing Serial No. 638,
to which it is connected by threads 7. The second casing
652, now Patent No. 2,905,439.
section 5 has a central bore 8 which is in ?uid communi
An object of the invention is to provide, in well drilling
cation with discharge ports 9 formed in the drilling bit 3.
apparatus including a drill pipe and a drilling bit con 15
A valve seat It}, which is preferably formed of resilient
nected to the drill pipe and rotatable therewith, the drill
material, is positioned in the upper end of the bore 8. A
pipe and the drilling bit providing a continuous ?uid pas
cylindrical valve cage 11 is connected to the second cas
sage for introducing a drilling ?uid into a well bore ad
ing section 5, by threads 12, and extends upwardly there
jacent the bottom thereof, hydraulic means responsive to
from. A ball valve 13, which has a resilient covering 14,
the pressure of the drilling ?uid for imparting a vibra 20 is disposed in the valve cage 11 and is engageable with
tory movement to the bit during rotation thereof.
the valve-seat 10. The valve 13 has a stem 15 extending
" Another‘object of the invention is to provide a struc
upwardly therefrom.
'
ture as described in which the valve is adapted to be
An inner cylinder 16 is connected to the valve cage 11,
seated in response to pressure of the drilling ?uid, and in
by threads 17, and extends upwardly therefrom. The
whichthe valve‘approaches the valve seat more rapidly 25 valve cage 11 and the inner cylinder 16 are of lesser di
as it is’advanced in close proximity thereto, and is seated
ameter than the ?rst casing section 4 to provide an an
abruptly,‘ whereby the increased pressure of the drilling
nular ?uid passage 18 therearound. The valve cage 11
?uid imparts a vibratory movement to the drilling bit.
has a restricted ori?ce l9 surrounding the valve stem 15
vAnother object of'the invention is to provide a struc~
and communicating with the interior of the inner cylin
30
ture as described in which pressure builds up in the inner
der 16, and has side openings 20 communicating with the
cylinder below the piston upon seating of the valve, to
thereby raise the piston and disengage the valve from
its seat, the arrangement being such that the valve is'
continually opened and closed in response to pressure
annular ?uid passage 18.
'
The valve cage 11 has an upwardly and radially out
wardly tapered surface 21 surrounding the ori?ce l9, and
has an upstanding marginal ?ange 22 which is spaced in
and inertia of the drilling ?uid, whereby an intermittent 35 wardly from the inner wall of the cylinder 16. The cage
vibratory movement is imparted to the drilling bit, through
11 may not necessarily be conical in form, as de?ned by >
the casing.
.
the tapered surface 21 thereof, and the size of the ori?ce
. Broadly, the invention contemplates the provision of
19 may vary according to the requirements.
drilling apparatus embodying features of construction by
A piston 23, which is disposed in the inner cylinder 16
40
which, as the drilling bit progresses downwardly, a 1on
and normally rests on the upstanding marginal ?ange 22
gitudinal vibratory action is transmitted thereto by the
of the valve cage 11, has a central opening 24 surroundintermittent interruption of the flow of drilling ?uid
ing the valve stem 15. The opening 24 is enlarged atv
through the drill pipe.
its upper end to form a spring seat 25. A coil spring 26, p
‘The invention will be readily understood by referring
which surrounds the valve stem 15 and is received in the
to the following description and the accompanying draw
spring
seat 25, extends upwardly above the piston 23 for.
ing, in which:
FIGURE 1 is a diagrammatic elevational view showing
engagement with the enlarged upper end 27 of the valve ~
stem 15. The spring 26 acts on the valve stem 15 and
apparatus embodying the invention operatively connected
thepiston 23 to bias the valve stem 15 upwardly rela
to a drill pipe and a drilling bit disposed in a well bore;
tive to the piston 23 whereby the valve 13 is normally,
‘FIGURES 2 and 2A together comprise a single eleva 50 disengaged from the valve seat 10.
tional view on an enlarged scale, partly in section taken
In operation, the valve 13 is adapted to be seated in
on a median line, of a portion of the apparatus shown
response to pressure of the drilling ?uid. The valve 13
in FIGURE 1;
approaches the valve seat 10 more rapidly as it is ad
FIGURES 3 and 3A together comprise a single view 55 vanced in'close proximity thereto, and is seated abruptly,
similar to that of FIGURES 2 and 2A, showing a modi
whereby a vibratory movement is imparted to the drilling
?ed form of the invention;
bit 3, through the casing.
FIGURE 4. is a sectional plan view, on an enlarged
Pressure builds up in the inner cylinder 16 below the
scale, taken on the line 4-4 of FIGURE 3;
piston 23 upon seating of the valve 13, to thereby raise
FIGURE 5 is a sectional plan view, on an enlarged 60 the piston 23 and disengage the valve 13 from the valve
seat 10. ‘ The arrangement is such that the valve 13 is
scale, taken on the line 5~5 of FIGURE 3A; and
continually opened and closed in response to pressure of
FIGURE 6 is a sectional plan view, on an enlarged
the drilling ?uid, whereby a vertical vibratory movement ‘
scale, taken on the line 6—6 of FIGURE 3A.
is imparted to the drilling bit 3, through the casing. .
Referring to FIGURE 1 of the drawing, the numeral 1
designates a well bore. A drill pipe, indicated generally 65 a A cylindrical cover 28, which encloses the upper ends;
of the valve stem 15 and the spring 26 and limits the
by the numeral 2, is disposed in the Well bore 1. A drill
upward movement of the valve stem 15, has a radially
ing bit, which may be of any suitable construction and
is, indicated generally by the numeral 3, is connected to
outwardly extending peripheral ?ange 29' which ‘is con
nected to the upper surface of the piston 23 by screws
the lower end of the drill pipe 2 and is rotatable there
30. A resilient ring 31 is clamped between the piston 23‘
with. In accordance with the usual practice, the drill 70 and the ?ange 29; Resilient‘ sealing rings 32 and 33 are
pipe 2, and the drilling bit 3 provide a continuous ?uid‘ clamped between the piston 23 and an annularlplate 34,
3,085,805
r.
-
0
which is secured to the under side of the piston 23 by
Screws 35.
An annular support 36, which has a central opening,
extends radially inwardly from the inner cylinder 16
4
What is claimed is:
1. In well drilling apparatus including a drill pipe
and a drilling bit connected to the drill pipe and rotat
able therewith, the drill pipe and the drilling bit pro
viding a continuous ?uid passage for introducing a drilling
?uid into a well bore adjacent the bottom thereof, hy
draulic means responsive to the pressure of the drilling
?uid for imparting a vertical vibratory movement to the
surrounds the cover 28. The spring 37 acts on the piston
bit during rotation thereof, the hydraulic means includ
23 and the annular support 36 to bias the piston 23 down
wardly in the inner cylinder 16 to thereby resist upward 10 ing a cylindrical casing connected between the drill pipe
and the drilling bit and providing a ?uid passage there
movement of the valve stem, to disengage the valve 13
between, the casing having a ?rst section connected to
from its seat, in ‘response to pressure of the drilling ?uid
the drill pipe and a second section connected to the
acting on the under side of the piston 23.
intermediate its ends. A coil spring 37, which is sub
‘stantially larger than the spring 26, is positioned in the
inner cylinder 16, ‘below the annular support 36, and
drilling bit, the second casing section being received tele
A piston 38 is positioned in the inner cylinder 16 above
the annular support 36 and normally rests thereon. The 15 scopically in the ?rst casing section and having a central
bore, a valve seat in the upper end of the bore, a cylindri
space in the inner cylinder 16 between the pistons 23
cal valve cage connected to the second casing section and
and 38 is normally ‘?lled with oil, and the piston 38 is
extending upwardly therefrom, a ball valve in the valve
freely movable in the inner cylinder 16 in response to
cage engageable with the valve seat, the valve having a
differences of ?uid pressure above and below it. The
stem extending upwardly therefrom, an inner cylinder
20
cover 28 has a ?uid port 39 in the wall thereof whereby
connected to the valve cage and extending upwardly
the space enclosed by the cover 28 is ?lled with oil also.
therefrom, the valve cage and the inner cylinder having
_ An annular member or plug 40, which partially closes
a lesser diameter than the ?rst casing section to provide
the upper end of the inner cylinder 16, is secured therein
an annular ?uid passage therebetween, the valve cage
by threads 41. A coupling member 42 is connected to
having a restricted ori?ce near its upper end surrounding
the upper end of the ?rst casing section 4, above the
the valve stem and communicating with the interior of
inner cylinder 16, by threads 43. The coupling mem
the inner cylinder, and having side openings communi
ber 42 has an integral tubular portion 44 concentrically
cating with the annular ?uid passage, a piston in the inner’
thereof which depends from a partition 45 intermediate
cylinder surrounding the valve stem and normally rest
the ends of the coupling 42 through the plug 40 in slid
on the valve cage, above the restricted ori?ce, a coil
ing engagement with the latter. A pair of resilient O-rings 30 ing
spring surrounding the valve stem and acting on the valve ‘
stem and the piston to bias the valve stem upwardly rela
the annular member 40 for sealing engagement with the
tive to the piston whereby the valve is normally disen
tubular portion 44.
gaged from the valve seat, and a second coil spring in the
The upper end of the tubular portion 44 is closed, and
inner cylinder above the piston acting on the piston and
the partition 45 has longitudinally and radially extending
the inner cylinder to bias the piston downwardly in the
passages 47 and 48 therein. The longitudinally extend
inner cylinder to thereby resist upward movement of the
ing passages 47 communicate with the annular ?uid pas~
valve stem to disengage the valve from its seat in re
46 are received in annular grooves provided therefor in
sage 18, and the radially extending passages 48 com
sponse to pressure of the drilling ?uid acting on the under
municate with corresponding openings 49 and 50 in the
side of the piston, the arrangement being such that the
walls of the coupling member 42 and the tubular por 40 valve is adapted to be seated in response to pressure of,
tion 44, respectively, whereby the interior of the inner
the drilling ?uid, the valve approaches the valve seat
cylinder 16, adjacent its upper end, is in ?uid communica
more rapidly as it is advanced in close proximity thereto,
tion with the well bore 1.
and is seated abruptly, and pressure builds up in the
A coupling member 51 is connected at its ends, by
inner cylinder below the piston upon seating of the valve,
threads 52 and 53, to the drill pipe 2 and the coupling
to thereby raise the piston and disengage the valve from
member 42. The coupling member 51 has a central bore
its seat, the valve being continually opened and closed in
54 communicating at one end with the interior of the
response to pressure of the drilling ?uid, whereby a vibra
drill pipe 2. The opposite end of the bore 54 is tapered
tory movement is imparted to the drilling bit through the
downwardly and outwardly, as at 55, and communicates
casing.
with the longitudinally extending passages 47 of the parti 50
2. The structure of claim 1, an annular support ex
tion 45 of the coupling member 42.
tending radially inwardly from the inner cylinder inter
The arrangement shown in FIGURES 3 and 3A in~
mediate its ends, a second piston in the inner cylinder
eludes the following features which are not shown ‘in
above the annular support and normally resting thereon,
FIGURES 2 and 2A:
the space in the inner cylinder between the pistons nor
A portion of the peripheral surface of the second casing
mally being ?lled with a non-compressible ?uid, the
section 5 below the valve cage 11 is splined, as at 56,
second piston being freely movable in the inner cylinder
and the ?rst casing section 4 has a correspondingly splined
in response to differences of ?uid pressure above and
internally enlarged portion 57 opposite the splined sur
below it, an annular member partially closing the upper
face 56 of the second casing section 5 for slidable inter
end of the inner cylinder, a coupling member connecting
locking engagement therewith, whereby the second cas 60 the ?rst casing section to the drill pipe, the coupling
ing section 5 is positively secured to the ?rst casing section
member having a partition intermediate its ends and
4 for rotative movement therewith while at the same time
the second casing section 5 is capable of a limited longi
tudinal movement relative to the ?rst casing section 4.
having an integral tubular portion arranged centrally
thereof and depending into the inner cylinder, a plug
threaded into the inner cylinder having a central bore
The lower end of the valve cage 11 forms a shoulder 65 receiving the tubular portion, the upper end of the tubular
for abutment against the internally enlarged portion 57
portion being closed and the partition having longitud
of the ?rst casing section 4 to limit downward movement
inally and radially extending passages therein, the longi
of the second casing section 5 relative to the ?rst casing
tudinally extending passages communicating with the
section 4. The second casing section 5 has an external
annular ?uid passage and the radially extending passages
shoulder 58 for abutment against the lower end of the 70 communicating with corresponding openings in the walls
?rst casing section 4 to limit upward movement of the
of the coupling member and the tubular portion, and a
second casing section 5 relative to the ?rst casing sec
second coupling member connected between the ?rst
tion 4.
mentioned
coupling member and the drill pipe, the sec
The invention may be modi?ed in various ways without
76 ond coupling member having a central-bore communi»
departing from the spirit and scope thereof.
3,065,805
5
5
eating at one end with the interior of the drill pipe, the
downward pressure on a drill bit on a drill string at the
opposite end of the last mentioned bore being tapered
downwardly and outwardly and communicating with the
longitudinally extending passages of the partition of the
?rst mentioned coupling member.
5
3. The structure of claim 2, a portion of the peripheral
surface of the second casing section below the valve cage
being splined and the ?rst casing section having a corre
bottom of a subterranean bore, having telescopically con
nected upper and lower tubular sections and having said
bit rigidly connected to said lower section, and ?uid
passages in said sections open to said bit, the improve
ments comprising, a valve seat in the ?uid passage in
said lower section, a valve cage arranged in said lower
section above said seat having a pluarality of elongated
section, the lower end of the valve cage forming a
connection thereof with said stem.
openings providing communication between said sections,
spondingly splined internally enlarged portion ‘opposite
the splined surface of the second casing section, for inter 10 and having a central ori?ce thereabove, the said cage
de?ning a chamber thereabove in said lower section, a
locking, sliding engagement therewith whereby the sec
valve in said cage engageable with said seat and a stern
ond casing section is positively secured to the ?rst casing
for said valve arranged through said ori?ce, a spring
section for rotative movement therewith, while at the
biased piston in said chamber embracing said stern, and
same time the second casing section is capable of a
means forming a part of said piston providing yieldable
limited longitudinal movement relative to the ?rst casing
shoulder for abutment against the internally enlarged
portion of the ?rst casing section to limit downward
movement of the second casing section relative to the
?rst casing section and the second casing section having
an external shoulder for abutment against the lower end
of the ?rst casing section to limit upward movement of
the second casing section relative to the ?rst casing
section.
4. A drilling tool for intermittently increasing the 25
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,892,517
2,746,721
2,758,817
2,774,334
2,859,733
2,905,439
Pennington __________ __ Dec.
Moore ______________ __ May
Bassinger ____________ .__ Aug.
Cline ______________ __ Dec.
Bassinger et a1. ______ __ Nov.
Martini _____________ __ Sept.
27,
22,
14,
18,
11,
1932
1956
1956
1956
1958
22, 1959
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