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Патент USA US3066743

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Dec. 4,1962
3,066,733
C. W. BRANDON
METHOD OF EXPL OSIVELY FRA CTURING A PRODUCTIVE
OIL AND GAS FORMATION
Filed May 21, 1958
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INVENTOR.
CLARENCE W. BRANDON
BY :
ATTORNEYS
United States Patent dine
Patented Dec. 4, 196.‘?
1
2
3,066,733
A further object of the invention is to utilize a sub
METHOD OF EXPLOSIVELY FRACTURIING A
PRODUCTHVE UlL AND GAS FGRMATION
Clarence W. Brandon, Tulsa, Gilda.
(525 ()aldand Ave, Tallahassee, Fla.)
Filed May 21, 1958, Ser. No. 736,701
19 Claims. (Cl. 166-36)
stantially resilient barren formation that is adjacent to
but separated from a productive gas and oil strata by a
portion of non~productive strata, by creating a fracture
therein, or entering an interface thereof, with explosive
media and thereby explosively compacting and arching
the deformable strata between the fracture or interface,
and the productive strata, to thus more fully fracture the
The present invention relates to methods employing
substantially non-deformable and non-compressible pro
explosives detonated in formations adjacent to but sepa~
ductive strata.
rated from productive ‘oil and gas horizons by a portion
A still further object of the invention is to leave send
of non-productive strata for effective controlled fractur
as a propping agent in the barren formation prior to
ing of the horizons.
the introduction of the explosives, to more easily allow
Through research and development, productive oil and
the introduction of ?uid explosives into a fracture in a
gas formations have been fractured by placing explosives 15 barren formation adjacent a productive horizon.
directly in the oil and gas strata and exploding them from
Another object of the invention is to place an explosive
within the strata. In this method it has been found that
due to the permeable conditon of the producing strata,
the explosive enters into the pore space of the formation
and mixes with the fluid of the formaton, becoming so
thinly divided that detonation of all of the explosives
introduced into the fracture in the formation is prevented.
A further problem with this method has been that in a
producing strata wherein the sand is of a silicious nature,
the abruptness of the detonation is such that the strata
disintegrates into sand almost in a body adjacent the well
in such a way in a fracture in a formation adjacent to
but separated from a productive strata by a portion of
non-productive strata, so that the explosive force will
cause both vertical and block fracturing of the produc
tive strata.
Still another object of the present invention is to care
fully select the explosive receiving type of strata and
distance thereof from the productive horizon, with the
distance and type of strata used providing a cushion buffer
zone, which is a variable of the amount and kind of ex
bore, and production of ?uids from the formation there
plosive used and the thickness and characteristic of the
after is actually reduced or prevented by the large ac
productive horizon, as well as the type, locality and area
cumulation of sand coming to the well bore.
of the fracture desired in the productive horizon.
In one well in the Spraberry oil ?elds of West Texas,
A ‘still further object of the present invention is to mix
wherein explosives were introduced into the existing frac
sand with a ?uid explosive prior to introduction into a
tures in the productive strata, after extension of and/or
formation in order to use the sand as a propelled and
enlargement of these fractures were caused by forcing
compacting agent to further the explosive effect in frac
thereinto a fracturing ?uid, then after detonating the ex
turing of the productive strata.
plosive it required several months for the operator of 35 A further object of the invention is to explosively,
the well to clean out the pulverized and disintegrated
additionally fracture a productive horizon, having existing
formation that came to the well bore. In this well the
natural fractures therein caused by folding and thrust,
several hundred feet of productive Spraberry strata, and
by placing and detonating explosives at a point in the for
the numerous natural fractures therein, required the intro
mation that is adjacent but separated from the productive
duction of a large amount of explosives in order to at
horizon by a portion of non-productive strata, and so
tempt to fracture the matrix of the productive strata for
placing the explosives in such a position that the ex
a distance back from the well bore.
plosive force, upon detonation, will be against the areas
In instances where the explosive has been introduced
of natural folding and/ or thrust so as to cause momentary
into a producing strata of calcarous nature, the abrupt
closure of some of the fractures within the productive
detonation of the explosive tends to compact the forma
horizon.
tion both above and below the fracture wherein the ex
An object of the invention is to introduce separate
plosive has been placed so that rather than causing an
charges of explosives into formations adjacent to but
increase of permeability adjacent the well bore, which
separated from productive strata by a portion of non
is the desired result in most fracturing operations, it
productive strata both above and below the productive
compacts or sears the formation within an area adjacent
strata and then detonate the charges of explosives at timed
to the explosion. Such a compacting, or searing results
intervals. The timed explosions create shock waves which
in substantially no increase of over-all permeability and
meet in the productive strata at preselected phase angles
no increase in production of ?uids at the well bore.
and thereby cause variably controllable cancellation, re
The primary object of the present invention is to in
inforcement or augmentation of the explosive shock wave.
55
troduce an explosive into a created fracture, or interface
effects within the productive strata.
between stratas, in a portion of a formation adjacent to
but separated from a permeable and productive oil and
gas strata by a portion of non-productive strata, and to
detonate the explosive to fracture the productive horizon.
Another object of the invention is to place two or more
charges of explosives in a formation adjacent to but sepa
rated from a productive strata by a portion of non-produc
tive strata on one side only of the productive strata and
Another object of the invention is to introduce a 60 detonate the explosives at timed intervals. The timed
?uid into a barren portion of the formation adjacent a
explosions create various phase ‘angles of shock wave in
productive strata and to follow the ?uid with an explosive
order to produce a shock Wave in the productive strata
which is then detonated to force the introduced ?uid
that is complemented, reinforced or [augmented as to
further into the barren portion of the formation to create
total explosive force so as to fracture said productive
a fracturing ‘force on the productive strata.
strata.
Another object of ‘the invention is to mix a dehydrating
A still further object of the invention is to place charges
additive into the fluid introduced into the formation in
advance of the explosive ‘material in order to cause a more
abrupt force to the fluid when it is compressed and com
pacted back into the formation, by the force of the ex
plosion.
'
of explosives, in accordance with any and all of the above
objects, in a plurality of well bores, detonating the ex
plosives at various phase angles of shock wave to each
other so as to cause a variable controlled form of shock
Waves to be expended within the formation between said
an eaves
d
35
wells for the purpose of fracturing the productive horizon
that the well bores intercept.
Another object of the invention is to place charges
of explosives in various well bores, as set forth above,
with a portion of the charges being below the productive
of the explosion over a larger area, and thus more com
pletely fracture the productive horizon.
In some instances it might be desirable to force a frac
turing ?uid into the formation adjacent the productive
strata in order to create the’ fracture, subsequently remov
ing the fracturing ?uid, and then introduce the explosive.
In other methods of operation it might be desirable to
the productive horizon in separate well bores, where
introduce the fracturing ?uid to cause a fracture in the
upon variable detonating of the different charges of ex
barren formation, following thereafter with the introduc
plosives will cause controllable, formation fracturing shock
waves to be produced in the productive horizon between 10 tion of sand of predetermined amounts in ?uid and then
follow thereafter with the introduction of the explosive.
the well bores.
In other instances it would be desirable to withdraw the
These and other objects of this invention will become
?uid used to transport the sand into the fracture, leaving
apparent from the following description in conjunction
the sand as a propping agent, and then introduce the
with the accompanying drawings of which:
explosive into the propped open fracture. The formation
FIGURE 1 is a schematic diagram partially in cross
of a fracture for the introduction of explosives thereafter
section describing phases of a method according to this in
is not limited to any particular fracturing method. In
vention.
some instances the fractures are created by any of the
FIGURE 2 is a similar schematic diagram partially
various methods taught in the United States patents to
in cross-section showing an additional phase of a typical
20 Farris, Resissue 23,733; Vorhees, 2,645,291; Clark, 2,596,
method of practicing this invention.
844; Bond, 2,672,936; Johnson, 2,664,954; or Abendorth,
Referring now to FIGURE 1, the numeral in designates
2,693,854. Also, where the explosive is of a proper ?uid
a subterranean formation containing oil and/ or gas. Ver
consistency the sand could be mixed with the explosives
tically spaced, either downwardly or upwardly as shown,
so that upon detonation the force of the explosion would
is a non-productive strata comprising as an example, a
use the sand as a propelled and compacting agent to extend
relatively deformable and compressible strata 12 which is
the area and force of the explosion in the barren strata,
separated from the producing strata ltl by a third or buf
and thus cause a resultant increase and extension of the
fer strata 14. Typically, these formations are penetrated
fracture of the productive formation.
by a well 16 having a protective string of casing 18 therein.
In the practice of using an interface between strata into
Tubing 2%) is adapted to be positioned with its lower end
which to inject the explosives, there is sometimes encoun
22 opposite the uppermost formation 12‘ ‘and within
tered connate water therein that will dilute or thin the ex
the space con?ned by packing elements 24‘ and 26. The
horizon in a well bore and a portion thereof being above
location of the various strata, their characteristics, and
the placement of the packing elements 24 and 2'6 with
plosives and/or the ?uids used to practice some of the
methods of this invention.
In such cases, dehydrating or
water absorbing agents are added to the ?uids, such as
respect to the lower to con?ne the perforated tubing end
22 is determined from well known logging methods and 35 the fracturing ?uids being pumped into the formation.
Typical of such agents are bentonite, alcohol, or agents
techniques. The upper end of the tubing 2t) at the sur
which will increase the interfacial tension between the
face is attached to a pump 36. A pressure gage 32 is in
communication with the interior of the tubing for use
water and formation to form a rather abrupt face to the
?uids being pumped into the interface where ?uids are
shown attached to the intake of the pump 36‘ is a fractur 40 used ahead of the explosives, and a correspondingly more
abrupt force will be given to the leading face of the ?uid
ing system generally shown as 34, as used to from fracture
upon detonation of the explosive.
5t) and an explosive system generally shown as 36.
The present invention does not concern itself with the
In FIGURE 2 a further sequential phase of the inven
speci?c means of introducing explosives into the created
tion is shown with speci?c regard to the use of a detonation
fracture, as the art thereon is fairly well known and is
means 4%, such as an explosive, which is controllably posi
in connection with the processes.
Diagrammatically
tioned within the well at the desired position between pack
ing elements 243- and 26 by a wire line 42 from the surface.
Additionally, the result of the process is diagrammatically
illustrated to shOW the resultant fractures 44 in the produc
tive formation 10.
It is well known in the art of fracturing wells for
the increase of the production of oil and gas therefrom
that a substantial portion of the producing horizons are
of a relatively non-compressive and non-deformable na
ture. Adjacent these productive stratas there are in most
instances stratas that are highly compressible and deform
able, due to the heat and pressures existing in the depths
of the earth at which these stratas are situated, and under
the abrupt detonation of an explosive, these stratas will
practised considerably at present. While nitroglycerine,
picric acid, or other liquid explosives may be adequately
prepared and employed in this invention, solid explosives
such trinitrotoluene may be used alone or dispersed in
suitable inert solvents for placement in a created fracture.
t is possible to perforate cemented casing at the desired
place in the barren formation, then create a fracture, pump
thereafter explosives into the fracture and then follow the
explosives down the casing or tubing with a plug, there
after forcing ?uid behind the plug, pushing the explosives
out into the created fracture. Detonation of the explo
sives in the fracture could be done by any of the several
well known ways practised at present, or can be effected
by following the explosive, or combining therewith, a
compact, deform, ?ow, arch and distort with practically 60 delayed action chemical detonating means, so that ?uid
following the explosives and the detonating means could
no fracture being created therein by the explosive force.
force these away from the perforations adjacent the well
Although the principles and operation of this inven
bore and thus prevent damage to the portion of the casing
tion are enhanced by injecting the explosives into a rela
passing through the productive strata, when the explosion
tively deformable and compressible barren strata that
is adjacent a substantially non-compressible and non
deformable productive oil and gas horizon, yet the inven
tion is not limited thereto but covers broadly the creation
is consummated. Thereafter the cemented casing can be
perforated where production is desired and the well
produced.
One speci?c method of this invention is best described
with reference to FIGURES l and 2 and quite generally
productive strata in a portion of the formation that is
adjacent to but separated from the productive oil and 70 includes the following steps:
(1) The location and identity of productive formation
gas horizon by a portion of non-productive strata, and
in and the vertically adjacent formations 12 and 14.
the injection of an explosive into said fracture, or inter
(2) Tubing Eli and packing elements 24 and 26 are
face, so as to allow for and form a cushion between the
located to substantially straddle the formation 12.
abruptness of the detonated explosive and the productive
(3,) The formation 12 is caused to be fractured as
horizon, as well as to cause an extension of the force
of a fracture or the use of an interface between non
3,066,733
5
6
shown by the numeral 50 by adequate connection of the
pump 30 with the fracturing ?uid system 34.
(4) The explosive media system is then forced by pump
30 into the existing fracture 50.
selves, resulting in a plurality of new fractures and exten
sions of existing fractures, as well as developing new ten
sional, torsional, shearing and/ or compressive forces. The
multiple fracturing of the matrix of the productive hori
(5) The explosive is detonated, and
zon is created by the relieving of these forces to afterward
(6) Oil and/or gas is produced from the formation 10.
allow the production of fluids from said productive
Another method of operation of the present invention
horizon.
is that the productive strata and the adjacent formation in
By the correct selection of type and amount of non
which the fracture is created can be left, open hole, with
no casing cemented in place through this part of the for 10 productive strata allowed to be between the explosives and
the productive horizon, one can control the extent and
mation, and the fracturing done through tubing set on
area ‘of the created fractures so as to produce effective re
various types of packers that can be used to isolate the
sults,
rather than expend the explosive force ineffectually
barren formation, and the fracturing ?uid and/or the
in pulverizing and disintegrating the formation adjacent
explosives can be introduced through this tubing. This
the well bore.
last means being an alternative Way to prevent collapse of
Another bene?cial fracturing effect in the present meth
casing adjacent the productive strata. Another method
ods using explosives in the formation adjacent to but sep
would be to cement the easing into place above the pro
arated from a productive strata by a portion of non~pr0~
ductive strata and the adjacent formation, complete the
ductive
strata, wherein natural forces have created frac
well bore open hole and proceed as above.
The creation of the fracture in the formation which is 20 tures, is that ‘by placing the explosives in the formation at
the correct location the detonation thereof causes the pro
adjacent the productive strata, in order to enable the in
ductive
strata to momentarily assume the position it had
troduction of the explosives, can be above and/or below
before the fractures relieved the tensional, torsional shear
the productive horizon, although in most instances it
ing and/ or compressive forces that caused the fractures.
would be desirable to create the fracture in the formation
These compactual instantaneous shock closures of many
below the oil and gas production strata.
of the existing fractures will cause impactual cross, or
In order to allow a clearer understanding of the teach
block, fracturing of the matrix of the productive strata
through which these existing fractures cross.
ings of the invention, there is described below an applica
tion of the methods of this invention to an improved
means of fracturing the earlier cited Spraberry well of
West Texas, wherein pulverized and disintegrated forma
tion coming to the well bore was so bad that it prevented
the operator from producing from the well for a period of
months.
When explosives are used as above, the rarefaction por
30
tion of the shock wave following the compressive portion
thereof is often more destructive than the compressive
portion of the shock wave. The compressive portion of
the shock wave will allow the productive formation to
spring back to its original position where the natural forces
have caused the existing fractures. The reaction of the
rarefaction portion of the shock wave will cause the pro
due to the low permeability of the productive formation,
ductive strata to assume tensional, torsional shearing and
economical production is possible only from Wells drilled
compressive positions far in excess of the natural forces
where stresses have been placed on the productive strata
exerted on the productive strata, thus causing additional
by deep seated folding, or thrust, thus causing natural mul
and
extensional fracturing of the productive strata.
tiple fracturing of the productive horizon. Numerous 40
It is within the concepts of this invention that explosives
wells drilled into the Spraberry formation are not com
may be placed within the formation at positions above
pleted as commercial producers due to the fact that the
and below the productive horizon at points adjacent to
well bore does not intercept the natural fractures within
but
separated from the productive formation by a portion
the matrix of the formation. Yet in a large number of
these soacalled “dry holes,” the matrix of the productive as an of non-productive strata. These explosions may then be
timed so that the compressive force of one explosion will
horizon that the bore hole traverses, contains as much
be
exerted on one side of the productive horizon when a
available oil in place as do the productive wells, wherein
rarefaction portion of another shock Wave exists therein
the natural fractures existing in the productive strata con
from said other explosion on the other side of the produc
tact the well bore. it is estimated that even in the pro
ductive wells within the Spraberry formation that in ex 50 tive horizon. Explosives may also be placed within the
formation above and below the productive strata or two
cess of 90% of the oil remains, with present methods, ir~
or more explosives may be placed in formation, adjacent
recoverably locked in place in the matrix of the forma
to but separated from the productive strata by a portion
tion, and is not recovered by and through the natural frac
of non-productive strata, the explosives being apart from
tures existing within this productive horizon.
It is generally understood that the Spraberry oil ?elds
of West Texas are situated on an extensive monocline, and
each other in the non-productive formation ‘but on one
It is generally understood that tensional, torsional shear 55 side
of the pro-ductive strata, and the detonation of these
ing and/ or compressive forces still exist within the matrix
of this Spraberry productive formation, as well as other
productive horizons of a like nature, that were not relieved
by the multiple fractures now existing therein.
These
forces which are such as would tend to cause frac
tures, but are of not quite sufficient extent to be relieved
separate explosives so timed as to each other as to phase
angle of shock Wave so as to augment, or reinforce, the
explosive force exerted on the productive strata which is
adjacent to but spaced from the explosives placed in the
formation.
It is also within the concepts of this invention that two
by fractures, exist quite extensively in areas of productive
or more wells in an oil ?eld may be employed to frac
strata into which non-productive Wells have been, and are
ture a productive horizon simultaneously but through
now being drilled.
The natural forces of energy noted above contained 65 different well bores, by the methods herein taught. Where
two or more wells are used for the purpose of placing
within the productive horizons can be utilized along with
explosives in formation that is adjacent to but separated
means to complement, reinforce and/or augment these
from the productive horizon by portions of non-produc
natural forces. The correct use of abrupt detonation shock
tive strata, then detonation of the explosives at the two
forces from explosives placed in advantageous positions
or more Wells may be at any shock wave phase angle to
in the formation in created fractures, or interfaces of 70
each other for the purpose of selectively causing the ex
strata adjacent to but ‘apart from the productive horizon,
plosive force from each of the wells to combine with
as taught in this invention, will result in the block fractur
the explosive force from the other Well, or wells, so as
ing of the productive horizon over a considerable area.
to cause reinforcement, augmentation or cancellation of
A heavy explosive force, used as above, will trigger the
wave energy of the explosively caused shock waves
looted-in potential forces to at least partially relieve them 75 the
from each of said wells as to each other.
deeds/es
In some instances it may be desirable to place the ex
plosives in one or more well bores above the productive
formation, meanwhile placing the explosives below the
production formation in other of the well bores, so as to
cause various diaphramic, shock induced, momentary,
wrinkle effects to be combined in the productive forma
tion between the well bores, upon detonation of the ex
plosives.
5
horizon by a portion of non-productive strata, introduc
ing explosives into the fracture in said portion of a for
mation, thereafter detonating the explosives to thereby
‘fracture said productive horizon.
2. The method of fracturing a productive strata which
includes the steps of introducing explosives into an inter
face between stratas adjacent a productive strata but
spaced therefrom by at least one non-productive strata,
thereafter detonating said explosives to thereby fracture
The means speci?cally used for timed detonating of
said productive strata and subsequently producing fluids
10
the different explosives does not form part of the present
from the fractured productive strata.
invention as there are numerous electronic and other
3. The method of variably controlling the extent and
known means of timing grouped phase detonations of ex
force
of explosives used to fracture a producitve oil and
plosives, such as is employed in pattern detonating of ex
gas formation which includes the steps of selecting a
plosives in seismic exploration such as taught in the
strata in a well bore adjacent to but separated from the
United States patents to Hasbrook, 2,626,004; Woods,
productive formation by a portion of non-productive
2,642,146; Flude, 2,283,200; Woods, 2,627,930; Poulter,
strata at a predetermined distance thereto, introducing
2,615,523; Hawkins et al., 2,630,188; or Poulter,
explosives into a fracture in the selected strata, detonat
2,672,204, that could be used to provide timed detona
ing the explosives, the distance separating the explosives
tions as phase angle co-mingling of shock wave effects
in the strata from the productive formation variably con
of the explosives used in the formation contacted by the .
trolling the localized force and extent in area of the frac
well bores.
A rather large proportion of the dry holes or so-called
turing of the productive formation.
“dusters” that are drilled as extensions of productive wells
at the edge of proven oil and gas ?elds are dry because
strata intercepted by a. plurality of well bores which in
the productive horizon is pinched out as to permeability
of the pore spaces and/or porosity of formation. These
dry holes can often be brought to production by properly
following the methods taught herein.
a portion of non-productive strata from at least two of
To attempt to cause these above dry wells to become
producers by detonating explosives in fractures created ~
within the productive horizon at the well bore would not
cause fractures back into the horizon of sufficient ex
tent to contact the productive areas of the horizon, due
to the aforesaid localizing of the force of the explosion
within an area adjacent the well bore and the pulverizing
and disintegrating of the horizon.
The above would be very similar to the now seldom
used nitroglycerin shooting of productive formations
within well bores which normally causes a pocket or en
4. The method of explosively fracturing a productive‘
cludes the steps of injecting explosives into formations
adjacent to but separated from the productive strata by
said well bores, detonating the explosives thereby com
bining the shock waves in the productive strata between
the well bores and thus fracturing the productive strata
in order to obtain the production of ?uids therefrom.
5. The method as set forth in claim 4 which includes
the step of detonating the explosives injected through
the separate well bores in timed relation so as to obtain
a combining of the shock waves within the productive
strata at a selected phase angle of shock wave one to
the other.
6. The method as set forth in claim 4 which includes
the steps of injecting the explosives into the formation
above the productive strata in one of the well bores and
largement in the productive horizon near the well bore,
except that the detonation of explosives in created frac
below the productive strata in another of the well bores.
tures within the horizon would cause a considerably larger
the steps of injecting the explosives into the formation
area of pocket of disintegrated material.
On the other hand, this invention teaches that by the
proper selection of type and spacing intervening strata
from the horizon to be fractured and amount and type
of explosives used, as well as the kind of fluid used and
its disposition ahead of the introduction of the explosives,
that upon detonation of the explosives deforming and
arching of the strata adjacent to but separated from sub
stantially non-deformable and non-compressible horizon
by a portion of nonproductive strata is caused over an
area in extent such that the fractures therein will contact
the productive areas of the horizon and the fractures will
7. The method as set forth in claim 4 which includes
above the productive strata in one of the well bores and
below the productive strata in another of the well bores,
and detonating the explosives in timed relation to each
other so as to obtain a combining of the shock waves
within the productive strata at a selected phase angle of
shock wave one to the other.
8. The method of variably controlling the extent and
force of explosives used to fracture a productive oil and
gas formation which includes the steps of selecting a pair
of adjacent stratas in a well bore adjacent to but separated
from the productive formation by a portion of non
productive strata at a predetermined distance thereto, in
be held open sufficiently by the arching and deforma 55 troducing
explosives into a fracture in an interface be
tion of the adjacent strata for commercial production of
tween the selected pair of strata, detonating the explo
?uids at the well bore.
sives, in the interface from the productive formation
it can be readily seen from the teachings of this in
variably controlling the localized force and extent in area
vention that a good many of the problems now existing
of the fracturing of the productive formation.
with the use of explosives introduced into crated frac 60
9. The method of fracturing a productive strata which
tures within the productive horizon, can be eliminated
includes the steps of introducing explosives into a well
and productive stratas can be fractured by explosives
bore in an inner face between stratas adjacent the pro
more uniformly and to a far greater extent than has
heretofore been possible, and production from the well
can be started without the time consuming delays here
before experienced in the use of explosives within the
productive horizon.
Having thus described the preferred embodiments of
the invention, it should be understood that numerous
modi?cations thereof may be resorted to without depart- ‘
ing from the scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. The method of fracturing a productive horizon
which includes the steps of fracturing a portion of a
formation adjacent to but separated from the productive
ductive strata but spaced therefrom by at least one non
productive strata, thereafter detonating said explosives to
thereby fracture said productive strata and subsequently
producing fluids from the fractured productive strata.
10. The method of increasing oil and gas production
from a productive strata which includes the steps of forc
ing a ?uid into a well bore in a formation adjacent to but
separated from a producing strata by a portion of non
productive strata in order to fracture the formation, fol
lowing the fracturing fluid with an explosive material in
troduced to the fractures in said formation, detonating
said explosive material in order to fracture the adjacent
3,066,733
productive strata, thereafter producing ?uids from the
productive strata.
11. A method as set forth in claim 10 wherein the frac
turing ?uids include a dehydrating additive.
12. The method as set forth in claim 10‘ which includes
the step of following the fracturing ?uid with a ?uid laden
with sand.
It’)
17. The method as set forth in claim 16 which includes
the steps of controllably timing the detonations of the ex
plosives Within the separate stratas as to phase the angle
of shock wave of each of the explosives to the other for
the purpose of obtaining a shock Wave of desired charac
teristics within the productive horizon.
18. A method of fracturing a productive oil and gas
horizon by the use of explosives which includes the steps
the step of introducing the explosive material and a fluid
of introducing explosives into well bores in separate non
laden with sand.
10 productive stratas adjacent to but separated from a pro
14. The method of fracturing a productive oil and gas
ductive horizon by a portion of non-productive stratas,
strata which includes the steps of fracturing a barren
said separate stratas being entirely on one side only of
portion of the formation adjacent the productive strata
the productive horizon, and detonating the explosives in
by introducing a ?uid into a well bore in the barren
order to fracture the productive horizon.
formation to create a fracture, withdrawing the fractur
19. A method as set forth in claim 18 which includes
ing ?uid, introducing an explosive into the fracture and
the steps of controllably timing the detonations of the
thereafter detonating the explosive in order to fracture
explosives within the separate stratas as to phase the angle
the adjacent productive strata.
13. The method as set forth in claim 10 which includes
15. The method as set forth in claim 14 which includes
of shock wave of each of the explosives to the other for
the step following the introduction of the fracturing ?uid, 20 the purpose of obtaining a shock Wave of desired charac
teristics within the productive horizon.
of introducing a ?uid laden with sand, next withdrawing
the ?uid used to transmit the sand into the created frac
ture as the fracturing ?uid is withdrawn, leaving the sand
in the fracture.
16. The method of fracturing a productive oil and gas 25
horizon by the use of explosives which includes the step
of introducing explosives into well bores in separate non
productive stratas adjacent to but separated from a pro
ductive horizon by a portion of non-productive strata,
both above and below the productive horizon, and det 30
onating the explosives in order to fracture the produc
tive horizon therebetween.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,316,596
Kennedy _____________ __ Apr. 13, 1943
2,368,424
2,547,778
2,699,212
2,708,876
Reistle _______________ __ Ian. 30,
Reistle _________________ ._ Apr. 3,
Disrnukes ____________ __ Jan. 11,
Nowak ______________ __ May 24,
2,851,109
1945
1951
1955
1955
Spearow _____________ __ Sept. 9, 1958
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