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Патент USA US3067016

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Dec. 4, 1962
H. EBERT ETAL
3,067,006
PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF ANHYDROUS
MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE WHICH IS SUBSTANTIALLY FREE
FROM MAGNESIUM OXIDE
Filed May a, 1960
I~ .
.
/NVEN7'G/PS
HANS EBER T,
FRIEDBERT RITTER,
ERNST HARMSEN,
KURT GRAPENTIN
BY
'
THEIR ATTORNEY
A
United States Patent-O?ice
2
1
3,057,006
PROCMS AND APPARATUS FOR THE MANUFAC
TURE 0F ANHYDROUS MAGNESIUM CHLO
RIDE WHI'JH IS SUBSTANTIALLY FREE FROM
MAGNESIUM OXIDE
Hans Ebert, Knapsaclr, near Koln, Friedbert Ritter, Busch
hot, near Konigswinter (Rhine), Ernst I-Iarmsen, Bruhl
(Rhine), and Kurt Grapentin, Koln-Zollstock, Ger
many, assignors to Knapsack-Griesheim Alrtiengesell
schaft, Knapsack, near Koln, Germany, a corporation
of Germany
Filed May 3, 1960, Ser. No. 26,466
Claims priority, application Germany May 5, 1959
4 Claims. (Cl. 23--91)
The present invention is concerned with a process for
the manufacture'of anhydrous magnesium chloride which
is substantially free from magnesium oxide by chlorinat
ing a salt which essentially consists of magnesium chlo—
31,057,006
Patented Dec. 4, 1962
processes involve the aforesaid disadvantages. Further
ditiiculties arise during the admission of the required heat
energy. The ?neness of the powder implies an extremely
great hygroscopicity and losses of substance since the
?ne particles are entrained by a moving gas atmosphere.
It is therefore necessary that the salt powder dried by
atomization is melted without coming into contact with
the outer atmosphere and the magnesium oxide contained
in the melt is then chlorinated. When the salt powder is
10 melted, it is found that the water in the powder substan~
tially undergoes reaction with magnesium chloride, hydro
gen chloride being evolved. The hydrogen chloride
evolved entrains a part of the powder to be introduced so
that losses of substance in the order of 10-30% cannot be
avoided.
The process of this invention is carried out as follows
with the use of an apparatus as shown diagrammatically
(longitudinal section) in the accompanying drawing.
The salt is continuously introduced via charging device
ride and contains about 1—5% by weight water and about
1 into, for example, an electrically heated melting bath 2
2—6% by weight magnesium oxide. The salt is intro
which consists of molten magnesium chloride and is her—
duced into a melt of magnesium chloride which travels
through a heated chlorination device in which the ?nely
metically closed with respect to the outside. In order to
avoid that magnesium oxide contained in the magnesium
distributed melt trickling down through carbon material
chloride deposits and in order to fairly rapidly melt the
is chlorinated with the aid of chlorine, phosgene, a mix~
ture of carbon monoxide and chlorine, a chlorinated hy 25 powder and to achieve a rapid heat exchange between the
powder introduced and the melt, the latter is vigorously,
drocarbon or hydrogen chloride, the hydrogen chloride
agitated by means of stirrer 3. The melt container is
evolved by hydrolysis when the salt is melted being used
equipped with an over?ow 5 in order to uniformly intro;
in the chlorination. The salt used as starting material
duce the melt into chlorinator 4, i.e. into a column of lump
may be obtained, for example, by atomization drying or in
coal which is electrically heated by means of electrodes
another appropriate manner. The invention is also con
cerned with an apparatus suitable for use in the manufac
ltl.
ture of magnesium chloride.
It is known that aqueous magnesium chloride solutions
and magnesium chloride hydrates can be dried by atomiza
prevents unmolten powder from being entrained into over-v
tion so as to be converted into products of low magnesium
melt trickling down and the magnesium oxide it contains
oxide and water content. By this special method of dry
ing, the hydrolysis can be substantially suppressed with
out a special atmosphere, for example of hydrogen chlo
ride, being required. The powder obtained by atomiza
Over?ow 5 is series-connected to an apron 6 which
flow 5 to there give rise to obstructions. Chlorine is in
troduced through inlet 9 into chlorinator 4i in which the
are chlorinated in counter-current.
In order to avoid
local cooling in chlorinator 4 at the level of chlorine inlet
9, the chlorine is pro-heated to the temperature which pre
vails in said chlorinator. The carbon material, which is
consumed during the chlorination, can be supplied con?
tion drying has very ?ne grains which are substantially be
tinuously to chlorinator 4 through inlet opening 11 and
low 15 microns. Depending on the quality of the powder
through the opening of over?ow 5 or through another ori-'
used, a melt containing about 5-15% MgG is obtained.
?ce. It is advantageous to introduce the melt containing
In a known process, magnesium is produced by sub
jecting magnesium chloride to electrolysis. In this proc~
magnesium oxide into the chlorinator from a central place
ess, the melt containing magnesium oxide is directly intro 45 through one or more over?ows in order to ensure that thev
melt on trickling down is fairly well distributed on the
duced into the apparatus used to carry out the electrolysis.
lump coal. The absolutely anhydrous melt of which the‘:
It is, however, more advantageous especially from an eco
oxide content amounts to at most 0.l—0.2% magnesium
nomical point of view to use in the electrolytic bath mag
oxide is collected in the lower part of chlorinator 4. It
nesium chloride which is completely free from water and
oxide.
50 may be removed in discontinuous manner or, and this is
The magnesium oxide contained in magnesium chloride
more advantageous from an economical point of view, in
continuous manner through outlet 7.
I
can be chlorinated and the residual water eliminated in
the solid state by treating the salt powder, which contains
about 1-5% H20 and 2—6% MgO, at a raised temperature
but below its melting point, for example with hydrogen
chloride, chlorine and carbon, phosgene, a mixture of car
bon monoxide and chlorine or a chlorinated hydrocarbon.
This process needs great amounts of chlorine and in
volves considerable losses of substance due to the ?neness
The hydrogen chloride which evolves when the salt is
melted is introduced together with the melt through over
?ow 5 into chlorinator 4 and is removed through oil-gas
outlet 12 together with the off-gas emanating from the
chlorinator. .The o?-gas consists of carbon monoxide,
carbon dioxide and a little unreacted chlorine in excess.‘
The hydrogen chloride may be recovered from the oil-gas
of the salt powder. Moreover, the reaction of, for exam— 60 and re-introduced together with chlorine through chlo
rine inlet 9 into the chlorinator and used for chlorinating
ple, magnesium oxide and hydrogen chloride proceeds
the salt melt in counter-current.
very reluctantly.
Alternatively, the hydrogen chloride may be used for‘
It would therefore be more advantageous in the atomi
chlorination in that the off-gases of chlorinator 4 are re
zation drying to dehydrate up to one hydrate of magnesi
moved through short outlet pipe 8. In this manner, the
um chloride with 1 or 2 mols water of hydration, whereby
hydrogen chloride which evolves when the salt is melted
practically no magnesium oxide is formed and then to de
is conducted in co-current with the melt in the upper part
hydrate said hydrate under a hydrogen chloride atmos
of chlorinator 4, whereby the magnesium oxide contained
phere. The dehydration may take place in a shelved
in said melt is partially chlorinated. The residual mag-v
drier, a rotary kiln, a ?uidized bed or by causing the pow
nesium oxide is chlorinated in the lower part of chlori
der in ?nely divided form to trickle down in a tower in 70 nator 4 by the chlorine flowing in counter-current. In
counter-current to hydrogen chloride gas, but all these
this embodiment of the invention, a part of the chlorine is
3,067,006
3
A
ing device 1 through which the salt mixture to be chlori
nated is supplied, a stirrer 3, a central over?ow 5, an apron
6 disposed between the melting bath 2 and over?ow 5,
a lower outlet 7, gas inlet pipes 9 and 11, gas outlet pipes
8 and 12 and a column packed with carbon material, said
column being disposed between the melting bath 2 and
outlet 7 and being heated by electrodes 10. The outlet
disposed at the bottom of the chlorinator may be designed
introduced into chlorinator 4 from above, for example,
through inlet opening 11 or another opening disposed in
melting bath 2 in order to avoid the formation of obstruc~
tions due to magnesium oxide in the upper part of chlori
nator 4. When hydrogen chloride is used for chlorination,
the off-gases also contain hydrogen.
~A charcoal ?lter heated for a short time to a tempera
ture above the melting point of the salt should advan
tageously be disposed in the off-gas outlet 12 of the chlo
as over?ow.
rinator so that escaping magnesium chloride vapors can 10
The following examples serve to illustrate the invention,
be condensed.
but they are not intended to limit it thereto:
-It is known that magnesium chloride melts or melts of
Example 1
salt mixtures containing magnesium chloride, which melts
contain magnesium in the form of its oxide or carbonate,
In continuous operation, 130 kg./h. salt containing
can be treated with gaseous hydrogen chloride or phos 15 1.7% H20, 3.5% MgO, 7% MgSO.;, 2% KCl, 2.5% NaCl
gene or chlorine and carbon monoxide. During this
and MgClz (remainder) were introduced into melting
treatment, the melt is allowed to trickle down in an elec
bath 2. A magnesium chloride melt which was intensely
trically heated trickling tower charged with lump coke,
stirred by stirrer 3 had previously been introduced into
which simultaneously serves as electrical resistance for
the completely closed melting bath 2 so that the salt sup
the electric current, and the reaction gases evolved in the 20 plied by charging device 1 was rapidly melted and depo
trickling tower are conducted in upward direction.
sition of magnesium oxide was avoided. The melt had a
It is also known that the gases, such as chlorine or hy
temperature of between 750° C. and 900° C. The melt
drogen chloride, which ?ow in coutner-current to the
was introduced through over?ow 5 into chlorinator 4 and
salt melt, can be cycled. In this process, means are dis
travelled to the electrically heated coke column through
posed which serve to remove the water.
:- which chlorine introduced via chlorine inlet 9 was passed
All these known measures are partially employed in the
in counter-current to the melt. In the lower part of chlo
process of this invention. They constitute, however, par
rinator 4 an anhydrous and sulfate-free melt which con
tial steps which are combined with novel steps to result
inha valuable new process.
The process of this invention for the manufacture of an
tained less than 0.1% MgO and about 95% MgCl2 (re
mainder: alkali metal chlorides) was removed at 750°
C.—850° C. by means of outlet 7.
hydrous magnesium chloride substantially free from mag
The oil-gases which consisted of HCl, C0, C02 and
nesium oxide by chlorinating a salt which consists essen
small amounts of C12 and S02 were removed in the upper
part of chlorinator 4 by means of off-gas outlet 12,.
tially of magnesium chloride containing from about
‘1—5% by weight water and from about 2—6% by weight
magnesium oxide, the salt being introduced into a mag
nesium chloride melt that is conveyed to a heated chlori
nator, in which the ?nely distributed melt trickling down
over carbon material is chlorinated with the aid of chlo
rine, phosgene, a mixture of carbon monoxide and chlo
rine, a chlorinated hydrocarbon or hydrogen chloride,
the hydrogen chloride evolved by hydrolysis when the ‘salt
is melted being used as additional chlorinating agent, corn
35
Example 2
The melting bath was charged in the manner described
in Example 1 per hour with 110 kg. salt containing 4.3%
H20, 5.6% MgO, 6% MgSOg 2% KCl, 2% NaCl (re
mainder: MgClz). The melt which was intensely stirred
in the melting bath 2 had a temperature of 800°~900° C.
The melt was introduced through over?ow S into chlo~
rinator 4 where it was chlorinated in counter-current with
chlorine. An anhydrous and sulfate-free melt which con
prises introducing the magnesium chloride melt into a
closed melting bath, advantageously disposed at a position
tained 0.1% MgO and about 95.5% MgCl2 (remainder:
above the chlorinator, intensely stirring said melt in said
alkali metal chlorides) was removed at 750° C.—850° C.
melting bath, introducing said melt in ?nely distributed
through outlet 7. The o?~gases were removed through
form through a central over?ow into the head of the chlo
gas outlet 12.
rinator, unmolten salt being removed at a position be
We claim:
tween the over?ow and the melting bath, whereby un
1. In the process for the manufacture of anhydrous
molten salt is prevented from being entrained, and dis 50 magnesium chloride substantially free from magnesium
charging an anhydrous magnesium chloride melt which is
oxide by chlorinating a salt which consists essentially of
substantially free from magnesium oxide at the bottom of
magnesium chloride containing from about 1~5% by
the chlorinator.
weight water and from about 2—6% by weight magnesium
The chlorinating gas which is used in counter-current
oxide, the salt being introduced into a magnesium chlo~
is preheated to a temperature of about 750° C.—900° 0.,
ie the working temperature of the chlorinator. The oft’
gas escaping from the chlorinator may advantageously be
ride melt that is conveyed to a heated chlorinator in
which the ?nely distributed melt trickling down over
carbonaceous ‘material is ‘chlorinated with the aid of at
freed from magnesium chloride vapors by being passed
least one substance selected from the group consisting'of
through a heated charcoal ?lter which so to speak has
chlorine, phosgene, a mixture of carbon monoxide and
the function of a re?ux condenser.
60 chlorine, a chlorinated hydrocarbon and hydrogen chlo
The hydrogen ‘chloride contained in the off-gas is again
ride, the hydrogen chloride evolved by hydrolysis when
used for chlorinating the melt. The hydrogen chloride
the salt is melted being used as additional chlorinating
which evolves in the melting bath during the reaction of
agent, the improvement which comprises introducing the
magnesium chloride with the water contained in the salt
magnesium chloride melt into a closed melting bath dis
powder, can be recovered from the cit-gas and used for
posed at a position above the chlorinator, intensely stir
chlorinating the melt. If the o?F-gas is removed at a posi
ring said melt in said melting bath, introducing said
tion approximately in the middle section of the chlorina
melt continuously and steadily through a central over
tor, the hydrogen chloride evolved during the reaction
?ow into the head of said chlorinator, intercepting any
?owsyif desired after admixture of a part of the total
unmolten salt to prevent the same from being entrained as
amount ‘of chlorine to be used, from the upper part of 70 the melt is introduced into said chlorinator, and dis
the ‘chlorinator in co-current with the melt to the bottom
charging an anhydrous magnesium chloride melt which
ofp'said chlorinator and is thus used for chlorination.
is substantially free from magnesium oxide at the bottom
The apparatus used in carrying out the process of this
of said chlorinator.
invention ‘comprises a chlorinating tower 4, a melting
2. The process of claim 1, wherein the oft-gas escap
bath 2 disposed at the upper end of said tower, a charg 75 ing from the chlorinator is freed from magnesium chloride
5
vapors by passing the gas through a charcoal ?lter heated
to a temperature above the melting point of magnesium
chloride.
3. The process of claim 1, wherein the oil-gas is re
moved at a position approximately in the middle sec
6
between the vmelting bath and an outlet for removing the
?nal product at the lower end of the tower, electrodes
connected with said column for heating the carbonaceous
material, a gas outlet pipe at the middle of said column,
another gas outlet pipe at the upper part of the column
tion of the chlorinator and the hydrogen chloride evolved
and a gas inlet pipe at the lower end of the column.
is used in co-current for chlorinating the melt which
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
trickles down in the chlorinator.
4. An apparatus for the manufacture of anhydrous
UNITED STATES PATENTS
magnesium chloride which is substantially free from mag 10
579,039
Brashear ____________ __ Mar. 16, 1897
nesium oxide, comprising a chlorination tower, a closed
1,549,812
Siedler ______________ __ Aug. 18, 1925
melting bath disposed at the upper end of said tower, a
charging device leading into said closed bath through
which the salt mixture to be chlorinated is supplied, a
stirrer extending into said bath, a central over?ow for 15
said bath, a gas inlet pipe leading into the top of the
melting bath, an apron disposed between the melting bath
and the overflow, a column Within said tower packed
with carbonaceous material, said column ‘being disposed
1,702,301
1,999,179
2,355,367
laeger et a1. __________ __ Feb. 19, 1929
Burgess ______________ __ Apr. 30, 1935
Cooper _______________ _ Aug. 8, 1944
OTHER REFERENCES
Serebryakova et al., “Chemical Abstracts," vol. 52, No.
17, pages 14992—3 (Sept. 10, 1958).
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