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Патент USA US3067371

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Dec. 4, 1962
o. JENSEN ETAL
3,067,361
HIGH SPEED INTERRUPTERS AND D.-C. CIRCUITS
Filed Aug. 27, 1958
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Dec. 4, 1962
o. JENSEN ETAL
l 3,067,361
HIGH SPEED INTERRUPTERS AND D.-C. CIRCUITS
Filed Aug. 27, 1958
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BY
Armi/févr
Ünited States ÍPatent Ó "
l
3,067,361
~Patented Dec. 4, 1962
2
load current. In this combination, the contactor will be
3,067,36l
HIGH SPEED HNTERRUPTERS AND D.-C.
CIRCUITS
I
Gtto Jensen, Malvern, and Francis R. Bingham, Norris
town, Pa., assignors to l=-T~E Circuit Breaker Company,
Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania
Filed Aug. 27, 1958, Ser. No. 757,560
17 Claims. (Cl. 317-43)
seen to be capable of tremendously high speed operation
since it requires no interrupting capacity. Furthermore,
the circuit breaker, which will have some interrupted ca
pacity but does not carry load current, will be an ex
tremely small and inexpensive unit. The invention fur
ther allows the step reactor to have a core of relatively
inexpensive material such as a silicon steel which is lami
nated in the usual manner since, as will be seen herein
Our invention relates to a high speed D.-C. interrupter 10 after, the step current of this component is not critical.
device and more particularly relates to a high speed in
In a preferred embodiment of our invention, the con
terrupter for D.-C. circuits which is operable responsible
tactor above described is connected in series with the
to a reversal of D.-C. current i'low therethrough.
step reactor and an additional compensation reactor
D.-C. circuits having high back
elements
which is very small in size and has a core of relatively
therein are susceptible to a reversal of the D.-C. current
high permeability material. The circuit interruptor,
when there is a fault within the system. Accordingly,
which has some interrupting capacity, is connected in
circuit breakers for the D.-C. system are provided with
parallel with the series combination of the contacter and
reverse current trip units which operate to disconnect the
the compensating reactor. Thus, during normal load
load responsive to a reversal of current.
It is essential
conditions, the circuit breaker is short-circuited by the
in most applications to interrupt the circuit as fast as 20 contactor and does not carry any appreciable current;
possible when this happens. Thus where a rectifier en
hence it may be an extremely small unit. Under reverse
ergizes a D.-C. load and there is a back-lire within the
current conditions, a signal taken from the circuit being
rectiñer, the current will reverse through the faulted ele
protected initiates operation ot the high speed contactor
ments and will cause destruction of the remaining ele~
to a disengaged position. At this time, the compensat~
ments within a relatively few cycles of the A.-C. source. 25 ing reactor will unsaturate so that the only current flow
Further, this reverse current, which is limited only by an
ing through the series connected contactor and compen
extremely small impedance, may rise to a suñicient value
sating reactor is the extremely small magnetizing current
to substantially damage other equipment Stich as the bus
network and auxiliary equipment.
A second reason for removing the taulted unit as soon
as possible is that other parallel connected D.-C. sources
will feed into the taulted unit so that they will carry an
appreciable overload current which may be suñicient to
remove them from the line and thus interrupt all of the
power supplying the load.
of the compensating reactor. The voltage drop across
the contactor at this time equals the voltage drop across
the parallel connected circuit which includes the small
circuit breaker and some current limiting means.
The
current through the parallel circuit will be equal to the
difference >between the step current of the main step re
actor and the very small magnetizing current of the com
35 pensating reactor.
For all of these reasons and many others which are
well known to those skilled in the art, it is essential that
a faulted D.-C. unit be disconnected from the load in as
Even though the step reactor core is
constructed of silicon steel, it will be understood that the
current will be of relatively small value so that the
product of this current and the relatively low impedance
short a time as possible.
of the parallel circuit will yield a relatively low voltage.
In the past, as been stated above, the main D.-C. 40 This voltage drop will be the voltage across the con
`breaker is equipped with reverse current trip means to
cause the breaker to operate under reverse current con
tactor when it operates. Therefore the contactor oper
ates under low voltage as well as low current conditions
ditions. It has been proposed, as set forth in copending
and does not need any substantial interrupting capacity.
application Serial No: 597,781, tiled July 13, 1956, now
The circuit breaker in the parallel circuit has been
Patent No. 2,949,568, issued August 16, 1960, entitled 45 closed during the operation described above and carries
“Protection of Parallel Connected D.-C. Sources,” in the
no substantial load current. Hence, this circuit breaker
name of Isadore K. Dortort and assigned to the assignee
may be a small moulded case type of breaker and is
ot‘ the instant invention, to place a saturable type reac
adjusted to operate at some predetermined overload cur
tor or so called “step reactor” in series with the main
rent. Therefore,- after the contactor has operated and
D.-C. breaker. This reactor is normally saturated in its 50 the current ñow through the parallel circuit reaches a
forward direction by the normal D.-C. current but is un
predetermined point, the circuit breaker will operate to
saturated when the D.-C. current reverses so as to hold
completely disconnect the circuit. It is to 'be noted that
the current to a very small value for a predetermined
the operating time of this circuit breaker will be ex
time when the D.-C. current passes the Zero current
tremely short since the breaker is small and the current
value. Ii the reactor is made large enough, it is pos 55 at which it will operate is reached in an extremely short
sible to have the breaker operate within this low current
time.
step. Since, however, the D.-C. breaker carries the full
It is now possible to understand why the compensating
load current and must be able to interrupt any antici
reactors may be of a relatively small size. The voltage
pated fault in the system, the breaker is a very large one
drop across the reactor is substantially the small volt
and hence its operating time is relatively long.
age across the current limiting means. It is this voltage
Accordingly, the reactor must be a large one since it
drop which drives the compensating reactor through its
has to provide a relatively long step. Furthermore, if
step. Since the voltage is small, a relatively small re
the step current is to be held to a relatively small value,
actor may provide a relatively long step.
it is necessary to use high quality (high permeabiliity)
In view of the foregoing, the primary object of our in
material for the reactor core and the reactor becomes an 65 vention is to provide a novel high speed D.~C. interrupter.
extremely expensive one.
_
The principle of our invention is to replace the nor
mally used D.-C. 'breaker by an extremely high speed
Another object of our invention is to provide a high
speed D.-‘C. interrupting system which is operable respon
sive to the reversal of D.~C. current.
combination of a contactor which has very little inter
A further object of our invention is to provide a
rupting capacity and which can carry the full load cur 70 reverse current interrupter means for a D.-C. system which
rent of the system, and a circuit breaker having some
operates within an extremely short time and is relatively
interrupting capacity, but is rated to carry a very small
inexpensive and small in size.
8,067,361
3
Still another obiect of our invention is to provide a
reverse current trip means for D.-C. systems in which
the normally used circuit breaker, which must carry the
full load current of the system, is replaced by a high
speed contactor having no substantial interrupting
capacity and carries the full load current, and an aux
iliary circuit breaker which has some interrupting
capacity but normally does not carry load current.
A still further object of this invention is to replace
the normally used step reactor of a D.-C. system by a
main step reactor using inexpensive steel for its core
having a relatively small high quality reactor'. _
These and other objects of our invention will become
apparent from the following description taken in con
junction with the drawings in which:
FIGURE l shows a rectifier system which may utilize
our novel invention.
FIGURE 2 is a circuit diagram of a preferred embodi~
ment of our novel invention.
Y
Switching Device, in the name of Edward I. Diebold, now
Patent No. 2,971,130.
For purposes of illustration, the contactor of FIGURE
2 is of the electromagnetic type wherein movable con~
tact E?. is carried by a push rod means 54 which is operable
responsive to the energization of operating coil 56. The
energizing circuit of coil 56 which controls the move
ment of contact 52 from its normally engaged position
to its disengaged position will be set forth more fully
hereinafter.
rIhe main current carrying circuit continues from sta
tionary contact St) and passes through compensating re
actor 58 Where the main bus contactor conductor forms a
straight-through winding for the reactor core 6i). Reactor
core 60 is preferably constructed of a high quality high
permeability wound tape which will give an extremely
small magnetizing current. The main bus conductor then
continues and forms the primary winding for a second
reactor 62 which operates as a fault sensing element as
will be more fully described hereinafter.
Reactor 62 is formed of a small high quality core 64
and preferably has a lower magnetizing current than does
reactor S8. This is illustrated in FIGURE 3 wherein
the magnetizing current of reactor 62 is shown in solid
FIGURE 4b illustrates the current of the by-pass cir
cuit and. step reactor of FIGURE 2 as plotted against the 25 lines while the magnetizing current of reactor 53 is
shown in the dotted lines. rl`he main conductor then con
same time scale as that of FIGURE 4a.
tinues to form a winding for the main D.-C. step reactor
FIGURE 4c illustrates the voltage `across the by-pass
66 which has a core 68 which may be formed of rela
circuit of FIGURE 2 as plotted against the same time
tively inexpensive transfor er steel laminations. This is
scale as in FIGURES 4a and 4b.
Referring now to FIGUREl 1, this tigure shows a 30 to be contrasted to the generally used step reactor in
which great effort is made to provide a small magnetizing
typical rectifier arrangement which could be utilized with
current. The magnetizing current of reactor 66 is seen in
our novel invention. However, it is to be noted that our
FIGURE 3 in the dot~dash lines and is seen to be typical
novel invention is not limited to use in rectifier circuits
of an inexpensive type of reactor.
_but is universally applicable to any D.-C. system where it
The by-pass or parallel circuit for the series connected
is desirable to operate an interrupting means responsive to 35
contactor 53 and compensating reactor S8 is comprised
a reverse of current in the system.
of circuit breaker 7€) which has an overload trip means
yIn the specific application 4of FIGURE 1, a three phase
72 associated therewith and a current limiting means
A.-C. source is connected to terminals 10, 1‘2 and 14 and
FIGURE 3 illustrates the hysteresis curve of the vari
ous reactors of FIGURE 2.
_ FIGURE 4a iirustrates the current through the con~
tactor of FIGURE 2 as a function of time.
such as resistor 74.
through the A.-C. breakers 16, 18 and 2t) respectively to
As has been previously noted, the current ñow through
the `delta connected primary winding Z2. of the main recti 40
fier transformer Z4.
Transformer 24 has a Y connected
secondary winding 26 wherein each phase of secondary
winding 26 is connected to a rectifier means 28, 3€) and
32 respectively. Each of rectifier means 28, 30 and 32
compensating reactor 5S to the contactor is to be made
as low as possible. rIhe relatively low rnagnetizing cur
rent of reactor SS therefore may be compensated by a
D.-C. biasing means which supplies a substantial portion
isV then connected together at their outputs and is then 45 of the compensating reactor magnetizirig current whereby
even this small current will not flow through the contactor
taken to a positive D.-C. output terminal 34. The nega
device. This D.-C. bias may be applied to auxiliary wind
tive terminal 36 of the rectifier is taken through -a discon
ing 76 of compensating reactor 53 in the well known
nect switch 37 and is connected to the center of Y con
manner. If desired, this bias may be such that a slightly
nected secondary winding 26. The D.-C. breaker 38 is
positive current passes through the contactor 53 when
in series with terminal 34 and is of the normally con~
load trip element 40 associated therewith to operate
breaker 38 responsive to overload currents. However,
reactor 62 is unsaturated.
After Ia circuit interruption operation, it will be seen
hereinafter that each of cores 6i?, 64 and 68 will be
driven through unsaturation and thus must be reset. This
is `accomplished by a D.-C. bias which is supplied from
breaker 38 is not necessarily equipped with reverse cur
rent trip means.
.In accordance with this invention, the reverse current
trip means are provided within the schematically illus
trated block 42 of FIGURE 1 which, as will be seen 60
bus which acts as a primary winding and cores 65B, 64 and
63. The circuit is then controlled by a circuit breaker 84
Structed type and serves to connect and disconnect the
D.-C. output of the rectifier to a load under normal con
ditions., Furthermore, the breaker 38 may have an over
A.-C. source 7S which energizes the single phase bridge
connected rectiiier Iii). The D.-C. `output of rectifier S0
is then connected in series with resistor 82 and the D.-C.
hereinafter, provides an extremely high speed disconnec
which is normally open, and closed when the ñux of
tion of the rectiñer unit and a load connected at terminals
34 and 36 responsive to a reversal of D.-C. current.
FIGURE 42 illustrates the circuit to be interposed be
tween points 44 and 46 of FIGURE 1. The heavy line
of FIGURE 2 represents the main bus bar. This bus bar
cores 60, 64 and 68 is to be reversed or reset. As soon
as the ñux reverses the current in the bias circuit rapidly
includes a pair of relatively stationary contacts 48 and
Si) which cooperate with a relatively movable contact 52.
Contacts 48, 5t) and 52 comprise the high speed contactor
increases and is limited only by the relatively small re
sistance of resistor 82.
The circuit breaker 84 has an
overload trip element 86 which is so adjusted that when
the current rises after saturation of the cores it will auto
matically trip the circuit breaker 84 and the circuit is
then ready for operation.
The signal 'generating circuit for operating contactor
generally indicated as contactor S3, which is constructed 70
53 is energized from'a signal winding 88v on the trip im
to have very little interrupting capacity although it is
pulse transformer 62. Winding 83 is then connected
designed to carry the full load current. This contactor
to a network including resistor 9G and diodes 92 and
may be of any desired high speed type such as the con~
94 to the primary winding 96 of high frequency trans
tactor set forthin copending application Serial No. 558,
348, filed January 10, 1956, entitled Electrodynarnic 75 former 9S», The diodes 92 and 94 prevent the generation
6
of a pulse which would, as seen hereinafter, automatically
operate contactor 53 when the 'r'lux of reactor 62 is being
reset by the D.-C. biasing circuit which inciudes rectifier
St). ìhe secondary winding 19t) of transformer 93 is
then connected to the control electrode 1112 ot spark gap
164. Spark gap 164 includes the main electrodes 1m', and
,
.
nal pulse which occurs between times t1 and t2. During
the time interval t2 to t3 when the movable contact 52 is
being moved to its disengaged position, the core 64 has
saturated (at time t2) and the current is permitted to
rise to a new level. In the circuit, including reactor 58
and contactor 52, the current designated as i58 in FIGURE
4a Will rise to a magnitude determined by the difference
between the magnitude of the current and bias current
165 which are connected in series with the operating coil
56 of the contactor and a bank of capacitors including
capacitors 110, 112, and 114. It is to be noted that the
of reactor 58.
v output of winding 1th,* is taken across capacitor 116 to l0
It is to be noted that the current values during this in
»absorb low level noise pulses.
»
The capacitor bank including capacitors 11i?, 112 and
terrupting sequence have been considerably exaggerated
in 4a, 4b and 4c for purposes of illustration. Thus, the
114 is charged by a charging circuit which includes an
value of the current 1'58 could possibly be 1;/10’000 of the
A.-C. source connected to terminals 126 and 122 of
value of the full load current ìDC.
primary winding 124 of transformer 126. The secondary
As may be best seen in FIGURE 4b, at time t2 the excit
winding 12.5 or transformer 126 is a high voi-tage winding
ing current of core 68 of step reactor 66 is also permitted
and is connected in series with a diode 150, which
to rise to the relatively high magnetizing current of the
could be a selenium rectifier, and a charging resistor 132.
step reactor as indicated by 1'66 in the dotted line of FIG
rllie operation of our novel circuit may now be con
URE 4b. Since reactor 58 has a relatively low magnet
sidered. lt is assumed that a D.-C. current is established 20 izing current, a current flow is initiated in the by-pass
between the main source such as the rectifier in FIGURE
circuit in resistor ‘74 and circuit breaker 70. This by
1 and a D.-C. load. Under these conditions, reactors 58,
pass current, indicated as 11,4 in FIGURE 4b will be the
62 and 66 will be saturated in their forward direction
difference between the magnetizing current 1'66 of the
as indicated in FlGURE 3 where the positive D.-C. current
step reactor 66 and :'58 of the compensating reactor. The
iDC wii-l be at some high saturating value.- The direction
voltage which drives compensating reactor 58 through
of this D.-C. current is indicated at the bottom of FlG
its step will be the voltage drop which appears across
URE 2 by the arrow 134. The movable contact 52 of
the by-pass circuit. That is to say, the instantaneous
contactor 53 during this normal operation is closed, cir
voltage across the reactor 58 with contact 52 in its en
cuit breaker “iii is closed, circuit breaker S4 is open and
gaged position will be the current i7., times the value of
the energy storage capacitor bank including capacitors
resistor 74. Since this current is substantially limited to
110, 112 and 114 is fully charged by the rectified volt
the step current of reactor 66, and since the impedance
age of secondary winding 123 or' transformer 126.
of the by-pass circuit may be extremely small, it will be
Assume now 'that there is -a fault within the system
apparent that this voltage will be a relatively low value
which causes ya reversal in the current iDC. This is shown
in FIGURE 4a, where the current iDC begins to decrease
at time to. The D.-C. current decreases until at time t1
of FIGURES 3 and 4a it becomes negative and the value
of the magnetizing current oi' the trip impulse transformer
and is shown in an exaggerated manner as e7., in FIG
URE 4c.
Accordingly, the compensating reactor 58 is driven by
a relatively small voltage so that it may be of a relatively
small size in order to give an interval of unsaturation
62 is reached. Core 64 is then unsaturated and generates
which is equivalent to the interval given by step reactor
an extremely high voltage pulse to winding 58 for a 40 66 which absorbs the bulk of the voltage of the circuit.
relatively short time. By way of example, the core 64 is
From the foregoing, it will be seen that at time t3 when
an extremely small one and the pulse may be of the order
movable contact 52 of the ycontactor 53 disengages its
of 10 microseconds. This interval of unsaturation of
cooperating contacts 48 and 50, the current íiowing
core 64 is from the i1 until time t2 in FÃGURE 4a, the
through the contactor is the relatively small current isa
magnetizing current of the core being indicated as im.
While the instantaneous voltage which is to be inter
During this time interval, the current has not become
rupted is the relatively small voltage e7., which is the
negative enough to unsaturate either the step reactor 66 or
the compensating reactor 58. Accordingly, during this
time, there will be substantially no current ñow in the
parallel circuit including resistor 74 and circuit breaker
76 since it is shunted by the extremely low imped nce of
contactor 52 and the bust which serves as a primary wind
ing for the compensating reactor 58.
,
voltage drop on resistor 74. Accordingly, the interrupt
ing duty on the contactor is extremely small so that it
need not have any interrupting capacity.
Once the contactor 53 has opened, the current i7., will
be identical to the magnetizing current of step reactor
66 and will increase at a relatively rapid rate after reactor
66 saturates. Because of this increase, the overload trip
The voltage pulse generated on winding 8S during the
member 72 of circuit breaker 70 will be energized at time
interval from t1 to t2 is in the forward conducting direc 55 t4 so that it will automatically interrupt the circuit at time
tion of diode 92 and is impressed across the reverse irn
t5. Since the circuit breaker 70 need not carry any cur
pedance of diode 94 and secondary winding 96. The puise
rent during normal operating conditions (it is normally
voltage is then stepped up by transformer 9‘8 and an
short circuited by contactor 53), it may be an extremely
extremely high voltage appears across the secondary wind
small and inexpensive breaker with some interrupting ca
ing 1110. This voltage is impressed across capacitor 116 60 pacity whereby it can interrupt the relatively low step cur
and electrodes 1512 and 1413 of spark gap 164 and is
rent of step reactor 66 and the voltage of the circuit.
designed to be suiiicient to trigger the spark gap. Hence,
1n summary, our novel invention permits the use of a
the energy stored in capacitors 1151, 112 and 114 is dis
high speed contactor having no interrupting capacity but
charged through electrodes 166 and 1593l and operating
capable of carrying the full load current of the circuit and
winding 56.
65 circuit breaker having some interrupting capacity but
Winding 56 is then effective to -drive push rod 54 of
carrying no current during normal operating conditions
the contactor t-o move movable contact 52 of the con
which operate to disconnect the circuit responsive to a
tactor ‘53 to its disengaged position. A l-atching means
reversal of current in the circuit. The invention further
of any desired type (not shown) is then operative to main
permits the use of relatively cheap iron for the core of
tain Contact 52 in its disengaged position until the sys 70 the main step reactor of the circuit.
tem is reset.
Once the circuit has operated as described above, it
Since contactor 52 is not provided with any interrupting
will be understood that all of the cores 60, 64 and 68 are
_ capacity, it can operate in an extremely short time. Thus,
saturated in the opposite direction to that in which they
the contactor is shown in FIGURES 4a and 4b to be
are normally to be saturated. When the system is to be
moved to its disengaged position at time t3 due to the sig 75 reconnected, the movable contact 52 is moved to its en
I
gaged position with respect to contacts 41S and 50. Note
that the main circuit breaker is still open (circuit breaker
38 of FIGURE l) so the contactor 53 does not close an
energized circuit. After this, circuit breaker 84 is then
closed to connect the D.-C. voltage of rectiiier 80 Ato the
primary windings of cores 6i), 64 and 68 so that these
cores will be driven through their step to be saturated in
an opposite direction. While the cores are unsaturated,
it is clear that the current in this biasing circuit will be
limited to their rnagnetizing current yand thus the overload
trip means S6 will not be activated. However, when 4the
cores are saturated in the proper direction, the current
through this circuit will rapidly increase so as to auto
matically operate circuit breaker 84 through its trip
means S6 and thus disconnect the biasing circuit. The
circuit is then ready for a new protective operation when
the main D.-C. circuit is closed.
in the foregoing, we have described our invention only
in connection with preferred embodiments thereof. Many
variations and modifications of the principles of our in
vention within the scope of the description herein are
obvious. Accordingiy, we prefer to be bound not by 'the
specific disclosure herein but only by the appending claims.
We claim:
l. A high speed circuit interrupter for D.-C. circuits;
said high speed circuit interrupter being operable respon
and .small rated current and overload trip means for op
erating said circuit breaker, a reverse current sensing
means, and a current limiting means; said step reactor,
compensating reactor, and high speed contactor being
connected in series; said circuit breaker and current limit
ing means being connected in series and forming a paral
le-l connected path with respect to said series connected
contactor and compensating reactor; said reverse current
sensing means being inductively coupled to said circuit
being protected and said high speed contactor to open
said high speed contactor responsive to reversal of cur- '
rent in the circuit being protected; said compensating
reactor and said step reactor being normally saturated by
normal forward current in the circuit being protected
and unsaturating responsive to reversal of current in the
circuit being protected.
4. A high speed circuit interrupter for D.-C. circuits;
said high speed circuit interrupter being operable respon
sive to reversal of current in the circuit being protected
and comprising a high speed contactor having substan
tially no interrupting capacity and a current rating at
least equal to the current rating of the circuit being pro
tected, a step reactor, a compensating reactor, a circuit
breaker having a relatively small interrupting capacity
and small rated current and overload trip means for op
erating said circuit breaker, a reverse current sensing
means, and a current limiting means; said step reactor,
sive to reversal of .current in the circuit being protected
compensating reactor, and high speed contactor being
and comprising a high speed contactor having substan
>connected in series; said circuit breaker and current limit
tially no interrupting capacity and a current rating at
least equal to the rated current of the circuit being pro 30 ing means being connected in series and forming a paral
lel connected path with respect to said series connected
tected, a step reactor, a circuit breaker having a relatively
contactor and compensating reactor; said reverse current
small interrupting capacity and a small rated current and
sensing means being inductively coupled to said circuit
overload trip means and, a reverse current sensing means;
being protected and said high speed contactor to open
said step reactor and said high speed contactor being con
seid high speed contactor responsive to reversal of cur
nected in series; said circuit breaker being connected in
rent in the circuit being protected; said compensating re
parallel with said contactor and normally being short cir
actor and Asaid step reactor being normally saturated by
cuited by said contactor; said reverse current sensing
normal forward current in the circuit being protected and
means being inductively coupled to the circuit being p_ro
unsaturating responsive to reversal of current in the cir
tected and saidcontactor to open said contactor responsive
cuit being protected; said step reactor having a core of
to a revcrsalof-current insaid circuit being protected; said
contactor being shunted by said circuit breaker during
said lopening operation; said reverse current thereafter
relatively inexpensive material, said compensating reactor
Vsaid high speed circuit interrupter being operable respon
cuit breaker having a relatively small interrupting capacity
sive to reversal of current in the circuit being protected
and comprising a high speed contactor having substan
tially no interrupting capacity and a current rating at
least equal to the current rating >of the circuit being pro
tected, astep reactor, a compensating reactor, a circuit
and small rated current and overload trip means for op
erating said circuit breaker, a reverse current sensing
means, and a current limiting means; said step reactor,
having acore of relatively high permeability material.
5. A high speed circuit interrupter for D.-C. circuits;
rising through said step reactor and circuit breaker to un
said high speed circuit interrupter being operable re
saturate said step reactor and being held to the value
of .the magnetizing current of said step reactor for a pre 45 sponsive to reversal of current in the circuit being pro
tected and comprising a high speed contactor having
determined .time; said rise of current through said step
substantially no interrupting capacity and a current rating
reactor and circuit breaker being effective to operate
at least equal to the current rating of the circuit being
saidt'overload trip means of said circuit breaker.
protected, a step reactor, a compensating reactor, a cir
2. A high speed circuit interrupter for D.-C. circuits;
breaker having a relatively small interrupting capacity
and small rated current and overload trip means, a re
verse` current sensing means, and _a current limiting means;
said step reactor, compensating reactor, and high speed
contactor being connected in series; said circuit breaker
and current limiting means being connected in series and
forming a parallel connected path with respect to said
series connected contactor >and compensating reactor;
said reverse Acurrent sensing means being indnctively
coupled to siad circuit being protected and said high speed
contactor to open said high speed contactor responsive
to reversal of current in the circuit being protected.
>3. A high speed circuit interrupter for D.C. circuits;
said high speed circuit interrupter being operable respon
sive to reversal of current in the circuit being protected
and comprising a high speed contactor having substan
tially no interrupting capacity and a current rating at
least equal to the current rating of the circuit being pro
tected, a step reactor, a compensating reactor, a circuit
breaker having a relatively small interrupting capacity
compensating reactor, and high speed contactor being
connected in series; said circuit breaker and current limit
ing means being connected in series and forming a paral
lel connected path with respect to said series connected
contactor and compensating reactor; said reverse current
sensing means being inductively coupled to said circuit be
ing protected and said high speed contactor to open said
high speed contactor responsive to reversal of current in
the circuit being protected; said compensating reactor
and said step reactor being normally saturated by nor
mal forward current in the circuit being protected and
unsaturating responsive to reversal of current in the cir
cuit being protected; said cornpensating reactor having
D.-C. biasing means connected thereto for decreasing the
magnetizing current of said compensating reactor when
said reactor is unsaturated.
6. A high speed circuit interrupter for D.-C. circuits;
said high speed circuit interrupter being operable re
sponsive to reversal of current in the circuit being pro
tectecl and comprising a high speed contactor having
substantially no interrupting capacity and a current rating
at least equal to the current rating of the circuit being
,
9
protected, a step reactor, a compensating reactor, a cir
cuit breaker having a relatively small interrupting capac
ity and small rated current and overload trip means, a
reverse current sensing means, and a current limiting
means; said step reactor, compensating reactor, and high
speed contactor being connected in series; said circuit
and automatically operable switching means in series
with a winding on said compensating reactor and said
step reactor; said reset means generating ampere turns
in a direction to reverse the ilux of said compensating
reactor and said biasing reactor after said reversal of
current from said iirst direction, said automatically oper
breaker and current limiting means being connected in
series and forming a parallel connected path with re
spect to said series connected contactor and compen
sating reactor; said reverse current sensing means being
able switching means disconnecting said reset circuit
after reversal Ílux in said compensating reactor and step
reactor and responsive to a rapid rise of current in said
inductively coupled to said circuit being protected and
9. A high speed interrupter comprising in combina
reset circuit.
said high speed contactor to open said high speed con
tion a contactor, a step reactor, a compensating reactor
tactor responsive to reversal of current in the circuit
and a circuit breaker; said contactor comprising a pair of
being protected; said compensating reactor ‘and said step
contacts movable between an engaged and disengaged
reactor being normally saturated for current flow in a
15 position; trip means for operating said contactor, said step
ñrst direction; said step reactor and said compensating
reactor comprising a step reactor winding wound on a
reactor unsaturating when said current reverses to main
magnetic core; said compensating reactor comprising a
tain the current through said contactor at the magnetizing
compensating reactor winding wound on a magnetic core;
current of said compensating reactor and the current
said circuit breaker comprising a pair of movable con
through said circuit breaker at the diiîerence between
tacts movable between an engaged and disengaged posi
the magnetizing current of said step reactor and the mag
tion; current responsive means connected in series with
netizing» current of said compensating reactor.
I
the contacts of said circuit breaker for operating said cir
7. A high speed circuit interrupter for D.-C. circuits;
cuit breaker; said cooperating contacts of said contactor,
said high speed circuit interrupter being operable respon
said compensating reactor winding, and said step reactor
sive to reversal of current in the circuit being protected
Winding being connected in series; said circuit breaker
25
and comprising `a high speed contactor having substan
cooperating contacts being connected in parallel with said
tially no interrupting capacity and a current rating at
series connected contactor cooperating contacts and corn
sponsive to reversal of current in the circuit being pro
pensating reactor Winding.
tected, a step reactor, a compensating reactor, a circuit
breaker having a relatively small interrupting capacity
and small rated current and overload trip means, a re
verse current sensing means, and a current limiting means;
said step reactor, compensating reactor, and high speed
10. A high speed interrupter comprising in combina
30 tion a contactor, a step reactor, a compensating reactor
and a circuit breaker; said contactor comprising a pair of
contacts movable between an engaged and disengaged
position; trip means for operating said contactor, said step
contactor being connected in series; said circuit breaker
reactor comprising a step reactor winding wound on a
and current limiting means being connected in series and
magnetic core; said compensating reactor comprising a
35
forming a parallel connected path with respect to said
compensating reactor winding wound on a magnetic core;
series connected contactor and compensating reactor;
said circuit breaker comprising a pair of movable con
said reverse current sensing means being inductively
tacts movable between an engaged and disengaged posi
coupled to said circuit being protected and said high
tion; current responsive means connected in series with
speed contactor to open said high speed contactor re
40 the contacts of said circuit breaker for operating said cir
sponsive to reversal of current in the circuit being pro
cuit breaker; said cooperating contacts of said contactor,
tected; said compensating reactor and said step reactor
said compensating reactor winding, and said step reactor
being normally saturated for current ñow in a first direc
winding being connected in series; said circuit breaker
tion; said step reactor and said compensating reactor
cooperating contacts being connected in parallel with said
unsaturating when said current reverses to maintain the
series connected contactor cooperating contacts and com
current through said contactor at the magnetizing cur 45
pensating reactor winding; said contactor having sub
rent of said compensating reactor and the current through
stantially no interrupting capacity and being rated to
said circuit breaker at the difference between the magnet
carry the full current of said interrupter; said circuit
izing current of said step reactor and the magnetizing
breaker having a relatively low interrupting capacity and
current of said compensating reactor; the voltage driving
normally
said compensating reactor being the voltage drop across 50 through. having substantially no current ñow there
said parallel path including said current limiting means;
1l. A high speed interrupter comprising in combina
said compensating reactor having a volt-second rating
tion
a contactor, a step reactor, a compensating reactor
substantially smaller than the volt-second rating of said
and a circuit breaker; said contactor comprising a pair
step reactor.
8. A high speed circuit interrupter for D.-C. circuits; 55 of contacts movable between an engaged and disengaged
position; trip means for operating said contactor, said step
said high speed circuit interrupter being operable respon
reactor comprising a step reactor winding wound on a
sive to reversal of current in the circuit being protected
magnetic core; said compensating reactor comprising a
and comprising a high speed contactor having substan
compensating reactor winding wound on a magnetic core;
tially no interrupting capacity and a current rating at
said
circuit breaker comprising a pair of movable contacts
least equal to the current rating of the circuit being pro 60
movable between an engaged and disengaged position;
tected, a step reactor, a compensating reactor, a circuit
current responsive means connected in series with the
breaker having a relatively small interrupting capacity
contacts of said circuit breaker for operating said circuit
and small rated current and overload trip means, a re
breaker; said cooperating contacts of said contactor, said
said step reactor, compensating reactor, and high speed 65 compensating reactor winding, and said step reactor Wind
ing being connected in series; said circuit breaker co
contactor being connected in series; said circuit breaker
operating contacts being connected in parallel with said
and current limiting means being connected in series and
verse current sensing means, and a current limiting means;
series connected contactor cooperating contacts and com
forming a parallel connected path with respect to said
pensatíng reactor winding; said magnetic core of said step
series connected contactor and compensating reactor; said
reverse current sensing means being inductively coupled 70 reactor being of relatively low permeability material; said
core of said compensating reactor being of relatively high
to said circuit being protected and said high speed con
permeability material.
tactor to open said high speed contactor responsive to
12. A high speed interrupter comprising in combina
reversal of current in the circuit being protected; and
tion a contactor, a step reactor, a compensating reactor
reset means for said compensating reactor and said step
and a circuit breaker; said contactor comprising a pair.
reactor; said reset 4means including a D.-C. biasing means 75 of contacts movable between an engaged and disengaged
li.
position; trip means for operating said contactor; said step
reactor comprising a step reactor winding wound on a
magnetic core; said compensating reactor comprising a
i2
ing when said compensating reactor core is unsaturated.
15. A high speed interrupter comprising in combina
tion a contactor, a step reactor, a compensating reactor
and a circuit breaker; said contactor comprising a pair
compensating reactor winding wound on a magnetic core;
said circuit breaker comprising a pair of movable con C1 of contacts movable between an engaged and disenga-ged
tacts movable between an engaged and disengaged posi
tion; current responsive means connected in series with
the contacts of said circuit breaker for operating said
circuit breaker; said cooperating contacts ot said con
position; means for operating said contactor; said step
tion a contactor, a step reactor, a compensating reactor
reactor core being normally saturated for current ilow in
reactor comprising a step reactor winding wound on a
magnetic core; said compensating reactor comprising a
compensating reactor winding wound on a magnetic core;
tactor, said compensating reactor winding, and said step 10 said circuit `breaker comprising a pair of movable con
tacts movable between an engaged and disengaged posi
reactor winding being connected in series; said circuit
tion; said cooperating contacts of said contactor, said
breaker cooperating contacts being connected in parallel
compensating reactor winding, and said step reactor
with said series connected contactor cooperating contacts
winding being connected in series; said circuit breaker
and compensating reactor winding; said contactor having
cooperating contacts being connected in parallel with
substantially no interrupting capacity and being rated to
said series connected contactor cooperating contacts and
carry the full current of said interrupter; said circuit
compensating reactor winding; said contactor having sub
breaker having a relatively low interrupting capacity and
stantially no interrupting capacity and being rated to
normally having substantially no current ñow there
carry the full current of said interrupter; said circuit
through; said magnetic core of said step reactor being of
breaker having a relatively low interrupting capacity and
relatively 10W permeability; said cores of said compensat
normally having substantially no current ñow there
ing reactor being of relatively high permeability material.
through; said compensating reactor core and said step
13. A high speed interrupter comprising in combina
and a circuit breaker; said contactor comprising a pair
of contacts movable between an engaged and disengaged
position; means for operating said contactor; said step
reactor comprising a step reactor winding wound on a
magnetic core; said compensating reactor comprising a
compensating reactor winding wound on a magnetic core;
said circuit breaker comprising a pair of movable con
tacts movable between an engaged and disengaged posi
tion; said cooperating contacts ot said contactor, said
compensating reactor winding, and said step reactor wind
ing being connected in series; said circuit breaker co
operating contacts being connected in parallel with said
series connected contactor cooperating contacts and com
pensating reactor winding; said contactor having sub
stantially no interrupting capacity and being rated to
carry the full current of said interrupter; said circuit
breaker having a relatively low interrupting capacity and
normally having substantially no current flow there
through; said magnetic core of said step reactor being of
relatively low permeability; said core of said compensat
ing reactor being of relatively high permeability material;
said circuit breaker further including an overload trip ele
ment; said overload trip element being operatively con
nected to said circuit breaker cooperating contacts to
a ñrst direction; said step reactor core and said com
pensating reactor core unsaturating when said current
reverses to thereby maintain the current through said co
operating contacts of said contactor at the magnetizing
current of said compensating reactor core and to further
maintain the current through said circuit breaker co
operating contacts at the diiîerence between the magnetiz
ing current of sa-id step reactor winding and the magnetiz
ing current of said compensating reactor winding.
16. A high speed interrupter comprising in combina
tion a contactor, a step reactor, a compensating reactor
and a circuit breaker; said contactor comprising a pair of
contacts movable between an engaged and disengaged
position; trip means connected to said contactor for
operating said contactor; said step reactor comprising a
step reactor winding wound on a magnetic core; said
compensating reactor comprising a compensating reactor
winding wound on a magnetic core; said circuit breaker
comprising a pair of movable contacts movable between
an engaged and disengaged position; said cooperating
`contacts of said contactor, said compensating reactor
winding, and said step reactor winding being connected
in series; said circuit breaker cooperating contacts being
connected in parallel with said series connected con
tactor cooperating contacts and compensating reactor
operate said cooperating contacts from their said engaged
winding; current responsive means connected in series
position to their said disengaged position responsive to
relatively low current ñow through said overload trip ele 50 with the contacts of said circuit breaker for operating
said circuit breaker; said contactor having substantially
ment; said overload trip element being electrically con
no interrupting capacity and being rated to carry the full
nected in series with said circuit breaker cooperating con
current of said interrupter; said circuit breaker having a
tacts.
14. A high speed interrupter comprising in combina
relatively low interrupting capacity and normally having
tion a contactor, a step reactor, a compensating reactor 55 substantially no current ñow therethrough; current re
sponsive means connected in series with the contacts of
and a circuit breaker; said contactor comprising a pair
of contacts movable between an engaged and disengaged
said circuit breaker for operating said circuit breaker;
position; means for operating said contactor; said step
said compensating reactor core and said step reactor core
being normally saturated for current ñow in a ñrst direc
reactor comprising a step reactor winding wound on a
tion; said step reactor core and said compensa-ting reactor
magnetic core; said compensating reactor comprising a`
core unsaturating when said current reverses to thereby
compensating reactor winding Wound on a magnetic core;
maintain they current through said cooperating contacts
said circuit breaker comprising a pair of movable con
of said contactor at the magnetizing current of said com
tacts movable between an engaged and disengaged posi
pensating reactor core and to further maintain the cur
tion; said cooperating contacts of said contactor, said
compensating reactor winding, and said step reactor wind 65 rent through said circuit breaker cooperating contacts at
the difference between the magnetizing current of said
ing being connected in series; said circuit breaker co
step reactor winding and the magnetizing current of said
operating contacts being connected- in parallel with said
compensating reactor winding; said step reactor core be
series connected contactor cooperating contacts and com
ing of a relatively low permeability material, said com
pensating reactor winding; said magnetic core of said step
reactor being of relatively low permeability material; said 70 pensating reactor core being of a relatively high perme
ability material.
core of said compensating reactor being of relatively high
17. A high speed interrupter comprising in combina
permeability material; and a D.-C. biasing means for
tion a contactor, a step reactor, a compensating reactor
said magnetic core’ of said compensating reactor; said
and a circuit breaker; said contactor comprising a pair
D.-C. biasing means being connected to decrease the
magnetizing current of said compensating reactor wind 75 of contacts movable between an engaged and disengaged
3,067,361
ll
13
position; trip means connected to said contactor for
operating said contactor; said step reactor comprising a
step reactor Winding wound on a magnetic core; said
compensating reactor comprising a compensating reactor
winding wound on a magnetic core; said circuit breaker
comprising a pair of movable contacts movable between
an engaged and disengaged position; said cooperating
14
compensating reactor winding; said step reactor core be
ing of a relatively low permeability material, said com
pensating reactor core being of a relatively high perme
ability material; and reset means for said compensating
reactor core and said step reactor core; said reset means
including means for applying D.-C. ampere turns to said
step reactor core and said compensating reactor core;
contacts of said contactor, said compensating reactor
said means for applying said D.C. ampere turns including
winding, and said step reactor winding being connected
automatically operable switching means connected in cir
in series; said circuit breaker cooperating contacts being 10 cuit controlling relation with respect to said means for
connected in parallel with said series connected contacter
cooperating contacts and compensating reactor winding;
current responsive means connected in series with the
contacts of said circuit breaker for operating said circuit
applying said D.-C. ampere turns; said reset means gen
erating ampere turns in a direction to reverse the ñuX of
said compensating reactor core and said biasing reactor
core after said reversal of current from said iirst direc~
breaker; said contactor having substantially no interrupt 15 tion; said automatically operable switching means dis
ing capacity and being rated to carry the full current of
said interrupter; said circuit breaker having a relatively
low interrupting capacity and normally having sub
stantially no current iìow therethrough; said compensat
ing reactor core and said step reactor core being normal 20
1y saturated for current flow in a ñrst direction; said step
reactor core and said compensating reactor core un
saturating when said current reverses to thereby main
tain the current through said cooperating contacts of
said contactor at the magnetizing current of said com« 25
pensating reactor core and to further maintain the cur
rent through said circuit breaker cooperating contacts at
the difference between the magnetizing current of said
step reactor winding and the magnetizing current of said
connecting said reset means after reversal of flux in said
compensating reactor core and said step reactor core and
responsive to a rapid rise in said ampere turns generated
by said means for applying D.-C. ampere turns.
References Cited in the ñle of this patent
UNlTED STATES PATENTS
2,672,584
2,677,092l
2,693,566
2,969,495
Rolf ________________ __ Mar. 16,
Schmidt _____________ __ Apr. 27,
Hooper ______________ __ Nov. 2,
Mosch ______________ __ Jan. 24,
1954
1954
1954
1961
¿1,009,273
Germany ____________ __ May 29, 1957
FOREIGN PATENTS
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