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Патент USA US3067390

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Dec. 4, 1962
P. ROSS!
TRANSISTOR-OPERATED REGULATING SYSTEM FOR
LOW VOLTAGE GENERATORS
Filed May 5, 1960
I
3,067,380
tatcs
tent
‘a
3,®ii7,330
Patented Dec. 4, 1962
2
l3:s.
The arrangement according to the main feature of the
invention includes, in combination with the circuit regulat
ing the voltage by means of transistors, two control cir
cuits, of which the ?rst circuit detects any variation in the
voltage, while the second circuit is sensitive to the maxi
3,tt67,3titl
TRANSISTQR-QPERATED REGULATING SYQTEM
FUR 10W VilLTAGlZ GENERATQRS
Pietro Rossi, Milan, ltaly, assignor to Fahhrica Italians.
Il‘t/ialgneti Marelli S.p.A., Milan, ltaly, a company oi‘
mum value of the current intensity and these two circuits
ta y
form an electrical system operating entirely through the
Filed May 5,19%, Scr. No. 21%‘)
‘Claims priority, application italy June 9, 1959
8 Claims. {(Il. 322-25)
agency of transistors and include in common at least one
element operating under a constant voltage characteristic
10 with reference to the intensity and subjected to the volt
My inventionrelates to an arrangement for regulating,
age of the generator and a loading resistance associated
by means of transistors, the voltage produced by a low
with said element. This arrangement is such that, upon
voltage generator provided with a shunt energization,
applying the drop in voltage arising across said resistance
chie?y in the case of automobile dynamos.
to a pilot transistor, the ?rst circuit produces a return of
My invention has more particularly for its object im 15 the voltage to its normal value, while the second circuit
provements in arrangements wherein the regulating circuit
imits the current to a predetermined value, these circuits
includes chie?y a power transistor acting on the generator
operating either separately or simultaneously.
energization ?eld and a pilot transistor controlling said
There will now be described a preferred embodiment
power transistor and which is sensitive to the signals
of the improved regulator system, reference being made
detecting a variation from the desired voltage.
to the accom anying drawings, the single ?gure of which
voltagesregulating means‘are known for rotary gener
is a wiring diagram of such a regulator system.
ators, wherein the control of the voltage is obtained
in said ?gure, G designates the generator which may
through semi-conductive elements, such as transistors.
be the dynamo of an automobile with a shunt energization,
Normally, in the case of generators with a shunt energize
while B and W designate respectively the storage battery
tion, saidregulat-ion is-obtained by means of a circuit in
and the load inserted in parallel with the latter.
cluding in‘series with the ?eld winding of the generator,
The ?eld winding L is connected ‘at one end with
the emitter and collector circuit of a power transistor of
the negative terminal of the dynamo generator G and is
the p-n-p type, the base of which transistor is connected
inserted in series with the emitter and collector circuit
with the collector electrode of a pilot transistor of the
of a power transistor T1 of the p-n-p type. The emitter
same. type, the base electrode of which is, in its turn,
electrode E1 of said transistor is connected with the posi
subjected to the action ofthe control signal depending in
tive terminal of the generator, while a crystal diode D1
their turn on the value of the voltage across the terminals
is inserted in parallel with the energizing winding L.
of the generator.
The base B3 of thetransistor T1 is connected'with the
Said arrangements act on the energization current in a
collector C2 of a second transistor T2, which is of the
manner such as will return the generator voltage to its 35 same type as Ti and has its emitter E2 connected directly
original normal value, with a view. ‘to providing independ
ence'of the voltage produced with reference to the speed
of rotation of the machines.
to the positive terminal or" the dynamo generator G.
The collector C2 is, in contradistinction, connected with
the negative terminal through the resistance R1.
it is known, furthermore, that with a view to controlling
The compound system including the elements T1, T2,
generators having a regulation curve under constant volt 4,0 R1 and‘Di, which are interconnected in the manner de
age and limited'intensity conditions, there may be pro
scribed, form the actual regulating circuit and their action
videdran arrangement limiting the intensity and having
on the field-winding L depends on the signal transmitted
for its purpose a breaking of the feed circuit when load
by the control circuit to the base B2 of the pilot transistor
ing conditions arise which cannot be allowed, since they
T2.
would prevent proper operation. of the machine. Such 45
Such regulating circuits, and, particularly the output
intensity-limiting means formaunit which is separated
circuit passing through the emitter and the collector of
from theactual voltage regulator of the transistor type
the power transistor T1 oscillate automatically'when the
and it is consequently necessary to provide two separate
voltage-regulating procedure‘has begun, betweengan op
' apparatus and alarger space for their housing when it is
erative condition under a high resistance ‘and an operative
vnot desired to omit the intensityelimitingmeans by an 50 condition under a low resistance. The transistor T1 be
oversizing of the dynamo. machine.
haves, in fact, after the manner of a relaxation oscillator
Orr-the other hand,.the di?iculty of resorting to such
arrangements'whichincorporate at vleast partly vibrating
contact; pieces is well-known. Firstly, the-regulation is
poor and‘this'leads unavoidably ‘to-peaks in the waveform 55
of regulated voltage with reference to time and, fur-ther
more, the maximumenergizingcurrent consistent with a
proper operation ofthe vibrating. contact-pieces is limited.
and the ‘diode D1 behaves as a resistance of a practically
inde?nite value when the transistor T2 shows a low re
sistance, while its conductivity is excellent when said
transistor is inoperative; This prevents the production
of an excess voltage in the ?eld winding of the dynamo
machine as a consequence of a sudden modi?cation in
the current fed by the collector of the transistor T2 dur
Now, an object of the present invention consists in
ing the voltage-regulating procedure.
removing the above-*nentioned drawbacks by providing a 60 The circuit detecting the variations in voltage accord
single-arrangement of a completely static type, which,
ing to my invention includes in series the circuit elements
uses onlysemi-conductive- elements in the circuitdetecting
constituted by the resistance R2, by the Zener diodeDZ
voltage variations, as wellas in the voltage-regulating cir
and the loading'resistance R3. The ends of the‘resist
cuit, while, furthermore, such an arrangement acts as a
voltage regulator and as an intensity-limiting.device.
The useiof'semigconductive elements in the regulating
circuit and. inrrthe circuits detecting variations in voltage
removes the necessity of using vibrating contact-pieces
ances which are not connected with the diode D2 are
65 connected respectively with the negative and with the posi
tive terminal of .the dynamo‘ generator, while a condenser
C is inserted in parallel with the resistance R3.
The base B2 of the transistor T2 is connected with
and it allows also a moreaccurate control of the voltage
the
point P through which-anode of the Zener diode D2 is
- of the generatontogether with a deletion, in the design 70
connected with the resistance-R3. The diode inserted in
of the dynamo, of thelimitation consisting in reducing the
the circuit in a direction in which it provides for its look
energizing current, whichleads to economy, simplicity in
ing against operation, is locked and cannot carry any cur
structure and an improved e?iciency.
3,067,380
3
4
rent until the voltage applied across its terminals has
Consequently, the base B2 and the emitter E2 of the
reached the breakdown value or so-called Zener voltage,
While it becomes highly conductive when the voltage rises
above said value. This limit value is selected near the
viously, the circuit passing through the emitter and col
transistor T2 are at the same potential and thus, ob
lector of the pilot transistor T2 has a conductivity re
normal operative voltage, as previously described.
duced to a minimum, said minimum conductivity
corresponding to blocking conditions. Therefore, the
In combination with said circuit adapted to detect vari
ations in voltage, there is provided a circuit sensitive to
maximum intensity and including in common with the
transistor T2 is locked against operation and the resistance
Rll is the seat of only the current passing through the
base of the transistor T1.
?rst-mentioned circuit said Zener diode and the loading
resistance R3.
Said second circuit acts as an intensity
10
limiting device and it supplies, in fact, to the transistor
base B2 a suitable signal, whenever the intensity obtained
for the load has a tendency to rise above the maximum
value which is to be fed by the dynamo.
The intensity-limiting circuit includes, in addition to
said elements which are in common with the circuit de
tecting the variations in voltage, a further transistor T3
which is also of the p-n-p type and two resistances R4
and R5.
The base 33 of the transistor T3‘ is connected with a
point I beyond the resistance R5 which is inserted in a
line leading from the positive terminal of the generator
dynamo to the battery.
The emitter E3 of the transistor T3 is connected with
the above-mentioned point F in the detecting circuit and
the collector C3 is connected through the resistance R4
With the point H connecting the diode D2 with the resist
ance R2, in a manner such that the output circuit, pass
ing through the emitter and the collector of the transistor
T3 and in series with resistance R4, lies in parallel with
the Zener diode D2. The resistance R5 forms the intensity
sensitive element and produces the biasing of the base B3.
Beyond the resistance R5 and between the point I
~ and the positive terminal of the battery is inserted a cur
rent-making and breaking element D3 constituted, prefer
The value of the resistance R1 is selected in a manner
such that the transistor T1 may be saturated, so as to
provide a maximum conductivity in the emitter and col
lector circuit of the latter and, consequently, the dynamo
is practically subjected to full energization.
The consequence thereof is that, during the dynamo
starting procedure, and, generally speaking, for a rota
tion at a low speed, the detecting circuit is not fed with
current and, consequently, the regulating circuit behaves
in a manner such as to produce favorable conditions for
the rapid obtaining of a stabilized voltage across the
terminals of the dynamo.
Assuming now that the voltage at the brushes of the
dynamo generator assumes a value larger than the pre
determined value, for instance under the action of an
increased speed of rotation of the dynamo armature, the
Zener diode becomes then conductive and there is ob
tained across its terminals F and H, by reason of the
characteristic properties of the diode, a voltage which is
substantially constant, in spite of the modi?cations in
the intensity of the current passing through said diode.
Consequently, there is applied at the point P and thereby
on the base B2 of the pilot transistor T2 a signal which
depends on the excess voltage produced by the dynamo
above the predetermined voltage value.
In fact, the greater the excess voltage the greater the
current passing through the detecting circuit and the
ably, by a crystal diode and having for its object to prevent
the battery from supplying current to the dynamo and
greater the drop in voltage across the resistance R3, Said
regulating circuit, when the electromotive force of the
drop in voltage corresponding to the difference in volt
battery rises above that of the dynamo.
age arising between the emitter E2 and the base B2 of
The condenser C and the resistance R3‘, which are the 40 the transistor T2. As mentioned hereinabove, said con
elements common to both the control circuits which have
ditions lead to operation of the transistor T2 in a manner
just been described, form a low-pass ?lter adapted to
damp any sudden modi?cation in the signals, as may arise
in the closed regulating mesh circuit and which may be
such that the current from the collector C2 ?owing
through the resistance R1 biases the base B1 of the tran—
propagated as waves in the voltage to be regulated. Fur
thermore, the condenser C supplies the circuit with a
time constant which is more capable of ensuring a regula
tion of the voltage with a satisfactory accuracy within
thereby the voltage produced by the dynamo. This starts
the entire range of the speeds possibly assumed by the
dynamo.
The diagram is completed by a compensating circuit
constituted by the transistor T4, which is also of the
p-u-p type and by the voltage distributor constituted by
the resistances R6 and R7 inserted in series.
This last circuit has for its object to compensate the 55
drop in voltage arising through the load current, which
sistor Tl, so as to reduce the energizing current and
the voltage-regulating procedure.
The current-limiting means operate as follows: for the
allowable values of the current delivered, the transistor
T3 is biased so that it prevents the passage of the current
and this leads to an absence of any control action on
the regulating circuit. When, in contradistinction, the
current produced by the dynamo reaches the predeter
mined limit value, the drop in voltage across the terminals
of the resistance R5 is such that it releases the transistor
T3 and leads it rapidly to its saturation point. Thus, the
branch circuit lying in parallel with the Zener diode D2
and constituted by the emitter and collector circuit E3—
drop is applied across the terminals of the system includ
C3 in series with the resistance R4 is now fed with cur
ing the resistance R5 and the diode D3 inserted in series.
rent. This produces a sudden drop in voltage between
The emitter electrode EA. of the transistor T4 is connected
with the point M inserted between the resistances R6 60 the points F and H of the detecting circuit and to an
increase in the drop in voltage across the resistances R2
and R7 of the voltage distributor, so that it is connected
and R3, while the voltage of the dynamo remains at its
with the positive terminal of the dynamo through the re
predetermined value.
sistance R6 and to the negative terminal of said dynamo
The signal applied to the base B2 of the transistor T2
‘through the resistance R7. The collector C4 is connected
with the negative terminal through the resistance R2 and 65 increases suddenly and its action is transmitted to the
the base B4 is connected with the positive terminal of the
base B1 of the transistor T1 and, consequently, to the
battery.
?eld Winding L, so as to reduce the energizing current
The operation of the voltage-regulating arrangement
and thereby the voltage at the brushes of the dynamo.
thus described is as follows:
The current produced cannot increase above the prede
When starting and as long as the dynamo rotates at 70 termined limit value and there is obtained a characteristic
a low speed, the value of the voltage produced is lower
curve under constant voltage conditions with a bend
than the desired predetermined running value of the
corresponding to maximum load.
voltage and, as already mentioned, the Zener diode D2
The compensating means ensure a compensation for the
prevents the passage of current in the circuit R3—D2—
drop in voltage which varies with the load and which
R2, which serves for detecting variations in voltage. 75 appears across the terminals of the system including the
3,067,380
5
6
diode, D3 and the resistance R5. This compensation is
energizing circuit for the‘ generator controlled by said
obtained through the application of said drop in voltage
power'transistor, a pilot transistor adapted to control the
to the circuit passing through the emitter and the base
conductive in the absence of any generation of current.
power transistor, two control circuits including a com
mon section constituted by a loading resistancein series
with a Zener diode and a second resistance, said diode
When, in contradistinction, the dynamo produces cur
rent, said drop in voltage across R6—D3 biases the base
being connected, through the loading resistance and
through the second resistance, with the positive and nega
B4-of the transistor T4 in a manner such as to provide
across the terminals of the Zener diode D2, is shifted in
the. same direction. Finally, this means that the current
tive terminals of‘ the generator respectively and the diode
terminal connected with the loading resistance being also
connected with the base of the pilot transistor, means as
sociated with the loading resistance to form a low-pass
?lter, static means whereby the drops in voltage across
said loading resistance are fed through one control circuit
to the pilot transistor to return the voltage produced by
said generator to its predetermined value, means subject
ing the other control circuit to the current generated by
the generator, and staticmeanswhereby said other control
passing through R3 is reduced and thereby the drop in
voltage between E2 and B2 in the pilot transistor T2,
circuit acts on the pilot transistor to limit said current
below a predetermined'value.
while the current increases in the collector C2 of T2 and 20
3. A transistor-operated regulating‘system'for low volt
age generators provided'wi-th ,a'shunt energization and con
nected with a battery, chie?y 'for’dynamos on'board auto
mobiles, comprising a power'transistor, an energizing cir
of the transistor T4, which is biased so as to be non
for a how of current in the circuit passing through the
emitter E4 and the collector C4 of said transistor. Said
current passes through the resistance R2 and produces
a shifting of the potential at the point H towards the
values which are less negative. The consequence is that
the potential at the point P, which varies with reference
to that at H by an amount equal to the unvarying voltage 15
thereby the energization of the dynamo. This increased
energization compensates perfectly the drop in voltage
across the terminals-of D3—R5 and thus the output volt
age applied to the battery and to the utilizaion circuit re
cuit forthe generator controlled'by ‘said'power transistor,
mains constant, in spite of the variations of the current 25 a pilot transistor adapted to control the power transistor,
generated by the dynamo.
two control circuits including'a'common section consti
In. the case where the variation-detecting circuits act
tuted by a loading resistanceinseries‘with a Zener diode
simultaneously, it is obvious that the voltage-regulating
and a second resistance, said diode being connected,
circuit, which forms always, as disclosed, the executive
through the loading resistance and through the second re
circuit, takesint-o account the di?erent signals received by
it, Which ensures a perfect regulation of the voltage as a
function of the number of revolutions of the generator, or
as .a function of the current intensity generated, or again,
sistance, with the positive and negative terminals of the
generator respectively and the diode'terminal connected
to the loading resistance being alsoconnected to the base
of the pilot transistor; acondenser inserted in parallel with
ofthe drop in voltage.
the loading resistance to form a low-pass ?lter, means
Another feature of the invention consists in the possi 35 whereby the drops in voltage across said loading resist
bility of modifying thegauging of the voltage to be ob
ance are‘fed'through one control circuit to ‘the pilot tran
tained, byv acting simply on the value of the resistance R3.
sistor to return the voltage produced'by said generator-to
Consequently,.if such aresistance is modi?ed, it is pos
its predetermined'valne, means'subjecting the other con
sible to adjustthe regulated valuezofthe voltage as desired.
trol circuit to the current generatedby the generator, and
Aturther improvement with a view to increasing'the 40 means whereby the said other control'circuit acts'on‘the
accuracy of such agauging is obtained through the incor
pilot transistor-to limit said current below a predeter
poration of a potentiometric arrangement for regulating
mined value.
the bias applied to the base B2.of the pilottransistor T2.
4. A transistor-operatedregulating system for‘low volt
Althoughthe invention has been described with refer
age generators provided With a shunt energization and
ence to the accompanyingdiagram, it is obvious that vari 45 connected with- a battery, chiefly ‘for dynamos on board
ous modi?cations and additions are possible Within the
automobile, comprising a power transistor, an energiz
scope of the invention as de?ned in the accompanying
ing circuit for the generator controlled by said power
transistor,‘ a pilot transistor-adaptedito control the power
claims. Thus, for instance, the resistance R3 de?ning the
drop in ‘voltage may be, in :all cases, associated With other
transistor, two control‘circuits including a common sec
elements, provided'the arrangement obtained forms alow 50 tion constituted by a'loading resistance in series with-a
Zener diode‘ and a second resistance, said diode being
pass ?lter. Furthermore, it is possible to substitute for
the resistance R5 .a non-linear element.
What I claim is:
1. A-transistor-operated regulating system for a voltage
connected, through the loading ‘resistance and through
the second resistance, with the positive and negative ter
minals of thegeneratorrespectivelyand thediode ter
generator provided with a shunt energization and con 55 minal connected with ‘the‘loading-resistance being also
nected with a battery comprising a power transistor, an
connected with the ‘base of the pilot transistor, static
means whereby-thedrops in-voltage across saidiloading
energizing circuit for the‘ generator controlled by said
resistance are fedithrough‘one-controlcircuit to the pilot
power transistor, a pilot transistor adapted to control the
‘transistor to return thevoltage produced by' said gen
power transistor, control circuit means including a com
mon section constituted by a resistance in series with an 60 erator-to'its predetermined value, a further transistor in
element adapted to -provide,"aoros-s~its terminals, a constant
serted‘ in'the other control circuit, a resist-ance'adapted
voltage, whatever may be the variations in the intensity
to bias said transistor and inserted between the base of
fed to it, means for subjecting said common section to
said further transistor and the positive terminal of the
the output voltage of said generator, whereby the changes
battery, on the one hand, and the positive terminal of the
in voltage across said loading resistance are fed to the pilot 65 generator, on the other hand, the emitter of said further
transistor to return the voltage produced by the dynamo
transistor being connected with the end of the Zener diode
to its predetermined value, current ?ow sensitive means
connected with the loading resistance, and a further re
for subjecting said ‘control circuit means to the current
sistance connecting the collector of said further transistor
generated by the generator, and means for connecting said
with the other terminal of the Zener diode connected with
current ?ow sensitive means to said resistance whereby 70 the second resistance of the common section, said further
transistor acting on the pilot transistor to limit the gen
control circuit means acts on the pilot transistor to limit
erator current below a predetermined value.
said current to less than a predetermined value.
2. A transistor-operated regulating system for voltage
5. A transistor-operated regulating system for low volt
age generators provided with a shunt energization and
nected with a battery comprising a power transistor, an 75 connected with a battery, chie?y for dynamos on board
generators provided with a shunt energization and con
3,067,880
7
automobiles, comprising a power transistor, an energizing
circuit for the generator controlled by said power tran
sistor, two control circuits including a common section
constituted by a loading resistance in series with a Zener
age generators provided with a shunt energization ‘and con
nected with a battery, chie?y for dynamos on board auto
mobiles, comprising a power transistor, an energizing cir
cuit for the generator controlled by said power transistor,
diode and a second resistance, said diode being connected, U! a pilot transistor adapted to control the power transistor,
two control circuits including a common section consti
through the loading resistance and through the second re
tuted by a loading resistance in series with a Zener diode
sistance, with the positive and negative terminals of the
generator respectively and the diode terminal connected
and a second resistance, said diode being connected,
with the loading resistance being also connected with the
base of the pilot transistor, static means whereby the drops
in voltage across said loading resistance are fed through
through the loading resistance and through the second re
one control circuit to the pilot transistor to return the
voltage produced by said generator to its predetermined
sistance, with the positive and negative terminals of the
generator respectively and the diode terminal connected
with the loading resistance being also connected with the
base of the pilot transistor, static means whereby the
drops in voltage across said loading resistance are fed
value, a further transistor inserted in the other control
circuit, a resistance adapted to bias said transistor and 15 through one control circuit to the pilot transistor to re
turn the voltage produced by said generator to its prede
inserted between the base of said further transistor and
termined value, means subjecting the other control circuit
the positive terminal of the battery, on the one hand, and
to the current generated by the generator, static means
the positive terminal of the generator on the other hand,
whereby said other control circuit acts on the pilot transis
the emitter of said further transistor being connected
with the end of the Zener diode connected with the load 20 tor to limit said current below a predetermined value, a
voltage distributor provided with a medial tap and fed
ing resistance, and a further non-linear resistance con
necting the collector of said further transistor with the
other terminal of the Zener diode connected with the
second resistance of the common section, said further
transistor acting on the pilot transistor to limit the gen
by the generator, and a compensating circuit for drops in
voltage comprising a compensating transistor having a
base, an emitter and a collector, the base of which is con
nected with the positive terminal of the battery, the col
lector of which is connected to the point of connection be
tween the Zener diode and the second resistance in the
6. A transistor-operated regulating system for low volt
common section and the emitter of which is connected
age generators provided with a shunt energization and
with the medial tap.
connected with a battery, chie?y for dynamos on board
8. A transistor-operated regulating system for a voltage
automobiles, comprising a power transistor, an energizing 30
generator provided with a shunt energization circuit and
circuit for the generator controlled by said power tran
connected with a battery and a load comprising a power
sistor, a pilot transistor adapted to control the power
transistor, said energization circuit of said generator con
transistor, two control circuits including a common sec
trolled by said power transistor, a pilot transistor adapted
tion constituted by a loading resistance in series with a
Zener diode and a second resistance, said diode being con 35 to control said power transistor, and a compensating
erator current below a predetermined value.
nected through the loading resistance and through the
second resistance, with the positive and negative terminals
transistorresponsive to load variations, ?rst and second
control circuits and a compensating circuit having a com
mon section constituted by a loading resistance, in series
of the generator respectively and the diode terminal con~
with an element adapted to provide, across its terminals,
nected with the loading resistance being also connected
with the base of the pilot transistor, static means whereby 40 a constant voltage, and another resistance, said element
being connected through said loading resistance and
the drops in voltage across said loading resistance are fed
through said another resistance to the terminals of said
through one control circuit to the pilot transistor to re
generator, said common section cooperating with said three
turn the voltage produced by said generator to its pre
circuits for detecting the voltage variations to be trans
determined value, a further transistor inserted in the other
ferred to said pilot transistor, ?rst static means whereby
control circuit, a biasing resistance adapted to bias said
the drops in voltage across said loading resistance are fed
transistor and inserted between the base of said further
through said ?rst circuit to the pilot transistor to return
transistor and the positive terminal of the battery, on the
the voltage produced by the generator to its predetermined
one hand, and the positive terminal of the generator, on
value, means subjecting said second control circuit and
the other hand, the emitter of said further transistor being
said compensating circuit to the current generated by said
connected with the end of the Zener diode connected
generator, second static means whereby said second con
with the loading resistance, a further resistance connect
trol circuit acts on the pilot transistor to limit said current
ing the collector of said further transistor with the other
lbelow a predetermined value, and means whereby said
terminal of the Zener diode connected with the second
resistance of the common section, said further transistor } compensating circuit acts through said common section
acting on the pilot transistor to limit the generator current ' on said pilot transistor to compensate for changes in
voltage with load.
below a predetermined value, a semiconductor inserted
between said biasing resistance and the base of the further
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
transistor, on the one hand, and the positive terminal of
the battery, on the other hand, to prevent discharge of
UNITED STATES PATENTS
60
the latter into the generator and its control circuits.
7. A transistor-operated regulating system for low volt
2,892,143
Sommer _____________ __ June 23, 1959
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