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Патент USA US3067695

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Dec. 31, 1962
G. LUDWIG
SUPERSONIC BARREL-FIRED PROJECTILES
CARRYING PROPULSION UNITS
Filed April 9, 1958
&067585
Qi@
aearaaš
Patented Dec. lil, 1962
2
targets at ranges which are greater than, for example,
3,067,685
those of the modern machine guns and automatic guns ?s
SUPERSONHC BARRELFEED PRGEECTELES
only possible if a projectile ?red at normal muzzle velocity
CAYING ?RGPULSTQN UNHTS
is given its own propulsion unit which enables the pro
jectile to maintain its muzzle veloçity as far as the target_
or even for this velocity to be increased. Thevpower
_
Giinter
ciare Ludwig,
&Expansion
Kiel, Germany,
Commerciale
assignor
et Eudustrielše
to Soeiete §.A.
"Spindex? âarnen, %wit?'erland
_ Filed Apr. 9, 1958, Ser. Ne. '727,330
Claíms priority, application Germany Apr. 10, 1957
6 C?m'ms. (Ci. 162-925)
The present invention relates to a projectile which is
to be ?red from a barrel at supersonic velocity and which
is provided with a propulsion unit that becomes operative
after ?ring. Such a projectile is herein referred to as a
of the projectile propulsion unit and the weight of fuel
to be accelerated in this case only have to be substan
tially su?icient in order to overcome the gravity of the
10 earth and air resistance during the time of ?ight, while
the inítial acceleration is provided by the gun.
An artillery shell of conventional type is made as heavy
as possible, not only for the purpose'of conveying the
largest possible amount of explosíve to the target, but
“supersonic barrel-ñred projectile carrying a propulsion 15 also for the purpose of enabling the shell to overcome
unit.”
With conventional ?rearms, the projectile has imparted
thereto a kinetic energy which enables it to cover the
the air resistance by means of its kinetic energy over a
long trajectory and in addition to exert an armour-pierc
ing action on hitting the target. If now a self-contained
propulsion unit and not the weight of the projectile is
distance to the target against the action of airresistance
and gravity. The ?ring range depends inter alia on the 20 used to enable the latter to overcome the air resistance
muzzle velocity and the weight of the projectile. With
and if other means, for example a hollow charge, is used
for the armour-piercing e?ect, the ñring range and the
equal muzzle velocities and equal air resistances, a heavy
piercin'g power' place no direct demands on the weight of
projectile travels further than a light one. The reaction
the projectile. The weight requirement for propellant
to the acceleration which the projectile is given in the
barrel is the recoil of the weapon. With equal muzzle 25 and hollow charge is smaller than that mass With an old
velocities and otherwise equal circumstances, the heavy
type projectilewhich is equivalent in the respects just in
projectile produces the greater recoil. With conventional
?rearms, the gases from the powder discharge forwardly.
dicated. consequently, such a projectile can be lighter
in weight. With an equal muzzle velocity, the rearward
The .gun crew does not have to leave the ?ring position
thrust is smaller and the recoil shorter, this always being
when the projectile is ?red. It is thus possible to etfect 30 desirable for example for the weapons used on ships and
tanks. Alternatively, with anequalrearward thrust, it
rapid reloading and acontinuous feeding of automatic
loading devices.
is possible to achieve a higher muzzle velocity and thus
` On account of the high inítial supersonic velocity, the
a greater accuracy in ?ring.
Experiments with shells having a self-contained pro
?ight of the projectile is stable from the start and thus
the accuracy of ?ring is good. It is however decreased in 35 pulsion unit have already been carried out.~ If the self
contained propulsion unit is arranged on the base of the
proportion as the kinetic energy of the projectile is ab
shell, the point of application of the forwardly propelling
sorbed by the air resistance and thus the accuracy 'in
force when the propulsion unit becomes operative is cone
?ight decreases. consequently, the time of ?ight of the
sidera'bly behind the centre of gravity of the shell, which
projectile increases relatively quickly as the range be
comes longer, so that when ?ríng against moving targets, 40 centre of gravity can be' considered as the point of ap
aim-oil errors occur to an increasing degree as the range
plication of the forwardly propelling force resulting from
increases. Firing becomes pointless when the projectile
the kinetic energy.
velocity no longer exceeds the target velocity to a suf?
cient extent or falls below it. It is clear that only pro
stable in ?ight when the propulsion unit became operative.
Thus, these projectile's became un
- On the other hand, projectiles of the type in question
jectiles having a high velocity throughout their ?ight, i.e.
have also already been proposed in which the propellant
projectiles with their own propulsion unit (self-propelling 45 charge for the self-contained propulsion unitthat be
comes operative after ?r'ing is arrangediin the projectile
projectiles), permit ?ring against high-speed targets to be
effective.
.
body near thecentre of gravity of the projectile and the
With self-propelling projectiles, the propellant gases are
gases formed by the burning of thispropellant charge are
exhausted through a plurality of rearwardly directed noz
discharged rearwardly. In cases where the projectile is
50 zles opening laterally on the projectile body. The ef?
not ?red from a barrel so that the propulsion unit must
also be responsible for launching the projectile the gun
Ciency of this self-contained propulsion unit Operating as
crew must take cover on ?ring and this has a deleterious
e?ect on the rate of ?re. Such self-propelled projectiles
have a low inítial velocity and the target accuracy is
therefore restricted unless there is remote control of the
flight of the projectile. The propulsion units of such
self-propelled projectíles must not only supply the power
for overcoming air resistance and gravity, but also the
power for the total inítial acceleration upon launching.
a roclçet motor with thrust nozzles is however obviously
very poor. Moreover, it is only with a relatively large
projectile that a su?iciently large combustion chamber
and the necessary nozzles with their connecting ducts can
be arranged in a satisfactory manner in the projectile
body.
According to the present invention there is provided a
supersonic
barrel-?red projectile, comprising a fusiform
Furthermore, energy must be supplied su?icient to ac 60 projectile body, a nose and a taíl on said body, a pro
celerate the propulsion unit itself and the weight of fuel
pellant charge of solid fuel arranged in annular form on
serving for the acceleration.
the outside of the body in the region of the largest cross
Rapid and accurate ?ring against rapidly moving
section thereof, and a ring of priming composition, for
igniting the solid fuel, situated on the outside of the
body, the distance between said nose and the solid fuel
being slightiy greater than the distance between said nose
projectiles by the fact that it~ has the form of a closed
solid or hollow body which is tapered towards the front
and the priming composition, whereas the distance be
explosive charge of molecular type, and on the outside
of which is a priming composition situated in the region
of the largest cross-section and disposed in front of the
tween said nose and the centre of gravity of the projectile
is still greater.
On account of the Construction just indicated, it is
possible to dispense with both a separate combustion
chamber and thrust nozzles in the projectile body; it
and rear ends, inside which body is a solid core of an
centre of gravity of the projectile, while to the rear of
this composition, seen in the direction of ?ight, there is
a propellant charge consisting of a solid fuel.
The projectile shown in the drawing is provided at
thus becomes possible for even small projectiles to be 10
its rearward end with a tail' unit which is disposed in
provided with their own propulsion unit in a simple man
the gas stream of the propulsíon jet and which serves to
ner and` at relatively low expense. The position of the
stabilise the projectile in ?ight, such tail unit being so
ignition point which is chosen in this case also guarantee-s
shaped that it imparts a rotation to the projectile.
that the expansion of the propellant gases takes place
lt is to be noted that the expression “projectile” used
wholly or at least partially between the outside wall of 15
in the previous description is to cover any body for ?ight
the front tapering section of the fusiforrn projectile body
in atmosphere at supersonic velocity.
and the shock wave emanating during ?ight with super
sonic velocity from the nose of the projectile. The gas
It will be apparent from the drawing that the ring of
priming composition 3 is situated at a location which is
expansion not only has a thrust effect owing to the rear
ward ?ow of the gases caused by the high pressure zone 20 on the outside of the projectile body in the region of the
in the shock wave, but by Choosing a suitable propellant
greatest diameter thereof. lt is adjacent the solid fuel
and is between the latter and the nose of the projectile
and quantity thereof, can so' influence the shock wave
that the Mach angle of the shock wave is altered to a
and closer to said nose than to the tail of the projectile
value corresponding to a smaller projectile velocity. in
measured along the longitudinal axis of the projectile.
this way, the resistance opposing the projectile is reduced
The distance between the nose and the solid fuel is there
and the projectile velocity will decrease less rapidly than
fore sliohtly greater than the distance between' the nose
when a self-contained propulsion unit is not used. The
and the priming composition, whereas the distance be
traíectory of the projectile thus becomes ?atter and longer
tween the nose and the centre of gravity of the projectile
under the action of theexisting kinetic energy.
is still greater.
For a better understanding of the invention and to 30
I claim:
show how the same may be carried into eifect, reference
l. A supersonic barrel-?red projectile, comprising a
will now bc- made to the acco?npanying drawing, which
fusiform projectile body, a nose and a tail on said body,
shows ,a longitudinal sectional View of a projectile. The
a propellant charge of solid fuel arranged in annular form
illustrated projectile has a nose, a tail and a region of
on the outsideof the body in the region of the largest
maximum diameter between the nose and the tail at
diameter thereof, and a ring of priming composition,
which a› propellant fuel is burnt. The surface of the
for igniting the solid fuel, situated at a location whichis
projectile between the region at which the fuel 'is ignited
on the outside of the body in the region of the greatest.
and the tail is completely smooth, that is ,to say there are
diameter thereof and' is adjacent the solid fuel and is be
no driving bands' or other irregularities in that part of
tween the latter and said nose and Closer to said nose
the projectile surface. The centre of gravity of the pro 40 than to said tail, measured along the longitudinal aXis of
jectile is on the longitudinal centi-eline of the projectile
the projectile.
i
and between the planes indicated by the references X'
2. A projectile according to claim 1, and further com
and Y, that is to say the centre of gravity is behind the
prising wall portions of saidbody deñning an annular
region at which ignition of the fuel takes place but Well
recessiextending, around the outside of -said body in the
forward of the tail. The exact position of the centre 45 region of the greatest diameter thereof, the solid fuel and
of gravity will, of course, depend upon the dimensions
the priming composition being disposed within said recess.
of the projectile and the speci?c gravities of the various
3, A, supersonic barrel-?red projectile, comprisíng a
parts thereof so that it is not necessary, and would in
fusiform projectile body, a nose and a tail on said body,
fact be misleading, to specify the exact position of the
a propellant charge of solid fuel arranged in annular form
centre of gravity in the projectile.
50 on the outside of the body in the region of the largest
In the drawing, there is shown a fusiform projectile
cross-section thereof, and a ring of priming composition,
body 1 which must have a thick wall in its rearward
for igníting the solid fuel, situated on the outside of the
portion, especially in the case of ?xed gun ammunition,
body, the distance between said nose and the solid fuel
in order to withstand the gas pressure in the barrel.
being slightly greater than the distance between said nose
There is provided a driving band 2 for co-operation with 55 and the priming composition, whereas the distance be
the gun barrel ri?ing to produce rotation of the projectile.
tween said nose and the centre of gravity of the projectile
3 is a primer composition which consists of py?'otechnic
is still greater.
materials and which is initially ignited, upon ?ring, by
4. A supersonic barrel-?red projectile, comprising a
the gases from the Cartridge powder and then in its turn
fusiform projectile body, a nose and a tail on said body,
ignites solid fuel 4 which serves as propellant .and is 60 a propellant charge of *solid fuel arranged in annular form
arranged. as a ring in an annular recess, which also con
- on the outside of the body in the region of the largest
tains the primer composition on the outside of the body
cross-section thereof, and a ring of priming composition,
1. 5 is a tail unit for increasing the stability of the'
for igniting the solid `fuel, situated on the outside of the
projectile in ?ight. This tail unit is inclined to the direc
body, the distance between said nose and the solid fuel
tion of ?ight in order to maintain in ?ight the rotation 65 being slightly greater than the distance between said nose
produced before the projectile leaves the muzzle. The
and the priming composition, whereas the distance be
tail unit can be comparatively small, since it is completely
tween said nose and the centre of gravity of the projectile
in the ?ow of the propellant gases. 6 is the explosive
is still greater, the entire part of the projectile body be
charge, which can be of conventional type, and 7 is the
tween the fuel and said tail having a completely smooth
cartridge case. It is of course also possible for solid 70 external surface.
projectiles, for example those of infantry ri?es or ma
5. A supersonic barrel-?red projectile, comprising a
chine guns, to be equipped with the additíonal propul
fusiform projectile body, a nose and a tail on said body„
sion' unit previously described ,in order to increase the
a propellant charge of solid fuel arranged in annular
ef?cacy of these weapons. The projectile described above
form on the outside of the body in the region of the
is distinguished from the previously known types of 75 largest diameter thereof, and a ring of priming compo-`
5
sition, for igniting the solid fucl, Situated at a location
which is on the outside of the body in the region of the
greatest diameter thereof and is adjacent the solid fuel
6
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
and is between the latter and said nose and closer to said
707,024
nose than to said tail, measured along the longitudinal axis
of the projectile, the entire part of the projectile body
1,376,316
2,l45,508
'between the fuel and said tail having a completely smooth
external surface.
6. A projectile according to claim 1 and further com
2,671,401
Abramson ____________ __ Mar. 9, 1954
510303
1,083,338
France ______________ __ Sept. 2, 1920
prisi??g wall portíons of said body de?ning an annular 10
recess extending around the outside of said body in the
region of the largest cross-section thereof, the solid fuel
and the priming composition being disposed within said
recess.
Semple ______________ __ Aug. 12, 1902
Chilowsky ____________ __ Apr. 26, 1921
Denoix ____ ___ ________ __ Jan. 31, 1939
FOREIGN PATENTS
France ______________ __ June 23. 1954
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFIC
CE' §. TEFECATE er
Patent No„ 3,0ó7,685
December ll, 1962
Günter Ludwig
It is hereby Certified that error appears in the above numbered pat
ent req'?íring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as
corrected below.
In the grant; lines 3 and 13I and in the› heading to the
printed specification, line 6, for “Spindex'ä' . each occurrence,
read
--
"Sfirídex"
--„
Signed and sealed this 20th day of August l9ó3„
(SEAL)
Attestz`
ERNEST W. SWIDER
DAVID L. LADD
Attesting Officer
Commissioner of Patents
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION
Patent No. 3,0ó7,ó85
December ll, 1962
Günter Ludwig
It is hereby Certified that error appears in the above number-ed pat
ent req'?íring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as
corrected below.
In the grant, lines 3 and 13Y and in the heading to the
printed specification, line 6, for ""Spindex".' , each occurrence,
read
--
"Sfírídex"
--„
Signed and sealed this 20th› day of August l9ó3„
(SEAL)
Attestz'
EENEST W. SWIDER
Attesting Officer
DAVID L. LADD
Commissioner of Patents
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