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Патент USA US3068524

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Dec. 18, 1962
Filed Aug. 31, 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Dec. 18, 1962
Filed Aug. 31. 1960
> 2 Sheets-Sheet 2
47.1 ,46.
United States Patent 0
Patented Dec. 18, was
it may be found that effective operation at such a ratio
Henry A. Thomas, Baton Rouge, 1a., assignor to Ethyl
Corporation, New York, N.Y., a corporation of Dela
is not possible. By extrusion ratio is meant the transverse
area ratio of the extrusion ori?ce to the cross sectional
area of the chamber in which the sludge is processed
toward the extrusion ori?ce. By processability is meant
the ability to force the lead solids through the extrusion
Filed Aug. 31, 1960, ?er. No. 53,245
ori?ce and consistently achieve a substantially homo
1 (llairn. (Cl. 18-12)
geneous or cohesive solid shape, which is a highly desired
This invention relates to apparatus for the processing
result of the operation. Accordingly, need has devel
of sludges of ?nely subdivided metals. More particu 10 oped for an apparatus and method which exhibits par
larly, the invention relates to improved apparatus for
ticular latitude with respect to allowing elfective opera
the pressure extrusion of sludgs having high components
tion with sludges of readily deformable metals and at
or proportions of ?nely subdivided metals in conjunction
least one accompanying liquid phase, wherein said sludges
with at least one additional liquid phase.
Even more
vary considerably in their resistance or ease of processing
speci?cally, the invention is related to apparatus having 15 by the general extrusion-recovery operation described.
particular utility in processing high solid-sludges wherein
The principal object of the present invention is to pro
the physical characteristics of the sludge, i.e., properties
vide a new and improved apparatus whereby high solid
which effect the resistance to forcing the sludge through
sludges of variable physical attributes, with respect to
a restricted extrusion ori?ce is variable with time or with
extrusion recovery, can be readily processed. More par
variations in the preceding process which results in for 20 ticularly, an object of the present invention is to provide
mation of said free sludges.
apparatus, and speci?cally an extrusion die or ori?ce, sus
it is frequently necessary to process high solid sludges,
ceptible of providing a constant type resistance to flow
and especially sludges of metal components accompanied
of malleable or workable metals, in conjunction with
by one or more liquid phases. A typical illustration of
minor quantities of liquid phases, such that uniform
this type of problem is the processing of ?nely subdivided 25 processing treatment is maintained. Alternatively, an
lead sludges resulting from the manufacture or manu
object of the present invention is to provide an extrusion
facturing reaction employed in making organometallic
apparatus suitable for application, in extrusion machines
lead compounds. 'In such instances, the commercial tech
generally, wherein a variable total resistance to extrusion
nique involves the reaction of an alkali metal~lead alloy
force is provided by automatic alteration of the extrusion
with an alkylation agent such as ethyl chloride, and in 30 ratio, responsive to the characteristics of the sludge, such
such reactions only a portion of lead is consumed.
that a substantially uniform product is achieved along
Hence, the resultant reaction product mixture includes
with a highly e?lcient degree of recovery. Other objects
a liquid alkyl lead compound, ?nely subdivided lead
will appear hereinafter.
metal solids, minor quantities of the liquid alkylating
The apparatus of the present invention comprises an
agent, and by-product compounds such as, for example, 35 extrusion ori?ce apparatus, for combination or adapta
sodium chloride and sodium sulfate. Such product mix
tion with an extrusion machine, said ori?ce device being
tures are initially separated by a steam distillation, which
force responsive to adjust its effective transverse or open
volatilizes a substantial portion of the organometallic
ing area in such fashion that a relatively constant pres
liquid product desired, and forms a distillation residue
sure, or approximately constant pressure, is achieved,
including minor quantities of the alkyl lead organometal 40 said pressure being adjustable if desired to assure the de
lic compound desired, the subdivided lead, and an aque
sired characteristics of the materials forced through the
ous phase usually containing, dissolved therein, by-prod
extrusion ori?ce.
uots formed in the synthesis reaction. it has been dis
The principle of the apparatus of the present invention,
covered that such sludge is very expeditiously further
and the details of the various embodiments thereof, will
processed by subjecting to relatively elevated pressure in 45 be understood from the detailed description below of
an extrusion zone, having an extrusion ori?ce as one
typical and preferred embodiments and from the ?gures
tern inal boundary thereof, whereby the lead solids are
illustrating the same, wherein:
forced through the extrusion ori?ce under sufficient pres
FIG. 1 is a transverse cross sectional view of one em—
sure to form a substantially cohesive or homogeneous
bodiment of the variable aperture ori?ce assembly posi
lead shape, and concurrently the liquid phases present
tioned at the terminus or discharge end of an extrusion
are segregated from said so-formed lead shape. Accord
ingly, the above described general extrusion is a highly
effective method in conjunction with a primary separation
involving contacting with an aqueous phase, as in the
FIG. 2 is a transverse cross sectional view of the ap
paratus illustrated by PEG. 1 at section AA,
FIG. 3 is a transverse cross sectional View of another
above mentioned steam distillation. Similar systems oc~ 55 embodiment of the invention characterized by a movable
cur in other industrial operations, either as a result of
ring member which, in conjunction with a laterally im
a preceding chemical synthesis operation, or deliberately
movable conic section de?nes an extrusion ori?ce of
in preparing a sludge mix from which it is desired to
variable size, and
form a solid shape.
FIG. 4 is a transverse end view of the embodiment
While the general procedure of extrusion and concur 60 illustrated by FIG. 3.
rent further separation of liquid phases, above described,
Referring to FIG. 1, the assembly of the present em
has been found highly e?ective, it has also been discov
bodiment is shown mounted in the terminal or discharge
ered that the physical properties of the sludges, with re
end of an extrusion machine barrel 21, having an extru
spect to their processability in this fashion, are highly
sion bore 22 therein, wherein a reciprocating ram 26 is
variable. Thus, although a particular apparatus con
slidably positioned for pressing a charge toward the dis
?guration is quite suitable fora speci?c sludge feed, yet
the prior processing history is suf?clently erratic or vari
able that the properties of the sludge thus produced, and
providing the feed for the extrusion operation, are also
charge end.
The principal components shown of the apparatus of
the invention include a ring member 11, extrusion pins
131, 135 and restraining pins 141, 145. The ring mem
highly variable. Thus, whereas in one instance an appa 70 ber 11 is a circular member adapted to loosely ?tinto a
ratus provided with an extrusion ratio of, say, 4:1, is
recess 23 bored in the extrusion machine barrel 21. Pre
highly e?ective, nevertheless at a slightly later period,
cise positioning of the ring member 11 with respect to
the ‘bore 22 of the extrusion barrel 2} is assured by a
machined shoulder member 9 adapted to engage a cor
responding precisely machined section of the extrusion
barrel wall 21. The ring member 11 includes an entry
portion 1b which is a converging rusto-conic section
diminishing in diameter away from the extrusion barrel
22. The ring member 11 includes a bored portion 8
creases the peripheral surface with respect to the trans
verse area of the extruded material, which contributes
to the homogeneity of the material extruded and the
separation of any liquid phase in the extrusion material
It will be apparent that the proportions of the ap
paratus of the above described embodiment, illustrated
of smallest diameter, as the terminal opening through
in FIGS. 1 and 2, is susceptible of considerable varia
which the material extruded will pass. The ring mem
tion with respect to proportions, and with respect to the
ber also has therein a plurality of radially oriented chan it) degree of resistance of the ori?ce pin elements to radial
nels 121, 125, and a corresponding number of laterally
displacement. Thus, by tightening or loosening the re
oriented channels 151, 155, which intercept the ?rst men
tainer screws 291, 295, the pressure applied to the re
tioned radial channels 121, 125. Slidably positioned in
straining pins 141, 145 can be signi?cantly varied. In
the radial channels are ori?ce pins 131, 135, these being
a typical embodiment, employing eight ori?ce de?ning
provided at the innermost ends thereof with inclined 15 pins peripherally spaced around a ring member such as
faces 181, 135 which, desirably, correspond in convergence
ii, an individual force of 4,000 pounds is applied on
to the walls of the conic section 10 of the ring member
each restraining pin by the appropriate torque applica
11. In addition, the ori?ce pins 131, 135, have inclined
tion on the corresponding retaining screw. The force
engaging faces 19;, 195 which correspond in alignment
applied in such manner will vary according to the physical
to engaging faces on the abutting ends of the restraining 20 properties of the material being extruded, and accord
pins 141 145. The restraining pins, as clear from FIG.
ing to the angle of the face of the ori?ce pin, and the
1, are slidably positioned in the laterally disposed chan
angle of the enuaging faces of the ori?ce pin to the re
nels 151, 155 of the ring member 11. VAlso positioned
straining pin. It will be apparent that, dependent upon
in said cannels 151, 155, are assemblies of high com
the selection of such angles the actual centripetal force
pression resilient members, typically Belleville washers,
applied to each ori?ce pin by the resilient means such
which are dished washers capable of exerting a high
as the Belleville washers and the restraining pin, will
resilient force. The assemblies of washers 151, 165, the
vary according to the selection of such angles and the de‘
exact number thereof being variable according to the
gree of friction in the sliding parts. The provision of
needs of the operation for which the assembly is in
adjustable retainer screws permits ready adjustment for
tended, is pressed by a follower block 171, 175, which
a particular situation, and, according to the principle
is positioned by an adjustment screw 291, 295. The
of operation of the apparatus, variations in physical
ring member 11 is rigidly and immovably positioned
characteristics of the material being extruded will result
in place by the action of a retainer ring 28 which is
in corresponding increase or decrease of the ori?ce aper~
threaded into a corresponding threaded portion of the
ture de?ned by the ori?ce pins and the bore of the ring
recess 23 in the extruder barrel. Mounted in threaded
member 11. It will be clear that upon radial outward
holes in this retainer ring are the aforementioned re
movement of the ori?ce pins that the e?iective ori?ce size
tainer or adjustment screw 291, 295.
is increased, and the so-called extrusion ratio is decreased,
It will be apparent that the ori?ce pins 131, 135 pro~
the extrusion ratio being the ratio of the transverse areas
jecting into the bored portion of the ring member 11,
of the bore of the extrusion chamber to the limiting
and having inclined operative faces 181, 185, when ex 40 aperture for extrusion. Thus, when an extrusion feed
posed to a force caused by compression of material be
material decreases in liquid phase composition, the re
ing extruded under the action of ‘the ram member 26
toward the ori?ce assembly, will be acted on by a force
vector tending to cause radial displacement. The en
gagement of the ori?ce pins 131, 135 by the faces of
the restraining pins 141, 145, under the lateral pres
strictive tendency of an ori?ce of a given size then in
creases, and the present apparatus will thus permit dila‘
tion or enlargement of such ori?ce aperture, with the re
sult that the effective unit pressure at the point of ex
trusion is maintained substantially constant, and the
sure exerted by the assemblies of resilient washers 161,
165 thus prevents outward movement of the ori?ce pins
131, 135, until a certain pressure is achieved thereon.
tained more uniform.
When such force is applied, the ori?ce pins 131, 135
matically adjusting ori?ce aperture is established by
will move outwardly, allowing retraction of the restrain
means of two laterally spaced elements, one of which is
ing pins 141, 145 in the respective channels, against the
laterally ?xed, whereas the other is slidably positioned
resilient means above mentioned.
result in the enlargement of the actual ori?ce apertures.
This is more readily understood by reference to FIG. 2,
to allow alteration of lateral disposition, relative to the
other, with a con?guration, in cross section, admitting
and providing of a variation in the e?ective extrusion
being a transverse cross sectional view AA of the ap
aperture opening accompanying such lateral displacement.
This action will thus
physical characteristics of the extruded product are main
in certain embodiments of the invention, the auto
paratus, showing the protrusion of the ori?ce pins 131
Such an embodiment is illustrated in FIG. 3, wherein
. . . 133 in the bore 8 of the ring member 11. When
a slidable ring member is resiliently positioned and can
the motivating force, induced by the movement of the
be resiliently moved in response to the variations of
material being extruded is decreased, then the reciprocal 60 total force applied thereto as a result of the extrusion
action occurs, viz., the restraining pins 141, 145 are urged
in the reverse direction by the resilient washer assemblies
Referring to FIG. 3, the principal components of the
161, 165, causing inward movement of the ori?ce pins
apparatus of the present invention include a ring mem
131, 135. It will be noted that in this embodiment, a
secondary beveled face at the outer portion of the ori?ce
pins 131, 135 acts as a stop to terminate inward move
ment of said ori?ce pins by the action of the restraining
barrel 35 of an extrusion apparatus. Desirably the ring
member 43 includes an extending lip or guide portion 44,
which makes a snug sliding ?t with the interior of the bore
pins 141, 145, thus determining the maximum inner posi
tion, or spacing of the ori?ce pin.
A particular advantage of the present embodiment
ber 41, which is slida-bly mounted on a recess 34 in a
of the ring member bore 8, provides a toothed con?gura
tion. Hence, the ?ow of material being extruded through
36 of the extrusion barrel 35, thus providing a snug con
nection between said ring member 41 and the said ex
trusion barrel bore 36. In this embodiment, a helical
screw 37 Within the extrusion barrel bore 36, said screw
having a nose or converging portion 38 which contracts
in a direction away from the interior of the extrudcr bar
rel, or towards the discharge of the extruder barrel, and
this aperture causes a keying e?ect and actually in
is positioned ?xedly, with respect to lateral position, adja
is the fact that the actual ori?ce aperture de?ned by the '
ori?ce pins 1&1 . . . 138, in conjunction with the wall
cent the ring member and spaced apart therefrom, so
that a space is de?ned between the ring member and the
said nose portion 38. The ring member ‘51 is ?xed in
position in a yieldable manner by the thrust of a resilient
assembly, or series of assemblies 471, 475, each compris
ing a plurality of spring-like members such as Eelleville
washers, or equivalent resilient members, bearing on the
periphery of the ring member in a direction toward the
interior of the extruder barrel. Backup or push members
or blocks 461, 465 provide the thrust against the resilient
aperture. As clear from the ‘preceding ‘description, the
particular “normal” reference force level at which en
largement begins to occur will be dependent upon the pres
sure applied to the resilient members restraining move
ment of the aperture forming element, said tension or
pressure being applied by the adjustment screws employed,
thus allowing establishment of different base planes for
different processing situations.
The precise details of design of the elements forming
the periphery or the ori?ce aperture can also be appre
spring-like members 471, 475, the positioning of said fol
lower blocks 461, 465 being accomplished by retainer
ciably varied. For example, in the embodiment illustrated
in FIGS. 1 and 2, the ori?ce pins are conveniently of cir
screws 511, 515, which engage corresponding threaded
openings in a retainer ring 48. The retainer ring 43 is
threaded in place by threaded engagement with the wall
of the extruder barrel or adjacent the terminal end thereof.
A projecting guide sleeve portion 49 of said retainer ring,
extending toward the ori?ce ring member 41 facilitates
alignment and retention of the spring member assemblies
471, 475. The said sleeve-like member may be actually
‘cular or cylindrical cross section, but this is not an essen
coextensive in diameter with the recess 34 of the extruder
pins such as used in the ?rst described above embodiment,
will depend upon the necessary variation in extrusion
ratio, and hence of extrusion absolute aperture transverse
barrel, having peripherally spaced chambers for the spring
like assemblies 4.71, 475.
In operation, rotation of the helical screw causes, by
the action of the ?ights 39 thereon, movement of the ma
terial being extruded toward and through the space de
?ned by the nose portion 38 of the screw and the entrant
portion of the ring member 4-1. As noted, the entrant
portion 42 of the ori?ce ring member 41 is a converging
section, which may have straight or curved walls in cross
tial feature. Cylindrical cross section pins facilitate manu
faeture of the assembly, in that the pin channels of the
ring member thereof can thus be merely drilled or bored
channels. However, in certain situations, it may be de
sirable to provide ori?ce establishing pins of rectangular
or square cross section.
The total degree of movement
of said ori?ce pins, and consequently of the restraining
area, as is discussed below.
section, converging toward the discharge of the apparatus.
Similar considerations will be present for individual de
signs of apparatus embodiments as illustrated by FIGS.
3 and 4. In certain cases, the ring member, with an ori
?ce de?ning aperture therein will have a conical entrance
angle of a total of about 90° inclusive, but in other situ
ations entrant angles of from 79 to 160° or thereabouts
will be eifective. It will be apparent that the con?guration
Hence, the space de?ned between the nose portion 43
of the nose portion of a helical screw, which in such cm
bodiments, forms part of the actual extrusion ori?ce, is
also subject to similar variations. Since, a characteristic
section with lateral disposition away from the interior of 35 of this class of embodiments is the provision of an annulus
of decreasing transverse cross sectional area, it will be
the extruder barrel. It will be apparent that shifting of
of the helical screw and the entrant portion of the die or
ring member 41 is an annular space of diminishing cross
the ring member 41 toward the helical screw will be ac—
companied by a diminution of the transverse area of said
evident that the transverse cross section of ‘said nose por
ment of the material being extruded, will increase, and
there will be a shifting of the ring member away from
33 percent. As in other embodiments, the provision of
resilient spring members tending to restrain outward move
ment of the ring member, to which appropriate compres
sion force is applied by retainer screw members, allows
tion should decrease at a lower degree, laterally, than the
transverse area of the ring member, the bore thereof
annular space, and conversely, a shifting of the ring mem
ber 41 away from the helical screw will result in an en 40 which de?nes the outer extremity of the ori?ce opening.
As in the other embodiments the degree of variation of
largement of said space.
absolute ori?ce size and hence of the effective extrusion
in operation, then, with the appropriate force being
ratio, will be dependent upon the variation in character
applied by the resilient assemblies 471, 4'75, according to
istics of material being processed and other factors. In
the proper torque being applied to the retainer screws
511, 515, an automatically varying resistance force to ex 45 a typical embodiment, a total permissible variation of ex
trusion ratio of from 1.5:1 to about 2:1, or correspond
trusion will be applied. When the characteristics of the
ing degrees of variation, will be entirely adequate to pro
material being extruded changes such that a greater force
vio'e for most normal changes. This corresponds to a var
is required to extrude at a constant extrusion ratio, the
iation in the e?ective or actual ori?ce opening of about
total force applied to the die ring member 41 by the move
the nose portion 38 of the screw, where consequent en
largement of the extrusion space as previously de?ned,
hence the unit pressure or the mechanical working force
being applied to the material being extruded, at and in
the above mentioned extrusion zone, will be maintained
virtually constant, and the properties of the extruded
material will be preserved in a consistent manner.
The embodiment of FIG. 3 as above described is further
the establishment of different reference force levels Which
must be exceeded befo ‘e outward displacement of the ring
member under the in?uence of extrusion forces, is accom
plished. in a typical installation employing an extruder
having a barrel diameter of 5 inches, and a maximum ex
trusion ratio (minimum actual extrusion ori?ce area) of
illustrated in FIG. 4, being an end view or" the assembly 60 2, will be susceptible of en arsing to provide an extru
sion ratio of up to 1.5, upon establishment or creation of
of the embodiment of FIG. 3. In this embodiment, eight
pressures greater than 20,000 pounds per square inch at
retaining screws are employed. It will be apparent that
the initial extrusion ori?ce opening,
the spacing size and number of the retaining screws Bill,
It must be appreciated that the creation of a greater
515 will vary according to the size of the apparatus, the
characteristics of the materials bein0 processed, and the 65 force, tending to enlarge the effective ori?ce area, with
such enlargement being accomplished, amounts to pre
absolute total forces which are necessarily applied to the
serving the actual pressures or mechanical Working forces
material at the point of extrusion.
being applied to the material processed at the extrusion
it will bein apparent
to one
detailsin of
art that
are per
zone, hence the continuity of characteristics of the re
missible Within the scope of the invention illustrated by 70 sultant product is preserved.
the preceding two embodiments. In all cases provision is
The materials of construction to be employed will vary
necessarily made, for automatic adjustment, by means of
ccording to the chemical characteristics and physical at
shifting of a die aperture forming member in response
tributes of the material processed. Generally, mild steel
to increases or decreases of total force applied, with cor
can be readily employed for some of the portions of the
responding increase or decrease of the e?ective ori?ce 75 apparatus, but for the die con?guration de?ning mem
bers, high strength and extra hard alloy steels are highly
said restraining pin members, whereby outward move
ment or" said ori?ce pin elements compress said spring
members by lateral movement of the restraining pins and
Having fully described the invention and several em
bodiments thereof, What is claimed is:
A force responsive variable opening ori?ce apparatus
for an extrusion apparatus comprising a circular ring mem
ber die element having ?rst and radial pin channels there
in, radially movable ori?ce pin elements positioned and
slidably movable in ‘said ?rst channels but always pro
jecting into the circular opening of the said ring mem
ber die element, laterally oriented second channels in said
ring member intercepting said ?rst channels, restraining
pin members in the said second channels adapted to en
gage the ori?ce pin members and to be laterally disposed
said ori?ce aperture is thus enlarged in response to a
greater extrusion total force, and whereby inward move—
ment of said ori?ce pins results from the reverse lateral
movement of the restraining pins and said ori?ce aperture
is decreased in response to a lower total extrusion force,
the ori?ce aperture being de?ned in part by the internal
con?guration of the ring die element and in part by the
ori?ce pin elements.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
upon radial movement of the ori?ce pins, resilient spring
Kaschke et a1. ________ __ July 14, 1942
means and spring follower means positioning and com
Manken et a1. ______ __ Dec. 19, 1944
Leavenworth ________ __ Sept. 15, 1953
pressing the spring means, said spring means engaging
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