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Патент USA US3068708

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Dec. 18, 1962
3,068,698
R. w. ROBERTS ETAL
TEMPERATURE INDICATING DEVICE
Filed May 9, 1957
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WITNESSES:
INVENTORS
Roland W. Roberts and
William T. Conry
fYZ M
‘
ATTORNEY
tine
illaited grates
.l.
3,068,698
TEMPERATURE MEBICATRJG DEVHIE
Roland W. Roberts, G’Hara Township, Allegheny County,
and William T. Com-y, Forest Hills, Pa, assignors to
Westinghouse Electric Corporation, East Pittsburgh,
Pa., a corporation of I’ennsylvania
Filed May 9, 1957, Ser. No. 653,299
8 Claims. ((31. 73-342)
3,%8,b9%
Patented Dec. 18, 1962
2
alternating current voltage supplied to them from the
transformer 29. That is, when the terminal 91 is at a
positive polarity with respect to the terminal 92, the sec
ondary winding 22 of the transformer Zil will have a
polarity as shown in FIGURE 1. Therefore, current will
?ow in the two parallel branches containing the saturable
reactors 4d and 5b in such a direction as to drive the re
actors cc and 50 to saturation. At some point during
the half-cycle, the reactor Whose magnetic core is at the
This invention relates to temperature devices in gen 10 highest temperature will saturate ?rst in point of time.
Therefore, there will be an output across one of the paral
oral and, more particularly, to saturable magnetic core
lel resistors 41 and 51.
temperature indicators.
Prior to the saturation time of either of the reactors 44]
It is an object of this invention to provide an improved
and 59, during this sme half-cycle, when the terminal
temperature indicating device.
A further object of this invention is to provide an im 15 91' is at a positive polarity with respect to the terminal
92, current will have been ?owing from the terminal 91,
proved temperature indicating device utilizing saturable
through the resistor 70, the recti?er 65 and the resistor
magnetic cores as sensing elements.
3*?» to the terminal 92. However, when an output appears
Other objects of this invention will become apparent
from the following description when taken in conjunction
with the accompanying drawings. In said drawings for
illustrative purposes only, there are shown preferred
forms of this invention in which:
.FEGURE l is a schematic diagram illustrating a tem
perature indicating device utilizing saturable magnetic
across either the resistor 41 or 51, with polarity as shown
in FIGURE 1, the semiconductor ?ll, shown here as a
P-N-P type, will thereafter be properly biased for con
duction. The current that was ?owing from the terminal
91 to the terminal 92 through the resistor 70 will now
?ow through the semiconductor 6b in the manner familiar
cores embodying the teachings of this invention;
‘FIG. 2 is a representation of wave forms present at
selected points of the device illustrated in FIGURE 1;
FIG. 3 is a representation of wave forms present at se
lected points of the apparatus illustrated in FlGURE l;
and
FIG. 4 is a second embodiment of the teachings of this
invention.
A magnetic core may be used as a temperature sensing
to those skilled in the art.
A representation of the wave form across the resistor
79 during the just described half~cycle of operation is
shown in FIGURE 2. It will be noted, assuming that
the voltage supply connected to the terminals 91 and 92
is a sinusoidal alternating current voltage, that the wave
form across the resistor 70 is of the same wave shape as
that voltage supported by the saturable reactors 40 or
50 before saturation.
In FIGURE 3, there is shown a representation of the
element because the saturation flux density within the
core changes with a temperature change. In a simple 35 wave forms across the resistor 80. It will be noted that
the wave form across the resistor as is of the same wave
circuit having a voltage supply connected in series with
shape as that across the resistor 70, as illustrated in
a saturable reactor and a resistor, the output across the
FIGURE 2, until one of the plurality of saturable reac
resistor will be proportional to the temperature of the
tor sensing elements saturates. The wave form of FIG
core if the supply voltage is greater than the saturation
URE 3 will then peak at some higher value in‘ accordance
voltage of the core. Since the saturation ?ux density of
with the additional current ?owing through the emitter
the magnetic core decreases with an increase in tempera
collector circuit of the semiconductor 60.
ture, the output across the resistor will increase with an
On the next halt-cycle of operation when the terminal
increase in temperature.
92 is at a positive polarity with respect to the terminal
Referring to FIGURE 1, there is illustrated a tempera
91, there will be no current ?ow in the resistor 70 or the
ture indicating device utilizing saturable magnetic cores
resistor 83 because of the blocking action of the recti?er
as sensing elements. In general, the temperature indi
65. The polarity of the voltage of the secondary winding
cating device illustrated in FIGURE 1 comprises two or
22 of the transformer 29 will be reversed and the saturable
more saturable reactors, two of which, Kill and 5d, are
reactors 4t} and 59 will have the flux levels of their mag
shown, means for connecting a supply voltage and a semi
conductor device 69 used as a switch.
50 netic core members reset. The semiconductor oil will
be at cuto? during this half cycle since any voltage that
An alternating current voltage, not shown, is con
appears across the resistors 41 and 51 will be of a polar
nected to a pair of terminals 91 and 92. A primary wind
ity to bias the P-N-P junction type transistor herein em
ing 21 of a transformer 24} is connected to the terminals
91 and 92.
The saturable reactors 4% and 5% are con
nected in parallel to the secondary winding 22 of the 55
transformer 24). A pair of resistors 41 and 51 are in
cluded in the parallel branches with the saturable reac
tors 40 and 5%), respectively. The output across the resis
tors 41 and ‘51 is connected between a base electrode 63
and an emitter electrode at of a semiconductor 6%, 60
through recti?ers 42 and 52, respectively.
The base electrode 63 of the semiconductor 66 is con
ployed to cutoff.
The average value of the current ?owing in the re
sistor '79 is directly proportional to the volt-seconds
required to saturate the magnetic core member of the sat
urable reactor having the highest temperature of the plu
rality of saturable reactor circuits.
Therefore the cur
rent through or the voltage across the resistor ‘70 may
be used as a direct measure of the highest temperature
and metered accordingly.
The current through and the voltage across the resistor
nected to the supply terminal 91. A collector electrode
80 is also a measure of the saturable reactor sensing ele
62 of the semiconductor 6%} is connected to the supply
terminal 92 through a recti?er 65 and a resistor fill. The 65 ment having the highest temperature and may be metered
accordingly.
emitter electrode 61 of the semiconductor 64} is connected
The function of the recti?ers 42 and 52 is to prevent
to the supply terminal ‘J2 through a recti?er 66 and a
any current interaction in the two parallel branches con
resistor 67. A resistor 70 and means for connecting a
taining the saturable reactors 4t} and 50. With the rec
properly calibrated meter 71 are connected in series cir
cuit relationship between the base electrode 63 and the 70 ti?ers 42 and 52 included, only the voltage across the
resistors 41 and 51 individually are measured and pre
collector electrode 62 of the semiconductor 60.
sented to the emitter-base input of the semiconductor 6i}.
In operation, the saturable reactors 54} and so have
3,068,698
3
4
The recti?er 65 and the resistor 67 connected in series
circuit relationship between the emitter electrode 61 of
the semiconductor 6t} and the supply terminal 92 insures
We clahn as our invention:
7 '
1. Apparatus for indicating the highestv temperature‘
of a plurality of temperatures to be sensed comprising,
a like plurality of saturable reactor circuits, each of
that the semiconductor 60 will remain'at cuto?‘ until a
signal of proper polarity between the emitter electrode
61 and the base electrode 63 of the semiconductor 6% ap
said saturable reactor circuits including a saturable re
actor having a winding means inductively disposed on an
individual magnetic core member, said magnetic core
pears across either resistor 41 or 51.
Referring to FIGURE 4, there is illustrated a second
embodiment of the teachings of this invention. The
members having a temperature sensitive saturation ?ux
density; means for applying an alternating current volt
age of su?icient magnitude to said plurality of saturable
reactor circuits to drive each of said saturable reactors
beyond saturation in the same direction during each half
cycle; and output means operably connected to said plu-v
rality of saturable reactor circuits having an output pro=l >
saturable reactors 4G and 50 are still connected in par
allel but in this embodiment a transformer 16% is con
nected in series with one legtof the two parallel branches
and the alternating current voltage terminals 551 and 92.
A resistor 150 is connected across the secondary wind
ing leads of the transformer 16%}. ‘A recti?er 115 con— 15 portional to the highest temperature of, any core meta
nects the supply terminal 91 to an emitter electrode 111
her.
i
of semiconductor 110.
A secondary winding of the
2. Apparatus for indicating the highest temperature
transformer 160 and a resistor 140 are connected in se
ries circuit relationship between a base electrode 113 and
‘the emitter electrode 111 of the semiconductor 11%. A
collector electrode 7112 of the semiconductor 110 is con
nected to the supply terminal 92 by a resistor 12%).
The general operation of the device illustrated in F1"
URE 4 is similar to that of the device illustrated in
FIGURE 1. However, in FIGURE 4, there will be a
current ?ow in the primary winding of the transformer '
160 only after one of the saturable reactors 49V or 50
has saturated. Therefore, when the terminal 91 is at
a positive polarity with respect to the terminal 92, there
will be no current ?ow through the primary winding of 30
the transformer 160 until a reactor saturates. When a
reactor saturates, there will be a current ?ow in the pri
mary winding of the transformer 164} and a voltage with
polarity as shown will appear across the, secondary wind
ing of the transformer 160. A current will then flow in
the resistor 150 with the polarity as shown. The volt
age across the resistor 150 will properly bias the emit
ter electrode 111 with respect to the base electrode 113
of ‘the, semiconductor 110 so that the semiconductor 11o
conducts.
Therefore, a current will ?ow from the sup
ply terminal 91 through the recti?er 115, resistor 12!}
and the semiconductor 110 to the supply terminal 92.v
The output. of the circuit may be taken from the re
sistor 120.
On vthe next half-cycle, when the supply terminal 92
is at a positive polarity with rcspectto the supply termi
nal 91, the ?ux level of the saturable reactors 4i} and 51
of a plurality of temperatures to be sensed comprising, a
like plurality of saturable reactor circuits, each of said
saturable reactor circuits includinga saturable reactor
having a winding means inductively disposed on an in‘ -
dividual magnetic core member, said magnetic core menu
hers having a temperature sensitive saturation ?ux den-*
sity; means for applying an alternating current volt‘
age of su?icient magnitude to said plurality of saturable
reactor circuits to drive each of said saturable reactors
beyond saturation in the same direction during each half
cycle; and output means operably connected to said plu
rality of saturable reactor circuits having an output pr'o—
portional to the highest temperature of any core meme
her, said output means comprising an output circuit
adapted to be connected to a voltage source, and switch‘
ing means responsive to the saturation of the ?rst core
member in point of time for connecting said output cir=
' cult to said voltage source,
3. Apparatus for indicating the highest temperature of
a plurality of temperatures to be sensed comprising, a
like plurality of saturable reactor circuits, eachtof said
saturable reactor circuits including a saturable reactor
having a winding means inductively disposed on an in
dividual magnetic core member, said magnetic core meme 7 '
'bers having a temperature sensitive saturation ?ux den
sity; means for applying an alternating current voltage
source of su?icient magnitude to said plurality of satu
rable reactor circuits to drive each of'said saturable re
actors beyond saturation in the same direction during
each half cycle; and output means operably connected
will be reset. There will be no current ?ow in the semi
to said plurality of saturable reactor circuits having an
conductor circuit for two reasons. 'First, the recti?er
115 will opposesuch a current ?ow and secondly,‘ the 59. output proportional to the highest temperature of any
core member, said output means comprising an output
bias action of the transformer 16%) will be of opposite
polarity from that needed for conduction of the semi
circuit adapted to be connected to said alternating cur
conductor 110. .
rent voltage source, and switching means responsive to
A resistor 13% may be connected between the emitter
electrode 111 and collector electrode 113 of the semi
conductor 110 with the result that the output for measur
the saturation of the ?rst core member in point of time
for connecting said output circuit to said alternating cur
rent voltage source.
‘
ing and metering may be taken from the resistor 13%
4. Apparatus for indicating the highest temperature 'of
rather than the resistor 12%. If the output is taken from
a plurality of temperatures to be sensed comprising;t_a
the resistor 130, it will have a wave shape similar to
like plurality of saturable reactor circuits connected in ,
that shown in FIGURE 2 since the resistor 13!) will sup 60 parallel circuit relationship, each of said saturable reac~r
port voltage only when the semiconductor 11!} is not con
tor circuits comprising a saturable reactor having a wind
ducting. The output from the resistor 13% will be sub
ing inductively disposed on an individual magneticcore
ject ‘to less variation than the output from the resistor
member and impedance means connected in series cir
120.
cuit relationship with said winding; said magnetic core
Although the semiconductor 69 has its output circuit
members having a temperature sensitive saturation '?ux
supplied 'by the alternating current voltage connected to
density; output means; unidirectional current means con
the terminals 91 and 92 it is possible to supply the
necting said output means to each said impedance means
semiconductor 6!} with a direct current voltage in the
and poled so only the voltage appearing across the im
apparatus illustrated in FIGURES l and 4.
pedance means individually is received by said output
In conclusion, it is pointed out that while the illus 70 means; means for applying an alternating current voltage '
trated examples constitute practical embodiments of our
of sufficient magnitude to said plurality of saturable re
invention, we do not limit ourselves to the exact de
actor circuits to drive each of said saturable reactors be
tails shown, since certain modi?cations of the same may
yond saturation in the same direction during each half
be varied without departing from the spirit of the in
cycle; said output means having an output proportional
vention.
75 to the highest temperature of any core member upon the
‘3,068,698
5
76
winding having an output responsive to current ?ow in
said primary winding upon the occurrence of saturation
of one of said plurality of saturable reactors.
7. The apparatus of claim 6 in which said output
voltage across its associated impedance means exceeding
a predetermined magnitude and polarity.
5. Apparatus for indicating the highest temperature of
a plurality of temperatures to be sensed comprising, a
comprises an output circuit adapted to be con
like plurality of saturable reactor circuits; transformer 5 means
nected
to said alternating current voltage source and
means having a primary winding and a secondary wind
switching means responsive to current ?ow in said pri
ing; said like plurality of saturable reactor circuits con
rnary winding for connecting said output circuit to said
nected in parallel circuit relationship across said second
alternating current voltage source.
ary winding; each of said saturable reactor circuits in
8. The apparatus of claim 6 in which said output
cluding a saturable reactor having a winding means in 10
means comprises switching means connected across said
ductively disposed on an individual magnetic core mem
alternating current voltage source and means for connect
ber; said magnetic core members having a temperature
ing
an output circuit to said switching means; said switch
sensitive saturation flux density; means for connecting an
ing means being conductive in response to current ?ow
alternating current voltage source to said primary wind
the primary winding of said transformer; the output
ing of su?icient magnitude to drive each of said saturable 15 in
of said output circuit means being inversely proportional
reactors beyond saturation in the same direction during
to the highest temperature of any core member.
each half cycle; and output means operably connected to
said plurality of saturable reactor circuits and responsive
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
to the saturation of the ?rst saturable reactor in point of
20
UNITED STATES PATENTS
time for providing an output proportional to the highest
temperature of any core member.
6. Apparatus for indicating the highest temperature of
a plurality of temperatures to be sensed comprising, a
like plurality of saturable reactor circuits connected in
parallel circuit relationship; transformer means having
25
a primary winding and a secondary winding; circuit
means for connecting said primary winding in series cir
cuit relationship with each said saturable reactor circuit;
each of said saturable reactor circuits including a satu
1,945,378
2,350,329
2,757,320
2,773,132
2,808,990
2,821,674
Robbins ____________ __ Ian. 30,
Hornfeck ____________ _._ June 6,
Schuh ______________ __ July 31,
Bright _______________ __. Dec. 4,
Van Allen ____________ __ Oct. 8,
Hughes ______________ __ Jan. 28,
1934
1944
1956
1956
1957
1958
2,843,818
2,885,619
Mintz et al. __________ __ July 15, 1958
Wengryn ____________ __ May 5, 1959
rable reactor having a winding means inductively dis~ 30
OTHER REFERENCES
posed on an individual magnetic core member; said mag
Text: Magnetic Ampli?ers by H. F. Strom, John Wiley
netic core member having a temperature sensitive satura
& Sons publisher, New York 1955, page 306. (Copy in
tion flux density; means for applying an alternating cur
Div.
26 US. Patent Office.)
rent voltage source to said circuit means of su?icient
magnitude to drive each of said saturable reactors be 5 Electronics, “Transistor Controlled Magnetic Ampli
u.
yond saturation in the same direction during each half
cycle; and output means connected to said secondary
?er,” Spencer, Aug. 1953.
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