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Патент USA US3068801

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Dec- ÍS, 1962
J. E. LAMBERT ETAL
3,058,791
PRODUCTION OF BLASTING CHARGES vFOR USE IN SUBSTÀNTIALLY
VERTICAL BOREHOLES AND APPARATUS FOR USE THEREIN
Filed Feb. 4, 1957
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Patented Dec. 18, 1952
2
3,068,791
-RQBUCTIÜN @F BLASÈÃNG ‘CHARGES FÜR USE
EN -SUBSTANÈHÀLLY VERTESAL BÜREHÜLES
AND Al’ll’i-‘t-.RA’ÑUS ,FÜR ESE THERElN
.lames @du rrd Lambert and ida/al Gwen Lewis, Arda-os
san, Scotmnd, assignors to imperial Chemical Indus
tries Limited, London, England, a corporation oi' Great
Britain
Fïied Feb. 4i, i957, Ser. No. 637,948
priority, application Great britain Feb. 3, 1956
The present invention is concerned with a new meth
od of winning coal, rock, metal and the like in opencast
ture of ammonium nitrate and any other solid ingredient,
is in the desired position in the borehole.
if the liquid portion is introduced concurrently with
the solid or solids it is desirable to admit said liquid por
tion in the form of a tine spray directed onto the descend
ing solid particles.
it" the liquid is introduced after the borehole is
charged with the required amount of ammonium nitrate
and any other solid ingredients it is desirable to deliver
said liquid through a pipe having a. plurality of exit
orifices which are in various positions in the solid por
tion of the explosive composition in the borehole.
ln accordance with an embodiment of the invention
working, quarrying or strip mining with blasting explosive
protection of the water-soluble ammonium nitrate from
cartridge casing or other container or to empty the ex
nated paper or cardboard.
ing, quarrying or strip mining comprising forming in a
permit the liquid portion to be delivered' in finely di
compositions and more particularly with blasting ex 15 moisture in wet boreholes can be achieved by inserting
into the borehole prior to the introduction of the arn
plosive compositions containing a substantial proportion
rnonium nitrate a tube of any suitable waterproof mate
of ammonium nitrate and to apparatus therefor.
rial sealed at its lower end, which if necessary may be
Hitherto it has been the practice to manufacture a
protected against mechanical damage on the rough side
blasting explosive composition and to cartridge or other
wise package it in a factory, to transport the cartridges 20 of the borehole by the use of a borehole liner interposed
etween the surface of the borehole and the waterproof
or packages to the blasting site and to load the borehole
tube which may be for example of waterproofed lami
with the explosive composition either in its waxed paper
lf desired the tube may be
closed at its upper end after being loaded.
plosive composition out ot its containers into the borehole.
Apparatus for the carrying out of that embodiment of
rl‘his procedure entails the observing of statutory regula 25
the process or" the invention in which there is the con
tions tor the production, transport and handling of explo
current delivery of the solid and liquid portions of the
sive compositions. Since ammonium nitratel can be han
explosive composition comprises a pipe adapted to deliver
died and transported otherwise than as an explosive there
into the borehole the solid portion of the explosive
wouid be economic and safety advantages if the mixing
of ammonium nitrate and the other ingredients forming 30 composition either under gravity or by any other form
of propulsion and at least one pipe adapted to deliver
the explosive compositions containing a substantial pro
into the borehole the liquid portion wherein said pipes
portion of ammonium nitrate were delayed as long as
are so disposed with respect to each other that the parti
possible, for example ir" the mixing were done in a build
cles of the solid portion are wetted by and substantially
ing at the blasting site or better in the borehole itselr”.
mixed
with said liquid portion in the course of their
35
ln co-pending appiication No. 585,431, now US.
concurrent descent into the borehole. The oriñces of the
lìatent 2,955,534 there is claimed inter alia a method of
pipe for said liquidV portion are preferably such as to
winning coal, rock, metal and the like in ope- cast work
substantially vertical borehole an ammonium nitrate ex
plosive blasting composition by introducing into it con 40
currently and at a predetermined rate at least one stre'»
of ammonium nitrate and at least one Stream in so d
form containing' the other ingredients of the blasting ex
plosive composition so that the streams co-mingle dur
ing their descent in the borehole.
According to the present invention the method of win
ning coal, rock,
and the lil-:e in opencast Work
ing, quarrying or strip mining comprises forming in a
substantially vertical borehole an ammonium nitrate
blasting explosive composition containing non-explosive
organic liquid íuel by introducing separately into the bore
hole as loose solid particles the solid portion of the am
ided form.
Apparatus for the carrying out of that embodiment of
the process of the invention in which there is the succes
sive admission of the solid portion and the liquid por
tion of the explosive composition intov the borehole com
prises at leastA one pipe of small diameter having a plu
rality of oriñces in one end portion and adapted for in
sertion substantially vertically into< a borehole loaded
with the solid ingredients so that the oritices of said end
portion are substantially distributed throughout the col
umn of the solid ingredients.
By way of example two embodiments ofthe invention
will be described> with reference to the diagrammatic
drawings` accompanying the speciiioation.
monium nitrate blasting explosive composition and as
liquid the non-explosive organic liquid fuel portion so
that the liquid portion is distributed through the loose
FÃGURE l is a longitudinal axial section through one
form of apparatus according to the invention. The solid
ingredients in loose particle form are contained in a
hopper i and are metered into a vertical tube 2 by means
soli-:l portion.
lf said solid portionV contains any solid' ingredient addi
Concurrently the liquidv portion of the explosive com
ot a screw conveyor 3' situated coaxi'ally iny a pipe 4.
tional to- theV animen in nitrate this
preferably non
position is delivered through a spraying device d fitted
explosive in character and maybe either mixed with the 60 with a rose 6. In this manner the explosive composi
ammonium nitrate before or mixed with it during their
tion 7 is produced in the borehole 3 into which has been
introduction concurrently and at a predetermined rate
into the borehole; the latter procedure is preferable` if
the additional solid ingredient is of oxidisable character,
The liquid portion may be introduced into the borehole
either concurrently with the solid portion consisting of
ammonium nitrate and any additional solid ingredient or
inserted a tube of waterproof material 9 sealed at' its
lower end.
FIGURE 2 is a longitudinal axial section through an
other »form of apparatus of the invention. A tube lil
having a plurality of orifices ll is inserted centrally in a
vertical borehole S lined with a tube of waterproof ma
terial 9 sealed at its lower end. The borehole S is
concurrently during the concurrent introduction of the
ammonium nitrate and the additional other solid ingredi 70 loaded with the solid portion of the explosive composition
7 to a depth so as to cover the uppermost orifices l1 and
ents or the liquid portion may be introduced after the
thereafter the liquid portion is discharged from said ori
solid portion, consisting of ammonium nitrate or mix
3,068,791
3
ñces 11 and thus distributed in said solid portion by in
troducing the liquid portion into the top end of said
tube 10.
.
¿l
ßß’disulphonic acid of dinaphthyl methane as de
scribed and claimed in Specification No. 743,602 __ 92
Woodmeal
_________________________________ __
4
In the aforementioned embodiments of the invention
Parañîn oil _________________________________ __ 4
4the detonation of the explosive composition produced
The explosive composition has a power of 82% blasting p
in the borehole is initiated by a primer cartridge of for
gelatine when measured on the ballistic mortar and
example a gelatine explosive positioned on said composi
detonates at a velocity of approximately 3,500 metres/ sec.
tion before earth is stemmed tightly into the borehole
in a 5 inch diameter column when initiated by a 2 lb.
in the usual manner. The primer cartridge is initiated
by a length of detonating fuse. `One end of the detonat 10 gelignite primer.
What we claim is:
ing fuse is connected to the primer cartridge and the other
l. A method of winning coal, rock, metal and the like
protrudes from the borehole. The primer cartridge may
in opencast working, quarrying or strip mining which
be advantageously somewhat heavier than the smallest
comprises forming in a substantially vertical borehole
that will initiate the detonation of the explosive compo
an ammonium nitrate blasting explosive composition
sition in the borehole. For example the primer cartridge
containing no more than about 9% non-explosive liquid
may be a 5 in. X 5 lb. charge of “Opencast Gelignite”
and at least about 86.5% ammonium nitrate by intro
for an explosive composition capable of being initiated
ducing into the borehole, as loose solid particles, said
by a 5 in. X 2 lb. charge of “Opencast Gelignite.”
ammonium nitrate and an additional solid ingredient sep
Examples of ammonium nitrate blasting explosive com
arately and concurrently and at a predetermined rate so
positions for which this invention is particularly suited
that said ammonium nitrate mixes with said additional
are as follows:
solid ingredient, and separately introducing concurrently
Example 1
'
% by weight
Ammonium nitrate ________________________ __ 94.6
into the borehole as liquid a non-explosive organic liquid
fuel, which is liquid at atmospheric conditions, so that
said liquid is distributed through said ammonium nitrate
and said additional solid ingredient.
2. A method of winning coal, rock, metal and the like
in opencast working,- quarrying or strip mining which
comprises forming in a substantially vertical borehole
an ammonium nitrate blasting explosive composition
Parafñn oil
5.4
The explosive composition has a power of 75% blasting
gelatine when measured on the ballistic mortar and deto
nates at a velocity of approximately 3,000 metres/ sec.
in a 5 inch or 7 inch diameter column when initiated by
30
a 2 lb. gelignite primer.
containing no more than about 9% non-explosive liquid
and at least about 86.5% ammonium nitrate by intro
Example 2
ducing separately into the borehole as loose solid par
% by weight
Ammonium nitrate ________________________ __ 94.3
ticles the solid portion of the ammonium nitrate blasting
Bitumen (1 part by Weight) l
explosive composition and as liquid a non-explosive or
57
Paraiiin oil (6 parts by weight] """"""""""" _"
ganlc liquid‘fuel portion, which is liquid at atmospheric
The explosive composition has a power of 82% blasting
gelatine when measured on the ballistic mortar and
detonates at a velocity of approximately 3,000 metres/ sec.
in a 51/2 inch diamet-er column when initiated fby a 2 lb. 40
through the loose solid portion, and said liquid portion
of the explosive composition being introduced into the
borehole concurrently with the solid portion.
3. A method of winning coal, rock, metal and the like
in opencast working, quarrying or strip mining which
comprises forming in a substantially vertical borehole
an ammonium nitrate blasting explosive composition
gelignite primer.
Example 3
% by weight
Ammonium nitrate
_
91
Mononitrotoluene
9
The explosive composition has a power of 83% blasting
gelatine when measured on the ballistic mortar and deto
nates at a velocity of approximately 3,500 metres/sec.
in a 5 inch diameter column when initiated by a 2 lb. 50
gelignite primer.
Example 4
% by weight
Ammonium nitrate _________________________ __ 86.5
Aluminium
'
___
7.5
Orthonitrotoluene
6.0
The explosive composition has a power of 90% blasting
gelatine when measured on the ballistic mortar and
detonates at a velocity of approximately 4,000 metres/ sec.
in a 5 inch diameter column when initiated by a 2 lb. 60
gelignite primer.
Ex‘ample 5
% by weight
conditions, so that the liquid portion is distributed
containing no more than about 9% non-explosive liquid
and at least about 86.5% ammonium nitrate by intro
ducing into the borehole, as loose solid particles, a pre
viously mixed composition comprising said ammonium
nitrate and an additional solid ingredient concurrently
and at a predetermined rate so that said ammonium ni
trate mixes with said solid ingredient, and separately in
troducing concurrently into the borehole a non-explosive
organic fuel which is liquid at atmospheric conditions, so
that said liquid is distributed through said ammonium ni
trate and said solid ingredient.
References Cited in the ñle of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,069,612
2,398,071
2,704,515
2,886,424
2,903,969
Ammonium nitrate carrying on the surfaces of its
particles a deposit of 0.03% reckoned on the weight
of the dry ammonium nitrate of the sodium salt of
Kirst et al. __________ __ Feb. 2,
Barab ________________ __ Apr. 9,
Barlow ______________ __ Mar. 22,
Hyslop ______________ __ May 12,
Kolbe ______________ __ Sept. 15,
1937
1946
1955
1959
1959
FOREIGN PATENTS
44,422
725,371
Germany ____________ __ Aug. 29, 1888
Great Britain ___________ _ Mar. 2, 1955
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